LORDS OF THE EARTH 38 - THE DAWN OF CIVILIZATION
Rule Changes

INTRODUCTION
    All nations begin the campaign at TL1. In 2130BC, pottery, cloth-making, herding, agriculture and some degree of metalworking are all known. The wheel is in use; carts are drawn by whatever slow-moving and tempermental draft animals that exist locally (aurochs, onagers, water buffalo, etc) but there are no chariots or cavalry.
    Details of campaign-specific changes & additions follow. The numbers match those in the Basic Rules.

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2.2.4 Government
2.2.6 Technology & Metallurgy
2.2.7 Language & Literacy
2.14.14 Trade Route Status & Trade Centers
4.0 The Map (has its own page)
4.3.2 Silk & other Routes
5.2.2 Sea Trade
5.4.5 Building Armies
5.4.7 Unit Types: Battle Carts & Chariots
5.4.7 Unit Types: Field Forts
5.4.7 Unit Types: Galleys
5.4.8.1 Combat Experience
5.4.14.5 Colonizing Half-Populated Places
6.1 Megalithic Constructs & Cultivation <--- PWB & City GPv
    info added for half-cultivated regions 3/8/17

7.2.4.19 How Diplomacy Works
7.2.5 0AP Actions
9.0 Religion (has its own page)
10.8 Nomads & Settling Half-Populated Places
10.9.1 Horse Count & Cav Count

2.2.1 Culture Type
    Since no nations have horses, technically all nations (player or NPN) should be Pre-Columbian - but that would ignore the differences between people living on cultivated lands, or wilderness, or steppe - which is the whole point of having Culture Types. Therefore Barbarian, Nomadic and Civilized cultures join Seafaring in starting at TL1.
    Here are the criteria for starting position Culture Type assignment:
2.2.1.0 Neolithic
    A map region with "neolithic tribes" (or "n.t.") is of this Culture which is TL0 - classic "Stone Age" before metalworking is discovered. The people live in any variant of wilderness, jungle or mountain terrain. Government will be Tribal.
    Such regions are "half-populated" since agriculture is a (relatively) recent development compared to river valley populations.
Click for details of half-populated regions.
      > if the region has a Village it is Neolithic as well and trades services for food. Its Government will be Tribal.
Click for details of Villages.
2.2.1.1 Pre-Columbian
    Pre-Columbian culture as defined in 10.9 Pre-Columbian Society will be reserved for when those map areas come into play.
2.2.1.2 Barbarian
    The people live in any variant of wilderness, jungle or mountain terrain. Government will be Tribal. Such regions are generally 1GPv since agriculture has existed long enough to support a higher population density. That said, a "half-populated" region that isn't otherwise noted as Neolithic or Nomadic is likely to be Barbarian, just with less population.
      > if the region has a Village it is Barbarian as well and trades services for food. Its Government will be Tribal.
      > if the region has a Settlement it is Barbarian as well and trades services for food. Its Government will be Tribal.
Click for details of Settlements.
    A Settlement may serve as the capital of a Barbarian nation (player or NPN) but the national Government remains Tribal. (A Settlement lacks the resources to support the buildings, families, retainers, etc of a more organized form of ruling). However the nation still receives the economic benefits of having a capital.
      > if the region has a city, it is the capital of a nation (player or NPN) and Government will be Feudal Monarchy or Oligarchy. Upon expanding a Settlement to a city the Barbarian nation player may choose either Government type.
    When a Barbarian homeland is cultivated, they automatically become Civilized unless in a fit of madness the player wishes to remain Barbarian.
2.2.1.3 Nomadic
    The people live in any variant of steppe or desert terrain.
    2.2.1.3.1 Pastoral Nomads
    A map region with "pastoral nomads" is of this Culture. Government will be Tribal. Inhabitants herd mainly goats, sheep and cattle from pasture to pasture entirely within their region. Economic base is Pastoral (herding). Such regions are usually "half-populated" since pastoralism can't sustain significant population.
      > if the region has a Village it represents a long-term Nomadic encampment. Government will be Tribal.
      > if the region has a Settlement it represents a larger long-term Nomadic encampment. Government will be Tribal. Only a pastoral region with a trade center and/or trade route produces enough local economy to support a Settlement, which trades services for food or precious items.
      > if the region has a city it is the capital of a nation (player or NPN) and Government will be Nomadic Monarchy or Oligarchy. The nation can expand but the inhabitants of any "pastoral nomad" region acquired continue to herd entirely within their region. Lacking horses the nation can't move everybody and everything Horde-style between regions.
    Pastoral nomad nations are twice as efficient in their use of grasslands (moving herds between pastures at optimum times, developing dry-climate vegetables and fruit trees, etc) thus producing double the normal steppe region agro. This larger harvest allows them to support the capital city required to be a true nation. To simulate this the Harvest Adjustment will be set to double, pro-rated downward for non-steppe regions since pastoral nomads wouldn't be any more efficient utilizing (for example) wilderness or mountain terrain.
    2.2.1.3.2 Horse Nomads
    A map region with "horse nomads" is of this Culture. Government will be Tribal. Inhabitants herd mainly goats, sheep and cattle between contiguous steppe regions because they have also domesticated the horse. As such they are more efficient, and can sustain enough population density such that 1GPv regions are more common.
   details will be added when horse nomads come into play
2.2.1.4 Seafaring
    The people live on an island or in a coastal region with a sea port city, and were historically seafarers at this time. Government will be Feudal Monarchy or Oligarchy.
2.2.1.5 Civilized
    The people live in a cultivated region with a city. Government is Feudal Monarchy or Oligarchy.

2.2.2 Societal Base
    Most nations start with a Clan (if Tribal goverment) or Feudal (if Feudal Monarchy or Oligarchy type governments) society. If they've pre-campaign colonized or settled a region or city populated by a TL1 culture, they will have a Caste society.

2.2.3 Economic Base
    All nations other than Pastoral Nomads start with an economic base of Slave, which existed everywhere in the ancient world. If your nation lost at war, or you were unable to pay your debts, or you were simply in the wrong place at the wrong time, you were enslaved. Upgrading from Slave (or Pastoral) to Agrarian will increase NMV and the rate of tech point accumulation (needed for tech level advancement).

2.2.4 Government Type
    At campaign start only Tribal, Feudal Monarchy and Oligarchy exist for player nations. If both BL and Infra are at their TL limit and investment results in a further advance in either, Government type changes to Centralized Monarchy.

2.2.6 Level of Technology
    In 2130BC, knowledge of working metal is still being acquired, this being significant enough that historians refer to a "copper age", "bronze age" and "iron age" of a civilization as a measure of its progress. Unlike decorative metals that can be cold-worked, bronze working (needing high heat, understanding of alloying, and casting techniques) requires much more sophistication.
    A new QR for Metallurgy is therefore introduced. It can be increased by investment or by waiting for tech level to increase.
Why bother investing? Basically, better weapons and armor sooner than your neighbors.

The first few rows of the table exist to document early TLs.
TL Tech Level Title Metallurgy QR
Increases Possible
Notes
-02 Stone Working
Late Paleolithic
n/a
stone axe heads, spear points, knives & tools; bone-tipped spears,
rafts, animal fat lamps, cave paintings, ritual burial
-01 Stone Working
Mesolithic
n/a
steadily improving stone axe heads, spear points, knives & tools;
use of canoes, fishing, bow & arrow
000 Stone Working
Neolithic
n/a
monoliths, pottery, cloth, beginnings of agriculture & herding,
domestication of draft animals (if such exist) then wheel and carts
001 Metal Working 1 (used to be
Stone Working)
0 - basic metalworking 5

1 - bronze working
copper, silver & gold working; copper axe heads 6, maces, tools

bronze casting; bronze axe heads, spear points, swords, armor, tools
002 Iron Working 2 2 - iron working


3 - improved iron (steel)
iron casting; iron axe heads, spear points, swords, armor, tools; as copper implements but iron

various hammered/folded composite (pattern welding), laminated, or fire-quenched; as iron implements but steel
003 Iron Working 3(Steel) 3 - improved iron (steel)


4 - improved steel
various hammered/folded composite (pattern welding), laminated, or fire-quenched; as iron implements but steel

homogeneous steel aka Wootz or Damascus steel; as steel implements but better quality
004 Early Medieval 4 4 - improved steel homogeneous steel aka Wootz or Damascus steel; as steel implements but better quality

    1reaching TL1 sets the metallurgy QR to 0. Investment can raise it to 1.
    2reaching TL2 sets the metallurgy QR to 2. It is possible to skip having a "Bronze Age" and go from metalworking to iron working; sub-Sarahan Africa did just that. Investment can raise it to 3.
    3reaching TL3 sets the metallurgy QR to 3. Investment can raise it to 4 in the India, Persia and Middle East geozones only.
    4reaching TL4 sets the metallurgy QR to 4. This is the current limit.
    5starting with copper, in battle the nation with the higher metallurgy QR receives a combat bonus. The bonus is calculated as the higher QR minus the lower QR. TL0 and below are considered a QR "-1" for this purpose.
    6 Copper holds a sharper edge than stone but dulls faster, so it was used mostly in axes and maces, not spears or swords.


2.2.7 Language
    The time period is too early for any "modern" (standard LOTE) languages to have yet developed. What exists are the language groups from which (after much splitting, migrating and evolving) modern language came. Any language with the same name as a modern language is its archaic ancestor. Languages are marked on the map (ex: " I ") if they aren't religion-specific such as Greeks
or Egyptians. As is standard, if your language is different from that of the local one, it makes diplomacy, religious actions, and operations (intel, assassin or religious) more difficult.
    UNK on a stat sheet means local language unknown or obscure (such as Nuragic); UN means region uninhabted.
    The following languages are currently in effect, roughly west to east:

Table 13-1 Languages
Language Abbr Notes
Lusitanian1, 2 LUS western Iberian penninsula (marked " L " on map)
historically replaced by Latin
Tartessian1, 2 TAR southwestern Iberian penninsula (marked " T " on map)
historically replaced by Turdetanian then Carthaginian then Latin
Iberian1, 2
(includes Celtiberian)
IBE Iberian penninsula except Lusitanian & Tartessian regions (marked " IB " on map)
historically replaced by Latin
Celto-Italic CEL western & central Europe, north Italy. (Nearby regions not Celtic Pagan but whose population are Celto-Italic speakers are marked " C " on western Europe map)
later split into Celto-Ligurian and Italic
Germanic GER Denmark & Scandinavia - (marked " G " on map)
Etruscan1
(Proto- or Archaic form)
ETR Italy south of the Po, plus Sicily - (marked " E " on map)
historically replaced by Italic languages (Latin, Samnite, etc)
Illyrian ILL northwest Balkans (marked " I " on map)
Thracian THR from eastern Balkans east to Volga River (marked " T " on Europe map)
Balto-Slavic BAL northern Europe east to Dvina River & Upper Dnepr River (marked " B " on Europe map)
later split into Baltic and Slavic
Aryan3 ARY Volga River east to above Aral Sea (marked " A " on map)
Minoan2 MIN Crete & adjacent Aegean Sea coasts
Luwian (aka Luvian) LUW western Anatolia - spread by invading Hittites. Nearby regions not Hittite but whose population are Luwian-speakers are marked " L " on map)
Caucasian
(incl Hurrian & Urartian)
CAU Caucasus Mountains area & eastern Anatolia (marked " C " on that area of map)
Berber BER North Africa except Egypt (marked " B " on map)
Egyptian EGP Egypt & adjacent territory
Chadic CHA from Lake Chad west to Niger River (marked " CH " on Africa map)
linguistic drift from Cushite root after separated by Nilo-Saharan expansion
Nilo-Saharan NLS from joining of Blue & White Nile west across Sahel grasslands past Lake Chad
(marked " NS " on Africa map)
Cushite CSH Land of Punt & nearby territory (marked " C " on Africa map)
Khosian click-languages
(includes Khoe, Kx'a & Tuu)
KHO eastern & southern Africa populated by San peoples (marked " K " on Africa map)
Semitic SEM Arabian penninsula north to Mesopotamia (marked " S " on map)
Akkadian AKK Mesopotamia & adjacent territory - offshoot of Semitic; became common tongue during the Akkadian Empire. (Nearby regions of different religion but whose language is similar to are marked " AK " on Mideast map)
Gutian2 GUT Gutium & adjacent territory (marked " G " on Mideast map)
Elamo-Dravidian EDR spoken where Elamo-Dravidian religion practiced: Iranian plateau east to north/central India. (Nearby regions of different religion are marked " ED " on map)
Oxus Valley2 OXV Oxus Valley & adjacent territory (marked " O " on map)
Harappan2 HAR Indus Valley & adjacent territory
offshoot from Elamo-Dravidian
Tamil TAM southern India, Ceylon & Andaman Is (marked " T " on south Asia map)
Himalayan HIM western Tibetan plateau (marked " H " on Asia map)
linguistic drift from archaic Sino-Tibetan root
Tibeto-Burmese TIB eastern Tibetan Plateau & adjacent territory; migration spread it down Irrawaddy valley
(marked " TB " on Asia map) migration brought forward in time
Mon-Khemer
(Proto- or Archaic form)
MKH Brahmaputra River east to Gulf of Tonkin and south to middle of Malay penninsula
(marked " M " on Asia map) original SE Asian language
Austronesian
(Proto- form)
AUS spoken where Oceanic Pagan religion practiced: southern Malay penninsula, East Indies & misc Pacific Islands.
(Nearby regions of different religion are marked " A " on southeast Asia map)
North (or Old) Chinese
(Archaic form)
NCH spoken where Daoist religion practiced: north and central China
(Nearby regions of different religion are marked " N " on Asia map)
linguistic drift from archaic Sino-Tibetan root (ultimately became Mandarin)
Thai- (or Tai-)Kadai
(Proto- or Archaic form)
THK southwestern China (marked " TK " on Asia map)
historically migrated south due to Chinese expansion
Viet (includes
Archaic Sino-Vietic form
)
VIE southern China (marked " V " on Asia map)
historically migrated south due to Chinese expansion
South Chinese
(Proto-Yue form)
SCH southeast China (marked " S " on Asia map)
linguistic drift from archaic Old Chinese root (ultimately became Cantonese)

    1a non-Indo-European language, extinct since Roman times. Iberian is possibly ancestral to Basque. Etruscan is only proven to have existed in & around Tuscany; south of there the pre-Italic tongue is unknown. Some Etruscan variant is as good a guess as any.
    2language not deciphered
    3nowadays referred to as Proto (or Archaic) Indo-Iranian, but that's because historically around 1500BC the Aryan-speakers migrated to NW India and the Iranian plateau. As of 2130BC that has yet to happen.


2.2.11 Literacy
    There are two options, no (illiterate) or yes (literate). Literate means able to read, write and calculate using logosyllabaric pictographs such as hieroglyphs, cuneiform, etc., where a glyph can stand for a word ("logo") or syllable. Such a system requires learning several hundred individual characters, so only a tiny fraction of the population (about 1 in 100 of adult males) has the time (and resources) to become scribes. Literacy in the general population doesn't happen for many, many centuries.
    Nations that are historically literate in 2130BC start the campaign with 1 point of Infrastructure, representing their scribes. An illiterate nation starts with 0 Infra. When it acquires its first Infra point, it is henceforth considered literate, with scribes busy drawing, impressing or carving pictographs.
    Literacy is required for 7.2.4.14 Conduct Census. If nobody writes, you can't keep records.

2.17.14 Trade Route Status
    Just to emphasize: no Medieval campaign ferry points exist. Trade across a ferry site is LTH (Land Trade across Hostile terrain) until 10 ferry point(s) are built, at which point it improves (relatively speaking) to LTD (Land Trade across Difficult terrain).

    If a Priesthood owns a site of TC (Temple Complex) or better located in the capital of a nation, that intra-city trade has a route status is LTR (Land Trade along Road). A capital city would have roads (streets) that are paved (stone, brick or at least crushed rock) facilitating movement of goods within the city.

3.6 Mercenaries are not in effect.

4.0 The Map
    For partial regions and sea zones around the map edge, if it has a name, you can move into it. If it doesn't have a name, it doesn't "exist" yet. Open ocean arrows that lead off the map edge don't "exist" either.
    Click for details of campaign map changes.

4.3.1 Trade Centers
    Trade centers have a population equivalent to Villages representing workers (merchants, miners, etc) and their families. As such they can be expanded to a Settlement or City as per Sections 5.4.14.6 or 10.8.3.1 further below if no other Village, Settlement or City already exists in the region.
    There are considerably more trade centers than usual - by the time of the traditional LOTE Medieval campaign map, many of the mines had been worked out, and other items have lost their exceptional value.
    The following types exist:

Table 4-2 Trade Center Types
Code Type
A Silver mines
F Ferrous ore (Iron) source1
G Gold mines
I Ivory source2
M Merchant faire/trading post
P Precious items3
R Religious site4
S Salt

    1sites will be added once any nation has achieved ironworking capability
    2elephants exist in these 1GPv wilderness or jungle regions. A higher population and/or cultivation will reduce their habitat and numbers to below what is needed to sustain ivory trade. Domestication of elephants is not yet possible.
    3sPice trade (as known in Medieval/Renaissance times) does not exist yet. "P" instead means misc Precious items: amber, bitumen (used for making bricks), cedar wood, copper (used for making bronze), ebony wood, jade, lapis, obsidian, resin (used for incense), rubies, teak wood, tin (used for making bronze), turquoise. This list continually expands. The items are all equally valuable - the variety is for realism and campaign color.
    4such as temple complexes and ziggaurats built during the campaign


4.3.2 The Silk Route
    The silk trade (as known in Medieval/Renaissance times) does not exist, but there is already a trade route running between the Levant and China which provides the same economic benefits for the regions through which it passes. For tradition's sake it will still be called the Silk Road (or Route).
    Four other ancient trade routes have been added:
      > a route bringing amber from northern Europe (off map) to southern Europe
      > a route bringing salt & resin from Sa'ba to the Levant
      > a route bringing lapis from the Hindu Kush mountains to the Indus Valley
      > a route representing local trans-Himalayan trade
    All such regions use the traditional "S" (Silk) Region Spacer Code from Table 2-18.

    A trade (Silk) route can be treated as a Postal Road for purposes of CCR and the cost of upgrading to a Royal Road.

    Table 2-27 Master City Type List has:
      > "CP" for Capital also a Port
      > "CS" for Capital on a trade (Silk) route
      > "PS" for Port on a trade (Silk) route
but not all 3, a combination which some cities meet now that there are more trade (Silk) routes.
    So a new City Type is created:
      > "C#" is a Capital also a Port and on trade (Silk) route.

5.2.2 Sea Trade
    Maritime knowledge at campaign start consists of some or all of the sea (and river) zones within your nation's trade range, which is less than the usual distance. L38 considers TL1 nations to be still learning celestial navigation, tracking tides, charting currents and taking depth measurements - skills already long in practice by the time of the traditional Medieval campaign.
    A Seafaring nation building a conduit city to extend its trade range is likely at the limit of its starting known sea zones. It will need to Explore those uncharted waters or obtain a navigational map (ruttier aka "rutter") from another nation before initiating a trade route.
    The table below provides trade range by culture.

Table 5-1 Sea Trade Range by Culture
Nation Culture Type TL1 TL2+
Nomadic 1 1
Pre-Columbian 1 2
Barbarian 2 2
Civilized 2 3
Seafaring* 3 & 2 4 & 3

    *home port to conduit city & conduit city to destination port.


5.2.2.1 Port Settlements & Trade
    If a port Settlement is of at least T status, it may serve as one end of a trade route, or as a conduit city for a Seafaring nation. However, since it is 0GPv no MSP may be assigned there.

5.2.2.2 Port Areas & Trade
concept credit: L24 GM Stephen Brunt
    In addition to the normal rules, a Port Area will now also convert a landlocked city of at least T status to the equivalent of a port city, allowing it to house MSP. A city on a non-navigable section of a river is considered landlocked.
    The Port Area is built along one specific sea or river Zone (see 5.4.16 Building Port Areas further below) in a controlled region, and is represented by a map icon. Once complete the port area will allow the landlocked city to trace trade overland to that adjacent sea or river zone.
    For Table 2-27 Master City Type List new types are created:
      > "A" is a landlocked city using a Port Area
      > "CA" is a landlocked Capital using a Port Area
      > "SA" is a landlocked City on a trade (Silk) route using a Port Area

    If the existing city is a port city but the region borders multiple sea or river zones, a Port Area may only be built adjacent to a sea or river zone not already served by the port city. This allows the port city to trace trade to an additional sea or river zone. The city retains its current City Type since it was already a port.

    Only one Port Area may be built in a region, since in reality the ships are docking at the Port Area but everything required to maintain them is coming from the city. For that reasion, the city (landlocked or not) is considered the Port of Origin for all sea trade through the Port Area. There's only so many carts and draft animals available to move nautical supplies and trade goods within the region. (Also, the game database tracks Port Areas by "Yes" or "No" rather than a number.)


5.4.5 Building Armies
    The first land units were simply tribespeople who grabbed whatever hunting weapons, tools or rocks were at hand and rushed screaming at the other tribe. New units evolved as the needs of warfare changed. Improved technology provided the ability to develop, train, equip and maintain stronger units.
    The first sea units were rafts built by migrating Paleolithic humans to cross narrow waters. Later came dugout canoes, then plank-built boats. New ship types evolved as the needs of trade and warfare changed. Improved technology provided the ability to develop, build and maintain faster, larger ships.

    The Unit Build Charts with the stat sheets will include the minimum TL to build each unit. Not all units can be built at TL1 or TL2! In some cases a minimum QR is provided as well. This represents that even within a TL not everything was thought of at the same time - sometimes the introduction of a new unit will lead to the development of another.
    Values in red are the minimum QR to build that unit at any TL. For example even if a nation was TL2 Iron Working, but was still Inf QR = 1 it could not build hi units. While the equipment could be forged, the knowledge of its benefits and liabilities, the necessary changes to tactics and training, etc, isn't known yet.

    The progress of Technological/metalurgical and Horse Count advancements are independent of each other. Thus the table below takes into account what happens if the Horse Count is completed when a nation is either TL1 or TL2, and if the Cav Count is completed while a nation is TL1 or TL2.
    To save space in descriptions of arms & armor: "-tipped weapons" would include knives, javelins, spears or pikes of varying lengths; "-bladed weapons" would include axes, hatchets, and swords of varying shapes and lengths; and a "-reinforced" shield is wood with the metal of the time in a boss on the front, strips on the back, or both.

    Each unit of chariots/cavalry, infantry or seige engineers represents 200 men. Each fort/WP represents the structure plus 200 men. Each transport/warship represents 1 of that ship plus crew (size varies).

Table 5-10 Minimum TL For Building Units
    The first few rows exist to document early TLs.
TL Tech Level Title Notes
-02 Stone Working
Late Paleolithic
hunter-gatherer population density too low for land units
rafts - able to cross narrow straits or (with greater risk) between close islands
-01 Stone Working
Mesolithic
xii - tribe with hunting weapons, wooden clubs, rocks, etc
xxr - dugout canoe. Can safely operate in rivers or in sea zones marked calm waters within sight of land (along coastlines or to a visible offshore island such as Cyprus)
000 Stone Working
Neolithic
ii - emergency peasant levy armed with stone-tipped or -bladed weapons or wooden clubs
xi - skirmishers armed with throwing weapons (sling, javelin), maybe leather helmet
xei Inf=1- archers armed with short-range bow, leather helmet
i Inf=1 - infantry armed with stone-tipped or -bladed weapons, wooden shield, maybe leather helmet
f - mud brick field fort in Mesopotamia & Indus; stone block elsewhere
wp Seige=1 - mud brick walls & towers in Mesopotamia & Indus; stone block elsewhere
xrt Warship=1 - light trade galleys with 1 cargo space. They (and MSP from them) can safely operate in rivers, anywhere in calm waters, and in other sea zones within sight of land (along coastlines or to a visible offshore island such as Seylan). Click for details of galleys
001 Metal Working
(any Metal QR)
bc - "battle cart" drawn by onagers (Mesopotamia only). Click for details of battle carts
existing & future i - now armed with mix of stone-tipped spears, copper-bladed axes & maces, wooden shield (maybe copper-reinforced), leather helmet
s Seige=2 - engineers to dig tunnels, fill in moats & build ramps onsite, an improvement over only
having scaling ladders
xt Warship=2 - medium trade galleys with 2 cargo spaces. They (and MSP from them) can safely operate in same waters as light trade galleys (exception: not past cataracts or waterfalls)
xrw Warship=2 - "pentaconter" light war galleys with a single bank of oars. They can safely operate in same waters as medium trade galleys
001 when Horse Count
    Complete
(any Metal QR)
xch - light 2-man chariot drawn by horses
ch - armored 2-man chariot drawn by horses
    Click for details of Horse Count or chariots
001 Metal Working
(Metal QR = 1)
existing & future ii, xi - now armed with bronze-tipped or -bladed weapons
existing & future xei - now wearing coat of bronze scale armor, bronze helmet
existing & future i - now armed with bronze-tipped spear and secondary -bladed weapons,
-reinforced shield, bronze helmet
hi Inf=2 - heavy infantry armed with both bronze-tipped spear and secondary -bladed weapons, -reinforced shield, bronze armor (helmet, cuirass & shin greaves)
brw Warship=3 - "bireme" war galleys with a double bank of oars & bronze-sheathed1 ram. They can safely operate in rivers and anywhere in calm waters
001 when Cav Count
    Complete
(Metal QR = 1)
ic - emergency levy of those who can ride, armed with bronze-tipped or -bladed weapons or tools
xc - light cavalry armed with bronze-tipped javelins or spears, maybe leather helmet
xec Cav=1 - horse archers armed with short-range bow, maybe wooden shield (on back when using both hands for bow), bronze or leather helmet
c Cav=2 - cavalry armed with bronze-tipped lance and secondary -bladed weapons, -reinforced shield, bronze helmet
002 Iron Working
    (automatic
Metal QR = 2)
existing & future ii, xi - now armed with iron-tipped or -bladed weapons
existing & future xei - now armed with medium-range2 bow, and wearing coat of iron scale armor,
iron helmet
existing & future i - now armed with iron-tipped spear and secondary -bladed weapons, -reinforced shield, iron helmet
existing & future hi - now armed with iron-tipped spear and secondary -bladed weapons,
-reinforced shield, iron armor (helmet, cuirass & shin greaves)
sto Seige=3 - seige tower, taking 2AP to build onsite; cannot be moved after battle
trw Warship=3 - "trireme" war galleys with a triple bank of oars & bronze-sheathed1 ram. Too heavy (deep draft) for river use but they can safely operate anywhere in calm waters.
Note: at least 1 bireme must exist before any triremes can be built
002 when Horse Count
    Complete
xch - light 2-man chariot drawn by horses
ch - armored 2-man chariot drawn by horses
hch - armored 4-man chariot drawn by horses
    Click for details of Horse Count or chariots
002 when Cav Count
    Complete
existing & future ic - now armed with iron-tipped or -bladed weapons
existing & future xc - now armed with iron-tipped javelins or spears, maybe iron, bronze or leather helmet
existing & future xec - now armed with medium-range2 bow, maybe -reinforced shield (on back when using both hands for bow), iron, bronze or leather helmet
c Cav=2 - cavalry armed with iron-tipped lance and secondary -bladed weapons, -reinforced shield, iron helmet

    1kept after ironworking capability because an iron-sheathed ram would rust
    2approx 1.5x short range. Yes, keeping it vague.


5.4.7 Basic Unit Types - CAVALRY (C)
    At campaign start, horses are not present in the map area, therefore is no traditional cavalry (warrior riding horse) existing. The only similar type of unit is the 2-man, 4-wheeled battle cart (bc) credited to the Sumerians.

Battle Carts
    One man drives the cart, while the other uses a short-range bow or throws javelins. To save weight, their only armor is helmets, and sometimes the driver carries a wooden shield to protect both men.
    Battle carts are pulled by a team of 4 onagers (wild donkeys). The carts give a combat bonus when used against an army lacking them. They also provide an additional bonus the first battle fought against warriors that have not previously encountered them i.e. "seen the onager". Due to recent battle with Uruk, the Gutians have already done so.
    Only city-states with map icon can build!

Chariots
    When the Horse Count is Complete in a particular area, while horses exist in sufficient numbers for use, they are small, the size of what today would be considered a pony, meaning only an unarmored, slight of build rider could be carried. Even worse, items such as saddles and stirrups did not yet exist; mounting a horse and staying on while using weapons was incredibly difficult and required lengthy training. Click for details of Horse Count vs. traditional Cav Count.
    Chariots, on the other hand, were simpler to learn, supplies could be carried as well as passengers, and a horse can pull far more weight than it can carry on its back. Having only 2 wheels, it was more manuverable than a battle cart. Originally those wheels were solid wood but later designs ("true chariots") featured spoked wheels, further reducing weight, to the point the chariot could be carried by several men over difficult terrain where it could not be driven.
    The campaign has three varieties of chariot unit, developed over centuries:
      > the original 2-man chariot, drawn by 2 horses, with the men (driver and warrior) equipped the same as a battle cart's crew.
As heavier chariots were developed, this model would be considered a xch - light chariot.
      > still a 2-man crew, but besides helmets and the driver's shield, the men wear coats of scale armor. The archer was still likely to have a short-range bow. The chariot itself was heavier, with more all-around protection, and the horses were protected by thick cloth or, sometimes, scale armor. This would be considered a ch - medium chariot.
      > even larger was the 3-man (driver, archer with medium-range bow, shield-bearer) or 4-man (with a 2nd shield-bearer) chariot, drawn by 3 or 4 horses. This design was developed in reaction to the advent of true cavalry; the initial stage of cavalry overlapped the final stage of chariots. Mounted archers or horsemen with spears made the battlefield far more dangerous for the 2-man chariot, where the same man both drove and manuvered the shield. The 3- or 4-man vehicle would be considered a hch - heavy chariot.

    Chariots give combat bonuses:
      >when used against an army which has fewer (or no) chariots in the battle (hence the "chariot arms race" from the Nile to Mesopotamia by 1300BC) unless that army has cavalry.
      > the army with the greater number of light chariots (xch unit) receives a combat bonus for better scouting.
      > the first battle fought against warriors that have not previously encountered horses, even if those warriors are familiar with
battle carts - chariots are so much faster and more manuverable.
    Chariots will be added to a nation's Unit Build Chart when the Horse Count in their area is Complete.

5.4.7 Basic Unit Types - FIELD FORTS (F)
    Max regional field forts per LOTE Basic Rules is:
(GPv+1) x (Seige QR/2) x Control Status Tax Multiple (Table 2-7) x Terrain Type Tax Multiple (Table 2-8).
    For an L38 Civilized nation with a 1GPv homeland and Seige QR=1 that works out to:
(1+1) x (1/2) x (2.0) x (1.0) = 2 forts maximum, which isn't much of a fixed defense. A 2GPv homeland in the same situation would be limited to 3 forts, and a 3Gpv homland to 4 forts. It would seem reasonable they could be better protected.
    Therefore the L38 maximum field fort allowance is increased by (4 - Seige QR) possible forts. Essentially this is a declining bonus (expiring at Seige QR=4) permitting the building of up to:
      > 3 extra forts at Seige QR=1
      > 2 extra forts at Seige QR=2
      > 1 extra fort at Seige QR=3
So now for a 1GPv homeland with Seige QR=1 can have a maximum of 5 forts, a 2GPv homeland a maximum of 6, and a 3GPv homeland a maximum of 7 which is more realistic, but not so great as to be unattackable.
Note: while the above calculations focused on homeland regions (Control Status Tax Multiple = 2.0) the higher limits apply to any region where field forts are built.

5.4.7 Basic Unit Types - SHIPS (T & W)
    The mainstay of the ancient world was the single-masted oared galley. Galleys have low freeboard (oars have to reach the water) and can easily be swamped in rough seas. Even larger galleys with higher freeboard were cautious about flooding through the lower oar ports. Sea zones marked with a symbol have relatively calm waters (the rare surprise storm can always happen) since they are either almost entirely enclosed by land or are a narrow strait.
    Sea zones without the "calm waters" symbol are choppy; galleys need to follow the coast as much as possible since generally the further from shore the rougher the waves. Exploration is more difficult and the danger of lost ships increased. Inter-Island arrows are even more risky but still possible. To attempt an Open Ocean arrow or Hostile sea zone would be clearly suicidal and the crew would mutiny.

    Trade/transport galleys (T) had a small crew and relied mostly on sail with oars as backup if becalmed or manuvering in harbor. War galleys (W) would use sail if the winds were in the direction of travel but since this didn't happen often were usually rowed. Before heading into battle the mast and sail were taken down as liabilities and the warship was oar-driven. Contrary to "slave galley" references, the rowers at this time were free men (citizens of their city-state or kingdom) and highly valued.

5.4.8 Training Levels
    This optional rule is in use. There are three training levels of units:
      > inexperienced - no military training; a prefix of "i" indicates this. Such may be built or can be generated by random events. Should not be confused with the same word as applied to combat levels (below).
      > regular (default) - basic training; no special prefix
      > elite - additional training; a prefix or 2nd letter of "e" indicates this

5.4.8.1 Combat Levels
    Warriors may look impressive on the parade ground, but experience is learned on the battlefield. It is applied to an army1 of units that served together and survived one or more "qualifying" battles. A "qualifying" battle is one fought against a roughly equal sized and trained army of a nation (player or NPN). "Equal sized" means the odds are less than 2:1 in numbers - although not necessarily in combat strength. Crushing a hapless neutral region or city, or a peasant levy or a rioting mob does not qualify. Raiding does not qualify. Overwhelming an isolated field fort or two on a nation's border does not qualify.
    There are three combat experience levels of units:
      > untested (default) - no qualifying combat experience; nothing is noted
      > experienced - the army has fought one qualifying battle; "experienced" is noted
      > veteran - the army has fought two or more qualifying battles; "veteran" is noted
    The combat experience level is noted on the stat sheet in the Demesne field 2 below the leader currently commanding the army (this began with Turn 6 stat sheets). The operative word here is "currently" since the combat level of the units is independent of the combat stat of the leader. If the units are transferred to another leader their noted combat level goes with them. If the units are scattered among multiple leaders their combat level may degrade as army cohesion is broken.
    An experienced or veteran army receives a combat bonus and a morale bonus, with the veteran receiving higher ones. An army will not maintain that level forever in peacetime. Warriors having experience will age out and retire; as the numbers of combat vets shrinks there are fewer and fewer to guide new recruits.
    All changes in combat experience level will be determined by the GM. It's not strictly number crunching.

    Which brings up the effect of reinforcing an existing army. Adding too many new units at once will dilute the experience level. Here's what's safe:
      > an experienced army could absorb newly built units equal to half its number (rounded down) and remain experienced
      > a veteran army could absorb experienced units equal to half its number (rounded down) and remain veteran
      > a veteran army could only absorb newly built units equal to one-third its number (rounded down) and remain veteran

    1army in the LOTE sense of units assigned to a common Leader #. This could include naval units.
    2see Basic Rules 2.12 The Leaders. Demesne field mentioned page 18.


5.4.14.5 Colonizing Populated Regions
    In addition to populated regions, a nation can colonize "half-populated" regions, which are shown on the map with a GPv of 1 in reversed colors. Once pacified, or raised by diplomacy to friendly status, it could be colonized for 12.5gp and 7nfp, using for the GPv when calculating cost.
    The fully-populated region would now be friendly status and have the player nation's language and religious map symbols. The player nation's society would become Caste if the half-populated region's previous status had been Pacified.
Click for details of half-populated regions.

5.4.14.6 Colonizing Populated Cities
    In addition to cities, a nation can colonize Settlements, which are shown on the map as a city site (square) with a blue S inside. It has enough population to be halfway towards becoming a city. Once pacified, or raised by diplomacy to friendly status, it could be colonized for 7.5gp and 5nfp, using for the GPv when calculating cost.
Click for details of Settlements.
    The full 1GPv city would now be friendly status and have the player nation's language and religious map symbols. The player nation's society would become Caste if the Settlement's previous status had been Pacified.

    A nation can also colonize Villages, which are shown on the map as a city site (square) with a blue V inside. It has enough population to be halfway towards becoming a Settlement. Once pacified, or raised by diplomacy to friendly status, it could be:
      - colonized for 4gp and 2.5nfp, resulting in a Settlement. The Settlement would be friendly status and have the player nation's language and religious map symbols.
      - colonized for 11.5gp and 7.5nfp, resulting in a 1GPv city. The full 1GPv city would now be friendly status and have the player nation's language and religious map symbols.
    In either case the Settlement or city would now be (or remain) friendly status and have the player nation's language and religious map symbols. The player nation's society would remain unchanged even if the Village's previous status had been Pacified - the locals would now be statistically insignificant. However their existance as an disgruntled minority would be noted.
Click for details of Villages.

5.4.15 Building Settlements
    In addition to building cities, a nation can built a Settlement for half the price of the first level of a city (which depends on terrain). While not generating income, the Settlement allows a nation to claim a favorable location. In addition, if it is a port Settlement, it is considered a port for movement and tracing CCR, and it may serve as one end of a trade route. However, since it is 0GPv no MSP may be assigned there.
    (I realize it's possible to "game the system" by building a Settlement and later "Colonize Populated City" cheaper than building a new city outright. But balancing that is the longer timeframe and the possibility a rival nation could pacify and colonize the building nation's Settlement.)

5.4.16 Building Port Areas
    As per the Basic Rules except the final sentence, amended to "A Port Area serves just one sea (or river) zone, regardless of how many sea (or river) zones the region borders." Credit: L24 GM Stephen Brunt

6.1.5 Postal Roads
    As per the Basic Rules except the final sentence, amended to "A Postal Road or Silk Road may be upgraded to a Royal Road by spending the other one-half of the Royal Road construction cost."

6.1.7 Regional Cultivation
    Regular (non-Permanent) Jungle and Wilderness may be cultivated. Regular steppe may not be cultivated until the Horse Count has completed in a nation's area. This is mentioned among the limitations in 10.9 Pre-Columbian Society, but logically would apply to any nation without horses to use.

6.1.7.1 Half-Cultivation
    Half-cultivation is a more affordable alternative for a city-state than upgrading from jungle, steppe or wilderness to fully cultivated in one step, and provides multiple benefits upon completion while the kingdom saves up for the rest of the job.
    It is a base level project costing 25gp & 13nfp (usual modifications for culture type still apply). It may be performed in regular (non-Permanent) jungle or wilderness terrain. Regular steppe may not be half-cultivated until the Horse Count has completed in a nation's area. On the stat sheet such terrains would show as "JC" for Jungle (Cultivated), "SC" for Steppe (Cultivated) and "WC" for Wilderness (Cultivated).
    As expected, completion of the same project in a region already half-cultivated results in a fully cultivated region.

    The benefits of half-cultivated regions are economic in nature, and are listed in the table below for ease of reference. All are calculations handled by the software when the stats program is run, thus not increasing turn resolution time.
    For everything else impacted by terrain (action range, garrisons, movement, combat, cost of PWBs, cost of Megalithic construction, cost of city GPv, diplomacy modifiers, etc) the original terrain's value/cost/effect remains unchanged. Either the half-cultivation wouldn't have made any difference, or the difference would be minor yet time-consuming to verify and delay turn processing.

HALF-CULTIVATED REGION EFFECTS 1
Area Effect Result
2.3.2 International Trade Value Region Terrain Type Modifier (Table 2-5)
increases to almost halfway between original terrain and cultivated
higher ITV
2.3.4 Regional Income Terrain Type Tax Multiple (Table 2-8)
increases to almost halfway between the original terrain and cultivated 2
more gp & nfp
2.10.1 Troop Support Terrain Troop Support Modifier (Table 2-10)
Civilized, Nomadic and Seafaring cost decreases to almost halfway
between the original terrain and cultivated;
Barbarian and Pre-Columbian unchanged - cost already low
C, N, S
less support cost
2.11.1 Agro Production Agro Point Production Multiple (Table 2-12)
increases to almost halfway between the original terrain and cultivated
more agro
2.11.2 Agro Consumption Terrain Consumption Multiple (Table 2-14)
decreases to almost halfway between the original terrain and cultivated
less agro eaten
5.4.3 Building Public Works Maximum Public Works Bonuses (Table 5-6)
increases to almost halfway between original terrain and cultivated;
Jungle or Wilderness -cultivated 9 PWBs; Steppe -cultivated 5 PWBs
more PWBs possible
5.4.15.3 Maximum City Size Maximum City Size by Terrain (Table 5-9)
increases to almost halfway between original terrain and cultivated;
Jungle or Wilderness -cultivated 7 GPv; Steppe -cultivated 6 GPv
larger cities possible
12.2 Calculating Imperial Size Region Terrain Modifier (Table 12-1)
decreases to almost halfway between the original terrain and cultivated
lower IS

1 the "almost halfway" Effects are because 2 half-cultivated regions are not quite as good as 1 cultivated region.
2 note Table 2-8 is also used when calculating the maximum field forts in a region. This can be increased - see 5.4.7 FIELD FORTS.


7.2.4.14 Conduct Census
    A nation must be literate, having at least 1 Infra point, to perform this action.

7.2.4.19 Diplomacy
    Those who have run Lords campaigns already know much of this, but to level the playing field it only seems fair to inform everyone how this works. The process of resolving a diplomatic action is:
      > 1. ( Dip Stat of Leader -RV of location +positive modifiers -negative modifiers ) = base value
      > 2. roll a d10
      > 3. if roll is less than or equal to the base value then success! But if roll is higher ("over") than the base value ... failure.

    For example (for simplicity without any modifiers) a leader with an 8 dip stat negotiates with inhabitants of a RV 3 region
(Dip 8 -RV 3) = base value of 5. A die roll of 1 to 5 here means success: a "1" would be very slight success - the Newsfax would probably say the locals "grudgingly" agreed to something - while a "5" would be an increase of one or more control levels.
    On the other hand, in this example a die roll greater than 5 means failure. A "6" would be a very minor failure (just 1 over) and the Newsfax would likely say the inhabitants were stubborn. Higher rolls would be a increasing levels of failure and the Newsfax would probably say the locals were infuriated. A GM die-roll on the Leader Fate table may be required.

    The above seems pretty straightforward. What makes it complicated are modifiers. Positive mods add to base value, making a successful less than or equal to result more likely, with the possibility of significant progress. With enough positive modifiers success can often be a sure thing.
    Negative mods subtract from base value, making a less than or equal to roll less likely and probably making the target region or city hostile to your nation. With enough negative modifiers the diplomatic effort has no chance.

    The table below lists the value and circumstance for the most common modifiers in this campaign. Unless a leader has a high dip stat (9 or better) or some positive modifiers, it's much better for that leader to spend a lot of extra APs in one location and have a good chance of success rather than split his/her APs between two DP efforts and fail at each.

COMMON Lords 38 DIPLOMACY MODIFIERS
Values in red are unique to this campaign - often from player suggestions.
Value Circumstances
+5 offer of marriage to leader's King (or Queen if she's ruling) or Heir
+3 offer of marriage to leader's Prince or Princess
+2 offer for leader's King to adopt a son (15 or older) of location's ruler's family as Heir
Roman emperors did this when not having an eligible child of their own.
+1 offer of betrothal to a minor royal child of leader's nation
Marriage to follow when the betrothed child comes of age.
+1 ruling family of leader's nation and location's ruler are already related due to a previous turn's successful diplomacy (player should remind GM)
This turn the leader continues/resumes continues talks with location's ruler who at this point is a something-in-law (brother, uncle, nephew, cousin, etc) of the leader's King and in theory more favorably inclined to listen
+1 leader's wife (if noblewoman) is from location and is accompanying leader*
While leader conducts formal negotiations, spouse uses familial relationship (sister, daughter, niece, etc) with location's ruler to influence him behind the scenes
+1 location is a city and the leader's nation already has a control status of at least T in the region containing the city (player should remind GM)
+1 location is a region and the leader's nation already has a control status of at least T in a city
within the region (player should remind GM)
+1 each additional 5AP leader spends in that location (no bonus for less than 5AP)
No credit for partial multiples. 9AP is worth a +1; 10AP is worth a +2.
+n the diplomacy stat (rounded down) of each additional leader assisting
The assisting leader(s) must spend as many APs as the main leader - they are assisting for the duration of the negotiations.
+1 charisma of King, Queen, Heir, Prince or Princess offered for marriage is 9 or higher
+1 charisma of leader (main leader if more than one) is 11
Human nature: location's ruler is delighted and more favorably inclined to listen
+n/-n success (+n), no effect or failure (-n) of offered bribe
+n/-n success (+n), no effect or failure (-n) of Intel SD operation
-1 charisma of leader (main leader if more than one) is 2 or lower
Human nature: location's ruler is disgusted and less favorably inclined to listen
-1 charisma of King, Queen, Heir, Prince or Princess offered for marriage is 4 or lower
-1 location's terrain is unfamiliar and considered hostile by leader's nation
For Civilized and Seafaring this means steppe, desert, oasis, mountain or tundra
For Barbarian this means steppe, desert, oasis or tundra
-1 location's language is different than leader's language
-1 location is Hostile to leader's nation due to a previous turn's failed diplomacy
-1 location's religion is different but Tolerant of leader's religion
-2 location's religion is different and Hostile to leader's religion
-2 location is At War to leader's nation due to a previous turn's failed diplomacy

*of course if there's a big failure she's at risk along with her husband


7.2.5 0AP Actions
    0AP "housekeeping" actions exist to assist both player and GM with accurate record-keeping and turn processing: the transfer of units between leaders and/or garrisons, or how many units can be carried aboard ship.
    No die roll is required for any 0AP action.
    Any XFER action by a leader should have a matching RCV action by another leader to ensure no units are lost.

Action: Acquire
Code: ACQ
Results: leader picks up units from a garrison
Example: from Sussex garrison: +3i,3xi

Action: Calculate
Code: CALC
Results: verify cargo capacity of transports is sufficient to move carried units
Example: 5xt = 5 x 2 = 10 cargo space available; 3i (3 x 2) + 3xi (3 x 1) = 9 cargo space required

Action: Receive
Code: RCV
Results: leader receives units from another leader
Example: from L10 Harold: +3i,3xi

Action: Transfer
Code: XFER
Results: leader transfers units to another leader or a garrison
Example: to L10 Harold: -3i,3xi -or- to Sussex garrison: -3i,3xi


10.3 Banking and Loans are not in effect. They are IMHO a Medieval concept.


10.8 Nomadic Societies
    Population pressure is not great enough yet for Hordes to erupt from steppe regions. However there are Pastoral Nomads (see 2.2.1.3.1 above for details). A

10.8.1 Horde Diplomacy is not in effect.

10.8.3.1 Settling in Populated Areas
    In addition to the uses of Tribal Points in the rules, in L38 they may also be used for:
      > settling a pacified "half-populated" region (a GPv of 1 in reversed colors) to 1GPv by the use of Tribal Point. The player nation's society would become Caste.
      > settling a pacified Settlement to a 2GP city by the use of Tribal Point (the math works this way). Alternately, two Settlements could be converted in the same turn into two 1GPv cities by the use of Tribal Point. In either case the player nation's society would become Caste.
      > settling a pacified Village to a 1GP city by the use of Tribal Point. The player nation's society would remain unchanged even if the Village's previous status had been Pacified - the locals would now be statistically insignificant. However their existance as an disgruntled minority would be noted.
    To avoid tracking smaller and smaller fractions of Tribal Points, those are the only options. In all cases the remaining Tribal Point is still available. The region or city(s) would now be friendly status and have the player nation's language and religious map symbols.
    Click for details of half-populated regions and Settlements and Villages.

10.8.4.1 Migrant NPNs
    Population pressure is not great enough yet for Hordes to erupt from steppe regions. However there will be are migratory tribes named in reversed-colors such as . Next to their name icon will be a number in parentheses such as " ( 2 ) " measuring the population. This number will increase very slowly; when it reaches "10" the tribe leaves its home region and migrates.
    The Achaeans (who conquered the Pelasgians) and Luvian-speakers (who conquered western Anatolia) were both tribes which migrated and settled before the start of the campaign. The Neolithic peoples of southeast Asia were overrun by migrating Tibetans down the Irrawaddy River valley, also before the start of the campaign.
    details of interacting with migrants will accompany their return to the map

10.9.1 The Cav Count
    According to the lastest evidence, horses were first domesticated by the Botai people on the steppe north of the Aral Sea (off the initial map) during the Late Neolithic in what is now northern Khazakstan. "Domesticated" in this sense refers to controlled breeding for desirable characteristics, in this case growing horses larger to become work animals. Apparently sufficient size was reached between 2500 and 2000BC to make practical training and work activity. Horses began to spread across the steppe, used for transportation (pulling carts) and agriculture (pulling plows), although still only pony-sized.

    The traditional campaign assumes horses are of sufficient size that, once there are enough of them, they can be ridden as cavalry. Since that is not the case here, two counts are needed:
      > the Horse Count, which when Complete, meaning there are sufficient numbers of horses, permits the building of chariot units. Its completion also starts the Cav Count, representing local selective breeding for increased equine size.
      > the Cav Count which when Complete, meaning horses are now of practical size, permits the building of cavalry units.
Note: if a nation has a Max Cav QR > 0, it may invest if the Horse Count in its area has completed, even if the Cav Count has not - there are at least a few horses large enough to start working on training, handling, etc.

    Since horses will be expanding overland - rather than arriving a few at a time by ship - the Horse Count will complete faster than usual. The Newsfax will track the spread of horses by "area" - smaller than a GeoZone, but larger than a couple regions. Examples of area would be: Balkans, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Oxus Valley, etc.


11.0 Secret Empires are not in effect.

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Version 1.2 - May 2016