LORDS OF THE EARTH 38 - THE DAWN OF CIVILIZATION
Map Changes


INTRODUCTION
    Sources give wildly varying estimates of world population, especially city sizes, in 2130BC. The campaign is going with a world population of about 50 million, of which about half are in the initial map area. This is about 25-30% of the inhabitants in a traditional Medieval campaign starting in 1000AD.
    Population is mostly concentrated in the main river valley civilizations (Nile, Mesopotamia and Indus, with about 1.5 million each) and bordering territory (Italy, Aegean, Anatolia, Levant coast, Oxus Valley, Gangetic plain and Southeast Asia, with about 700-750,000 each). Beyond them population density drops drastically, inhabitants living a more primitive lifestyle, relying mainly on steppe/desert nomadic herding or wilderness/jungle "forest agriculture". The far northern regions of Europe and Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa, are sparsely inhabited with small groups still living a Paleolithic life.
    Details of the campaign-specific map changes & additions follow. The numbers match those of rules in the Basic Rules.
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4.0.1 Half-Populated Regions
4.1 Regional Symbols: Cities, Settlements & Villages
4.1 Regional Symbols: Fortresses, Monoliths & Silk Route
4.5 Terrain <--- loess soil regions (northern China) added 11/13/16
4.6.5 Sea Symbols: Calm Waters
4.7 Ferry Arrows
Topographic Changes (sea zone boundaries, new islands, mixed terrain, etc)
Name Changes (regions renamed, merged or divided)

4.0 The Map
    Less population means regions will have lower GPv than in a traditional campaign. While agriculture has existed since the Neolithic, it was mostly in scattered areas of particularly lush steppe or easily-cleared wilderness. Having enough of it in one place for as region to be considered "cultivated" by LOTE standards is rare. A 1GPv cultivated is uncommon; a 2GPv even more so. PWBs are scarce (or non-existant) everywhere as monarchs tended to spend their gold on luxuries, megalithic construction, or armies, not improve-ments for the masses.
    The greatest population density is in the Nile Valley with a mix of 2 & 3GPv cultivated regions, due to a relatively constricted space. The Levant, Mesopotamia, the Oxus Valley and the Indus Valley have 1 & 2GPv cultivated regions, but more of them. Regions surrounding these lands have a mix of 1GPv cultivated, 1GPv half-cultivated wilderness or jungle. Beyond those as are 1GPv wilderness, jungle or steppe, and mix of half-populated regions.
    Most homeland regions at campaign start are cultivated or islands. Homelands added on the edges of the map as it expands are likely to be half-cultivated wilderness or jungle. It will take longer to become a "real civilization" but they're more likely to be left alone while doing it.

4.0.1 Half-Populated Regions
    Regions still further away from the great river valleys (and many smaller islands) don't have enough inhabitants for even 1GPv. Yet such regions do have substantial numbers of people by ancient standards. Such places could be made productive more cheaply than somewhere completely uninhabited.
    To simulate this, a region with a GPv of 1 in reversed colors is considered half-populated.
How its RV is treated varies:
      - for combat-related purposes such as size of native army and size of garrison, use the RV rounded up.
      - for diplomacy or religious actions the RV is as shown, here representing attitude not size of population.

Once Pacified, or raised by diplomacy to F status, it could be:
      - colonized for 12.5gp and 7nfp as per 5.4.14.5 Colonizing Populated Regions, using for the GPv when calculating cost.
      - settled by a migrating nation per 10.8.3.1 Settling in Populated Areas by the use of a Tribal Point.
    In either case the region would now be (or remain) friendly status and have the player nation's language and religious map symbols. The player nation's society would become Caste if the half-populated region's previous status had been Pacified.

    There are also more (  /  ) uninhabited regions. If the region has a icon then Paleolithic/Mesolithic hunter-gatherers are present, or at least use the land for hunting, and they may contest settlement.

    Note: for partial regions and sea zones around the map edge, if it has a name, you can move into it. If it doesn't have a name, it doesn't "exist" yet. Open ocean arrows that lead off the map edge don't "exist" either.

4.1 Regional Symbols
    Terrain, GPv and RV symbols are as standard. Click here for details of campaign religious symbols.
For Fortress symbols see 4.1.2 Fortresses below.
    A reversed-colors name such as represents the current location of a migrating tribe such as Kassites, Amorites, Hurrians, etc. They often stay in the same region for many years.

4.1.1 Cities
    Given the much lower population and primitive agricultural production able to provide food, cities are very limited in size. (Most would be considered small towns nowadays.) Those in Mesopotamia are 3GPv with about 35,000 population, while the Indus Valley has 2GPv cities with about 27,000 population. The Nile Valley cities are 1GPv with about 18,000 population (the Egyptians were less urbanized, more rural) and elsewhere cities are 1GPv with about 13,000 pop. Given the limited resources of the time, even a 1GPv city is a huge deal.
    When possible cities were placed on the correct side of the rivers, but in cases where two important cities would fall within the same region (such as Kish and the future site of Babylon) one was moved to the "wrong" side.

4.1.1.1 Settlements
    A city site (square) with a blue S inside is a Settlement with enough inhabitants to be halfway towards becoming a city. An average population is 4,000 but with few if any amenities (PWBs). Settlements are found within half-cultivated regions or in regions still uncultivated but with a source of extra income such as trade center or trade route.
    A Settlement may serve as the capital of a Barbarian or Nomadic nation (player or NPN).
If it has a port symbol (anchor) and is:
      - at least NT status, it is considered a port for movement and tracing CCR.
      - at least T status, it may serve as one end of a trade route. However, since it is 0GPv no MSP may be assigned there. It may not be used as a Seafaring culture "conduit city" until it is a 1GPv city.

Once Pacified, or raised by diplomacy to F status, it could be:
      - colonized for 7.5gp and 5nfp, resulting in a 1GPv city.
      - settled by a migrating nation per 10.8.3.1 Settling in Populated Areas by the use of a Tribal Point, resulting in a 2GP city. (The math works this way.) Alternately, two Settlements could be converted in the same turn into two 1GPv cities by the use of Tribal Point.
    In either case the city(s) would now be (or remain) friendly status and have the player nation's language and religious map symbols. The player nation's society would become Caste if the Settlement(s) previous status had been Pacified.

4.1.1.2 Villages
    A city site (square) with a blue V inside is a Village with enough population to be halfway towards becoming a Settlement. An average population is 2,000 and living conditions are only slightly less hardscrabble than an isolated homestead. Villages are found in uncultivated (often half-populated) regions that could not support a Settlement but (usually for historical reasons) had an urban place worth putting on the map.
    If it has a port symbol (anchor) and is at least NT status, it is considered a port for movement and tracing CCR. However it may not serve as one end of a trade route until it is increased to at least Settlement size.

Once Pacified, or raised by diplomacy to F status, it could be:
      - colonized for 4gp and 2.5nfp, resulting in a Settlement.
      - colonized for 11.5gp and 7.5nfp, resulting in a 1GPv city.
      - settled by a migrating nation per 10.8.3.1 Settling in Populated Areas by the use of a Tribal Point, resulting in a 1GPv city.
    In either case the Settlement or city would now be (or remain) friendly status and have the player nation's language and religious map symbols. The player nation's society would remain unchanged even if the Village's previous status had been Pacified - the locals would now be statistically insignificant. However their existance as an disgruntled minority would be noted.

4.1.2 Fortresses
    A fortress by itself is shown by the symbol while a fortress within a city (known as a citadel) is shown by a symbol.
If a fortress is also a port, it will also have an anchor symbol.

4.1.6 Monoliths
    Neolithic peoples apparently had a lot of spare time, and a mania for moving extremely large, extremely heavy stone slabs great distances. These were used for monolithic constructs such as standing stone circles, henges, passage/gallery/chamber tombs, dolmen, menhirs, etc. These are all represented by the symbol. All varieties are valid code type "R" trade centers.
    Pyramid tombs built after the Neolithic but before the campaign start are represented by the standard symbol, as will be temple complexes and ziggaurats built during the campaign. All varieties are valid code type "R" trade centers.

4.3.2 The Silk Route
    The silk trade (as known in Medieval/Renaissance times) does not exist, but there is already a trade route running between the Levant and China which provides the same economic benefits for the regions through which it passes. For tradition's sake it will still be called the Silk Road (or Route).
    Four other ancient trade routes have been added:
      - a route bringing amber from Jutland (northwest Europe) to the western Mediterranean
      - a route bringing amber from both Jutland and the Baltic coast to the Adriatic Sea
      - a route bringing amber from the Baltic coast to the Black Sea
      - a route bringing salt & resin from Sa'ba to the Levant
      - a route bringing lapis from the Hindu Kush mountains to the Indus Valley
      - a route representing local trans-Himalayan trade
    All routes use the standard symbol.

4.5 Terrain
    Permanent terrain: some region terrain has been changed from mountain to wilderness or from desert to steppe. Generally these were regions where historical peoples lived, and less harsh terrain could explain how they survived there. Arabia has a number of these because the penninsula received somewhat more rainfall 4,000 years ago than now. Same for the southern shore of the Aral Sea - many sources refer to pastoral (herding) agriculture that could not have survived in desert.
    These terrain symbols have a P next to them. That signifies they are permanently that terrain and cannot be cultivated. On the stat sheet they will show as "SP" for Steppe (Permanent) and "WP" for Wilderness (Permanent). There is also "JP" for Jungle (Permanent) for special swampy circumstances.

    Half-cultivated terrain: regions that can be cultivated (ie not Permanent terrain) may also be "half-cultivated". Regions starting the campaign half-cultivated represent considerable "forest agriculture" in areas where farming has been long in use, but not enough land has been cleared yet to be considered fully cultivated. So, halfway there.
    Regions may also become this terrain upon completion of a half-cultivation project: it is base level costing 25gp & 13nfp (usual modifications for culture type still apply). It is more affordable for a city-state than upgrading from jungle, steppe or wilderness to fully cultivated in one step, and provides multiple benefits upon completion while the kingdom saves up for the rest of the job.
    A half-cultivated region will have a C next to its terrain symbol. On the stat sheet such terrains would show as "JC" for Jungle (Cultivated), "SC" for Steppe (Cultivated) and "WC" for Wilderness (Cultivated).
    Mixed terrain: regions in the eastern half of the Tibetan Plateau now have a symbol meaning both wilderness(permanent) and mountain instead of traditional mountain only. They are the result of heavier monsoons in the Bronze Age.

    Loess soil: can be described as a rich, dust-like yellowish soil. It is more than a hundred meters deep in areas of northern China and it is some of the most agriculturally fertile terrain in the world. It is also some of the most erosion-prone; its color is why Huang Ho means "Yellow River".
    Loess regions produce double the normal agro, allowing the support of larger populations and cities than otherwise possible.
    more information will be added when China is opened to players

4.5.1 Intensively Cultivated
    There are no Intensively Cultivated regions at campaign start, because no people are as yet TL2 to do the job. The regions listed in Table 6-5 "Regions Eligible For Intensive Agriculture" remain so.

4.5.4 Steppe
    The vast majority of steppe regions are half-populated. A few regions are where historically cereals have been domesticated for millenia; these begin the campaign 1GPv to represent a higher sustainable population. Steppe may not be cultivated until the Horse Count has completed in a nation's area. This is mentioned among the limitations in 10.9 Pre-Columbian Society, but logically would apply to any nation without horses to use.

4.5.12 Colonizable Regions
    If a region with empty regional values (  /  ) also has a icon then Paleolithic/Mesolithic hunter-gatherers are present, or at least use the land for hunting, and they may contest colonization. Best to have some troops with the colonists.

4.6.5 Calm Waters
    The mainstay of ancient ships was the single-masted oared galley. Galleys had low freeboard (oars have to reach the water) and can easily be swamped in rough seas. Even larger galleys with higher freeboard were cautious about flooding through the lower oar ports. Sea zones marked with a symbol have relatively calm waters (the rare surprise storm can always happen) since they are either almost entirely enclosed by land or are a narrow strait.
    Sea zones without the "calm waters" symbol are choppy; galleys need to follow the coast as much as possible since generally the further from shore the rougher the waves.

4.7 Ferry Arrows
    No Medieval campaign ferry points exist. Trade across a ferry site is LTH (Land Trade across Hostile terrain) until 10 ferry point(s) are built, at which point it improves (relatively speaking) to LTD (Land Trade across Difficult terrain). From (roughly) west to east, ferry sites are:
      - Skaggerak, Denmark to Zealand
      - Skaggerak, Zealand to Skane
      - border of Gates of Hercules & Gades, from Morroco to Granada and/or Tartessos
      - border of Gulf of Lyon & Tyrrhenian Sea, from Sardinia to Corsica
      - border of Tyrrhenian & Ionian Seas, from Sicily to Calabria
      - Aegean Sea, Morea to island of Kythera (new)
      - Aegean Sea, Thrace to Bithnia (Hellespont)
      - Aegean Sea, Thrace to Paphlagonia (Bosporus)
      - Black Sea, Crimea to Taman
      - Persian Gulf, Qatar to island of Bahrain (new)
      - Gulf of Oman, Edrosia to island of Kutch (new)
      - Selat Strait, Palembang to Pajajaran
      - Gulf of Tonkin, Lingnan to island of Hainan

    A leader alone may cross a traditional ferry site expending 2AP, but no units may cross until ferry point(s) are built or ships with cargo capacity are there to carry them.

TOPOGRAPHIC CHANGES (roughly west to east)
    The Seine River and its Marne River tributary are together the Seine River sea zone.

    The terminus of the Oder River now points north instead of northwest. Its mouth is now adjacent to both the Skaggerak and Baltic sea zones.

    Border of Adriatic and Ionian Seas moved northward to historical boundary at Strait of Otranto.

    The island of Kythera was added off the coast of Morea as it became a significant Minoan colony.

    To clarify: the Tisza, Middle Danube and Sava Rivers all connect to each other at a common junction point just west of the Iron Gate rapids. From one river, the cost is 1AP to move to either of the others. For trade, a port on one river is 2 sea zones from a port on either of the others (1sz to the junction, then 1sz up the other river to the destination port).
    No vessel larger than an xrt, converted to MSP or not, may pass the Iron Gate rapids - see Nile cataract details below.

    The border between Lydia and Isauria was moved NW to allow room for the Settlement (and probable future port) of Miletos to be on the Aegean Sea.

    The Mare Negri and Euxeinos Pontos sea zones are collectively referred to as the Black Sea. The Sea of Azov (east of the Crimean penninsula) is now a separate sea zone along with the Don and Kuban rivers, both of which empty into it.

    To clarify: the Nile is two sea zones. The border between them is the 1st Cataract. The Upper Nile, Blue Nile & White Nile are all in the "Upper Nile" sea zone. An xrt (light trading galley) converted to MSP may ignore cataracts other than 1st - trade items are taken off one vessel and loaded upon another on the other side of the rapids, and their journey continues.
    An xrt fleet carrying units (or colonists) must pay an AP for each cataract, each way - everyone disembarks with all their equipment, the boats are taken apart, hauled around the rapids and re-assembled. All the passengers hike up or down trails, then reboard. At least one region adjacent to a "bypassed" cataract must be controlled; otherwise the natives will resist the military (or colonist) incursion.
    No vessel larger than an xrt, converted to MSP or not, may pass a cataract.

    The island of Socotra in the Bab-al-Mandab was wetter in ancient times (unlike the arid semi-desert found by the Portuguese in the 1500s AD) allowing for population greater than 0GPv.

    The Mesopotamian region of Adaban should not exist; it was formed over the next several millenia by silt from the Tigris and Euphrates. However Mesopotamia is stuffed with city-states, and fitting in the important ones was difficult enough without removing land. So it was left on the map. More than half the city-states had to be omitted anyway. The ones placed were those contending for power after the collapse of the Akkadian Empire.
    The cities of Kish, Lagash and Susa were river ports on tributaries not on the map; those cities have been moved to the Tigris or Euphrates as appropriate.

    The island of Bahrain was added in the Persian Gulf to provide a region to support the city of Dilmun.

    The Indus River has been moved east of the region of Bauluch, which allows Mohenjo-Daro to be on the correct riverbank.

    The ancient river Saraswati (aka Ghaggar-Hakra) has been added parallel to the Indus, flowing into the Rann of Kutch. As a result, the Thar Desert (regions of Ajmer and Jats) are grassland rather than desert.
    The Rann of Kutch itself was shallow ocean back then, making Kutch a true island.

   Heavier Monsoon Effects:     The Bronze Age had significantly heavier monsoon rainfall which led to frequent flooding of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. The further downriver, the worse the problem. The Bengal area (LOTE region of Pallas) was then mixed rain forest and swamp, which is represented in L38 by JP - jungle(permanent) terrain. The Ganges and Brahmaputra deltas on either side of Pallas have swampy, flooded banks which cost an extra AP to cross.

    Regions in the western half of the Tibetan Plateau are steppe terrain instead of traditional Lords desert (technically high altitude arid steppe) terrain. As such they support pastoral nomads to the extent the kingdom of Zhang Zhung developed.
    Regions in the eastern half of the Tibetan Plateau now have a mixed terrain symbol meaning both wilderness(permanent) and mountain instead of traditional mountain only. In the database terrain is recorded as WP and upon reaching 1GPv the region will produce some agro (unlike mountains) as well as higher income.
    For anyone other than native eastern Tibetans the mountain part of the symbol applies for everything else: movement, combat, diplomacy, CCR, etc. The locals apply the wilderness part of the symbol for everything due to their familiarity with the local terrain - otherwise the historical Tibetan kingdom (and eventual empire) could never have functioned in Lords.
.

    The Andaman Sea meets the Irrawaddy River further north; at this time the Irrawaddy River had not "silted up" to form its delta. Sri Ksetra is therefore an ocean port.

    The Mekong Sea meets the Mekong River further north; at this time the Mekong River had not "silted up" to form its delta.
Oc Eo is therefore an ocean port. It may have been the city of Kattigara mentioned in Ptolemy's Geography at the very edge of the ancient known world.
    To clarify: the Mekong is two sea zones. The border between them is Khone Falls. No vessel larger than an xrt, converted to MSP or not, may pass the Falls - see Nile cataract details above.

    The Xi River and its Li River tributary are together the Xi River sea zone.

    The Yangzte River has been extended westward and the border between its Upper and Lower sea zones has also been moved westward.

    The Huang Ho remains two sea zones, the boundary being Hukou Falls. No vessel larger than an xrt, converted to MSP or not, may pass the Falls - see Nile cataract details above. The Upper zone is navigable for much of its length down to Hukou Falls; the Wei River tributary joins it there and is a sea zone unto itself. Both are considered adjacent to the Lower zone and to each other.
    The Lower Huang Ho (in its ancient channel) meets the Bo Hai sooner; the Huang Ho had not yet carried the enormous quantities of Loess soil that extended the coastline westward over millenia. As a result the regions of Lu'an and Yen are no longer adjacent.


NAME CHANGES
    The following regions have been changed and/or renamed, roughly west to east:
Region Change Notes
Andalusia rename Tartessos historical flavor, origin Kingdom of Tartessos
Gibraltar added to Granada no reason to be separate region at this time
Egypt rename Lower Egypt emphasize lack of central authority
Fai-Yum rename Middle Egypt t6 player request & seemed reasonable
Thebes rename Upper Egypt emphasize lack of central authority, also needed Thebes for city name
Aswan split into Aswan & Eastern Desert place city of Thebes on correct side of Nile in a cultivated region, but still have desert between it and Red Sea
Nubia rename Lower Nubia historical flavor
Alwa rename Upper Nubia historical flavor, origin Kingdom of Nubia
Adulis rename Beja needed Adulis name for Land of Punt's port city
Aden rename Abyan needed Aden name for historical port city
Constantinople added to Thrace no reason to be separate region at this time
Black Sea rename Euxeinos Pontos
(Greek for "Black Sea" )
historical flavor (and lets "Black Sea" be used for entire body of water)
Levant rename Caanan historical flavor (and let "Levant" be used for entire area)
Carrae split to Subartu & Carrae historical flavor, origin Kingdom of Subartu, and a separate Carrae allows historic Mesopotamian access to the Mediterranean without fighting Subartu
As'summan move border away from Euphrates River allow Selucia & Kuwait to form contiguous non-desert regions along west bank
Fars rename Elam historical flavor, origin Kingdom of Elam
Rann of Kutch true island in Gulf of Oman sea zone geography of the time
Tabolsk
( far NE of Aral Sea )
rename Botai historical flavor, origin of horse domestication
(and kept getting confused with nearby Tobolsk)
Himachal rename Ladakh historical flavor, geography
Adakh rename Changtang geography - actual name of far NW Tibetan Plateau
Khemer rename Funan historical flavor, origin Kingdom of Funan
Champa rename Lam Ap historical flavor, origin Kingdom of Lam Ap
Dai Viet rename Van Lang historical flavor, origin Kingdom of Van Lang

More renamed/changed regions will be added as the map is expanded.

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Version 1.1.6 - December 2015