Newsfax Turn: #9 ( 2090 - 2086 BC )
May 1, 2016

ANNOUNCEMENTS: New or changed from previous turn will be in red.
My Stats program only accepts whole gp for University investment, and only stores whole nfp leftover at end of turn.
Progress in metallurgy, literacy & government will be in green and is the situation at the start of the turn.
If your University level is 2 or less you probably aren't producing tech points.

Want another position? Ask the GM what area(s) you can choose from. Writing all the conditionals was becoming too complicated. A request for a 2nd position gets priority over a request for a 3rd position.
The rules for interacting with migrating tribes are deferred until I have time.

QUICK SCROLL if you know where you want to go:
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Oxus Valley
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Ganges Valley
Southern India
Irrawaddy Valley
Southeast Asia



fortified Settlement of Los Millares

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.
Literacy has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.

Lusitanian Tribes Barbarian Metalworking Oligarchy
Mandonio the Golden Tongued, Chief of the Council of Clans
    Mandonio poured the nation's wealth and labor into a whirlwind effort of clearing brush and plowing virgin earth to convert the homeland's wilderness into productive farmland. Completion was followed by "harvest festival" type celebrations throughout the realm. The king then attended to rulership while enjoying his Salamancan bride Stena. She birthed twins (boy & girl) in late 2090 but the pregnancy was difficult and the delivery even worse. Despite much marital effort aided by druidic fertility rituals, the royal couple did not conceive again.
    Mandonio's younger brother (and heir) Babpo stood by to react to any threats.

Kingdom of Tartessos Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Guillermo, King of Tartessos
    Guillermo invested much of the kingdom's income paying foreign scribes and domestic artists, philosophers and scholars to create a method to record the Tartessian tongue. Captured prisoners were put to work digging irrigation ditches in the homeland. The king was then content to rule his lands and summon the palace maidservants to his bedchamber. Most remained lucky but one became pregnant and gave birth to twin boys in 2088.
    Guillermo had turned command of the army over to his heir Eduardo who marched east through Granada to the fortified settle-ment of Los Millares for some diplomacy-in-force. The settlement's elders were astonished and dismayed seeing nearly four thousand infantry make camp outside the walls. Despite language differences Eduardo convinced the inhabitants to pay tribute to Tartessos, and he returned home quite pleased.
    Late in 2086 an excited group of scholars demonstrated to both king and heir a way to record the Tartessian language as a semi-syllabaric alphabet of both glyphs and letters.

Celtiberian Tribes Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ihintza, Queen of Celtiberian Clans
    With no one ruling the tribes and collecting taxes in past years, Ihintza could make but small investments until finances improved. Forunately enslaved prisoners were available for digging trenches for water pipes and sewers in the capital, and they only required gruel not gold.
    The queen then ruled while spending time with her husband Ibai from Aragon, producing a girl late 2090. A pregnancy in 2086 ended in a miscarriage after a fall on a wet floor in the palace.
    Ihintza's cousin (and heir) Amets remained ready with the army to react to any threats.


(Corsica, Sardinia, Italian penninsula, Sicily & Malta)

Nuragic field fort with distinctive stone Nuraghe towers

Literacy has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.

Nuragic Civilization Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Pasquale, Navarch, Lord of Albucci, de facto leader of Nuragic Civilization
    Following the death of Alessandru, the Council chose Pasquale, an up and coming merchant in Albucci, as new First of the Council with the title of Navarch. He moved decisively to take charge and restore order. The unemployed were put to work felling trees and clearning brush on Sardinia or pressed into service crewing new ships under construction in the municipal shipyards. A thousand infantry traded their swords for tools and built additional docks and warehouses on the waterfront.
    Using new nautical maps resulting from recent exploration, trade was initiated with such distant and diverse nations as Illyria, Ugarit and the Celtiberian tribes. All that set in motion, Pasquale then ruled the civilization.
    Second of the Council Rafiele and feudal ally Petru of Filitosa each set out on missions of exploration, Rafiele to the southeast and Petru to the southwest. Their ships returned sooner than expected in 2087 and early 2086 with crews in mourning. Both leaders had died while at sea and in both instances a junior officer brought the galley safely back to port.

(Proto-)Etruscans Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Arnza Ulthese, King of Etruscans
    Arnza ordered the construction of two more light trade galleys in the municipal shipyards and surplus olives and oil stored for future needs. The unemployed and landless were gathered and sent to the eastern coast of Calabria along with wagons, tools and building materials where they founded the port settlement of Locri. The king then ruled his territory.
    The king's son (and heir) Vulca was assigned four light galleys and sent to explore. Despite his being a middling navigator the long voyage was apparently successful since in late 2087 all four ships docked at the tributary settlement of Nance. While his crews enjoyed the local taverns and brothels, Vulca spent months in talks with the settlement's elders, offering himself in marriage to a local noblewoman in exchange for closer ties. The elders agreed, the port becoming a fully allied to the Etruscans.
    During this time word arrived of the death of Arnza who died in his sleep nearly age sixty, quite old for the time.

Apennine Culture Civilized Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Decimus, Lord of Scoglio, de facto leader of Apennine Culture
    Decimus spent heavily on improvements to agriculture: irrigation ditches and wells dug, barns built and pastures fenced. He ruled with his nephew Crassus at his side learning the arts of administration; Crassus was proclaimed his successor should Prince Cassius die early. The lord also spent time with wife Drusilla of Spoleto who produced a son in 2088 despite several miscarriages.
    Meanwhile his son (and designated successor) Prince Cassius traveled north through wilderness and over the Po River, arriving early 2089 at the court of its lord. A skilled diplomat, he offering both himself and young Crassus in marriage as well as a gift of imported Minoan fabric. Discussions made steady progress despite language differences and by late 2087 the Veronan agreed to be a feudal vassal. Decimus's choice of Crassus as backup successor proved prescient when during a celebratory outdoor feast a very drunk Cassius stumbled off into the dark to relieve himself and fell down a rocky hillside, cracking his skull, his body not found by searchers until daylight.


(Balkans, Aegean Sea littoral & Anatolia)

Achaean Greek capital of Mycenae

Literacy has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.

Illyrians Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Medak, King of Illyrians
    Medak ordered investments across a broad range of military and governmental departments. Additional faculty was hired for the University and a large lecture hall built. Surplus vegetables were dried and stored for times of need. The final portion of the homeland still wilderness was cleared followed by drunken feasting to mark the completion of several generations of effort. The king then ruled his royal lands.
    Meanwhile Medak's younger brother (and heir) Cabar traveled to the port settlement of Nescatium to discuss an alliance, pro-posing a marriage between his king and a local noblewoman. After much discussion the head of the settlement's leadership swore an oath to be feudal vassal to Medak. Cabar returned home in autumn 2086 with the leader's daughter who married the king with great pagan ritual. She was lusty and soon pregnant.

Achaean Greeks Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Mycenaean Linear-B glyphs)
Akakios, King of Achaeans
    Akakios decreed investment in government and education; literacy among the populace was promoted and the University expanded. To keep the kingdom secure Thessaly, the gateway to Attica, was fortified and twelve hundred men recruited and trained with spear and shield. Realizing the kingdom was increasingly beyond the ability of even literate bureaucrats to efficently govern, self-rule was granted to the hill tribes of Serbia.
    Additionally, the region of Dalmatia, seized from Illyria 30 years earlier, was officially ceded back. The Illyrians knew nothing of this intent and the Dalmatians - who had no desire to exchange one master for another - proclaimed their independence. After the initial euphoria those who had grown up worshipping the Acheans' gods were soon at odds with traditionalists who still followed the older euro-pagan ways. Argument quickly led to violence and widespread civil disorder.
    After a year of marching, collecting and redistributing garrisons, Akakios settled down to rule his realm.

    The king's brother Alcibiades, lieutenant Agapenor and the twelve hundred newly trained heavy infantry encamped near Mycennae waiting for transport. Minoan galleys were expected in early 2090 and the men speculated where they'd be taken to fight, but the year came and went. As did the following year and the years after that. By now the spearmen spent most of their time in the taverns and brothels as discipline had grown grew lax and even their leaders were discouraged. Finally in late 2086 the Minoan commander Lonchi docked in the harbor with a dozen galleys, regarding the slovenly Achaeans with dismay.
    Meanwhile feudal vassal Dolops of Epirus traveled to Bulgaria and brought back Srayanka, betrothed of Alcibiades. No wedding had been planned however since Alcibiades was expected to be out of the kingdom by the time Srayanka reached Mycennae. She remained in the palace rather confused.

Minoans Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (Linear A glyphs)
Kyrsi, First of the Council
    Second of the Council Tavrys was in Knossos and prodded its members into making some decisions. Gold was spent experi-menting with new ship design as well as building more of the of current version. Surplus grain was stored for future needs and some hillsides were planted with olive trees to make use of the land. While waiting for Lonchi to arrive with galleys he spent time with his mysterious wife Trianta, siring a son born late in the year.
    Kyrsi and gifted Minoan leader Lonchi were already in Memphis. After discussions under Lonchi's command twenty Minoan galleys headed down the Nile and out to sea, while Kyrsi and over two thousand archers, swordsmen and skirmishers marched south to guard the border with Middle Egypt. [see Nile Valley War ]

    In the spring of 2089 a dozen galleys under Tavrys appeared off the southern coast of Sicily. The Sicilians had taken a vow of fealty to Minoan ally Zakro of Phylakopi, which made them at least non-hostile to the 600 warriors unloading through the surf. Tavrys led his mix of infantry overland to the port settlement of Thapsos and demanded its surrender. Thapsos however was walled and had a garrison; its leaders weren't intimidated and rejected the demand. The Minoans' attempt to scale the walls was repulsed with several hundred casualties, among them Tavrys wounded in the shoulder by a javelin flung down from the battlements. Unable to take the settlement and with orders soon requiring his presence in Egypt, a frustrated (and in considerable pain) Second loaded his men back aboard ship and departed.

    In the opposite direction Lonchi with a similar fleet had approached the port settlement of Kalavasos on Cyprus. No fighting was required; Minoan feudal ally Phaisto had already occupied the city (his father hadn't permitted it a garrison) without resistance. The Minoan galleys unloaded civilians with tools, building supplies and their worldly possessions to expand the sleepy town into a true city while stoneworkers began constructing a defensive wall.
    With the above underway, Lonchi embarked Phaisto and his household troops to reinforce his own men, and in late 2088 his fleet anchored in the harbor of Tyre, which was tributary to Crete. A thousand mixed infantry debarked as Lonchi and Phaisto discussed with settlement leaders the plan to invade the surrounding lands of Tyros. Suddenly Minoan and Cypriot warriors moved to occupy key areas of Tyre while the personal guards with Lonchi and Phaisto made prisoners of the settlement's dumbfounded leaders. Many of the local militia were captured upon approaching Minoan units assuming they were there to help with Tyre's defense. Those few who saw through the treachery fought but were overwhelmed.
    Once the settlement was secure, from the anchored galleys came Minoan colonists with tools, supplies, etc who enlarged the settlement into a full city. Satisfied all was on schedule, Lonchi left a garrison and departed with Phaisto. The vassal needed to return to Cyprus and Lonchi's galleys were needed in Mycenae. [see Achaeans]

    Ally Zakro headed west to explore while feudal vassal Shabtu headed north, in command of a loaned pentaconter and crew. Approaching the Hellespont in midsummer 2090, the warship passed by ferries shuttling Trojan warriors from Bithnia to Thrace. Both sides watched the other warily until the ferries were lost to sight.

City-State of Troy Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy - literate (Luwian hieroglyphics)
Ucalegon, King of Troy IV
    Ucalegon decreed the unappreciative University students conscripted, making room for a new class who were more interested in education. More scholars and scribes were hired as well, and large quantities of surplus vegetables were dried and stored. In the homeland marginal land was put to the plow to increase harvest yield. Finally, over two thousand men were trained with sling and javelin and placed under command of the king's half-brother (and heir) Adrestus.
    After spending the spring with his Moldavian wife Cassandra (who later birthed a son) the king took ship north to the tributary port settlement of Tyras. The king was a superb orator but again faced hostile religions and different languages, this time without his wife along to work behind the scenes. Despite several years of effort the settlement elders refused closer ties to Troy. Discouraged, he returned home to the comfort of his queen, resulting in a daughter born late 2086.

    Meanwhile Adrestus had added eight hundred archers to his mass of skirmishers, bringing his army to three thousand. While they were crossing by ferry from Bithnia to Thrace a Minoan-flagged pentaconter passed by, both sides watching the other warily until the pentaconter was lost to sight heading toward the Bosporus.
    Executing a previously-made plan, in late autumn Adrestus invaded Dobruja while feudal vassal Iapyx of Moldavia crossed the Lower Danube with a thousand men to attack from the opposite direction. The Dobrujan hillmen were almost as numerous as both Trojan forces combined and knew their wilderness well. Adrestus was counting on his own skill, his trained archers and plenty of skirmishers to fight in that wilderness. It required four months of sharp combat until in early summer 2089 the last of the defenders perished in the flames of their lord's keep; Trojan and Moldavian casualties were acceptable to Adrestus.
    The heir then ordered the region converted by force to worship the Hittite gods as had earlier been done in Thrace. Temples were scourged and then reconsecrated by Hittite priests accompanying the army. Natives who objected were crushed although not without more Trojan losses. Adrestus appointed a groveling ambitious local chief as satrap and together with Iapyx marched west into the grassland of Ludgorie.
    In late spring 2088 fighting began against a mass of nomadic pastoralists nearly as numerous as the invaders. Again Adrestus counted on his own skills and his now-experienced warriors. The nomads had never encountered massed bowmen and their wild screaming charge was worse than decimated by flights of arrows. The disheartened remainder were slaughtered by better fighters with better weapons at minimal loss.
    The heir had no desire to hold onto land so far from Troy and so ordered the population enslaved. The locals resisted bitterly but their best fighters were already dead or captured. Soon columns of chained slaves were shuffling toward Troy, and would be doing so for more than a year through Dobruja, Thrace and thence across the Hellespont by ferry.

    While Adrestus and Iapyx were rampaging, lieutenant Orthryoneus traveled east to Phrygia for diplomatic talks only to find Telipinus, heir to the throne of the Hittites, already in negotiations. The two men both stayed many years only to find their hosts unable to commit to either side. A frustrated Orthryoneus returned to Troy late 2086.

Hitties Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Luwian hieroglyphics)
Annitas, King of the Hittites
    Annitas shook off his lethargy, met with his councilors and decided upon large investments in military quality, government work and University funding. More effort was put into establishing a system to relay news quickly and this time met with success. Surplus grain was set aside for later needs and a training facility for Hittite priests was begun. Annitas then ruled his kingdom and enjoyed his wife Hurik, producing a girl in 2088 and a boy in 2087.
    Meanwhile the king's brother (and heir) Telipinus gathered over a thousand warriors and traveled west to Phrygia for diplomacy in force. Orthryoneus from Troy arrived a month later and also began negotiations. The two men both stayed many years only to find their hosts unable to commit to either side. Telipinus was in the region awaiting instructions when word arrived Annitas had perished returning from worship at the temple of the sun goddess Arinna; apparently the royal party was lost in a landslide triggered by heavy rains. Telipinus was now king.

Removed Maykop Culture until I open up lands north of the Caucasus Mtns.



Pyramids at Giza near Memphis in Lower Egypt

Knowledge of bronzeworking exists throughout the area except as noted below.
Literacy exists throughout the Greater Nile Valley (Egyptian hieroglyphics or as shown below).

Egyptian Priesthood Civilized Metalworking Theocracy
Menkaure, High Priest of Osiris
    High Priest Menkaure ordered recruitment of additional novices for religious training. Investment was made in attracting lay believers of varying skills into the bureaucracy. Eight hundred of the faithful were trained in Abydos to fight with spear and shield then made guardians of the mortuary temple complex in Upper Egypt. The High Priest then traveled to Herakleopolis to increase the influence of the Primacy amongst the populace. This was his first attempt and had limited success; the flowery language of the priesthood seemed odd to the common folk.
    High Priestess Hatshepsut was also in Herakleopolis, spending years overseeing the successful expansion of the local temple enclosure into a full temple complex. Meanwhile a group of mid-level priests journeyed upriver to Lower Nubia hoping to enlighten the inhabitants to the glorious gods of Egypt but had no luck.
    In early 2087 came the news from Ghebel Gharib the Minoans had enslaved thousands of the faithful who were of no threat to them. May the gods curse all foreigners! thought Menkaure bitterly.

Old Kingdom of Egypt Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ipu, Queen of the VIII Dynasty, favored of Ra
    Giving priority to the ongoing war, Ipu decreed another four hundred men be recruited and trained with sword and shield. More fortifications were built in Lower Egypt and Mansura was heavily fortified as well. Ipu donated gold to the priests of Ra and Ptah to ensure the well-being of any children she has with Kyrsi of the Minoans. To Ipu's surprise a delegation of naval architects - pretty much ignored for years - asked for an audience.
    Ipu then ruled her kingdom and got the slothful government scribes working instead of slacking off. Her general Scota guarded the border with Middle Egypt. [see Nile Valley War ]
    Meanwhile feudal ally Sipa remained in Mansura guarding its borders against incursion from the Levant, but all was peaceful. Too peaceful in fact; in boredom he and his officers began drinking heavily; he was killed by one of them in a drunken argument over who cheated who at dice.

City-State of Herakleopolis Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Sekhimib, 3rd King of the IX-X Dynasty, favored of Heryshef
    Sekhimib (to the dismay of his officers) invested heavily in naval architecture. Low land along the Nile was filled in and used for farming. As had become practice, large quantities of surplus food were stored for lean times. Former Theban warriors were integrated into Heraklepolitan units to share their better training and tactics.
    Leaving his queen (and former queen of Thebes) Netinbeti to rule, Sekhimib assumed direct command of the army backed by his lieutenant Tetmoses III. [see Nile Valley War ]

GM Comments:
    Four nations were still involved (Herakleopolis vs Minoans, Old Kingdom & Nubia).

2090 BC
    Skilled general Scota of the Old Kingdom defends its border with Middle Egypt with nearly 2,500 swordsmen. Soon reinforcing the Old Kingdom's army is Kyrsi of the Minoans with another two thousand archers, swordsmen and skirmishers.
    In Upper Egypt, Nubian King Shasesi watches the border with Middle Egypt with nearly 3,500 archers, swordsmen and skirmishers. In midsummer he is reinforced by lieutenant Rufa'a with over a thousand heavy infantry (sweating profusely in their armor) and yet more archers.
    Meanwhile in Middle Egypt King Sekhimib waited with over 5,500 infantry amid numerous stone forts, ready for an attack from either north or south. The year passed peacefully, to the disappointment of embalmers and gravediggers.

2089 BC
    All four armies continue to stand ready expecting the other side to attack. By early summer Kyrsi of the Minoans has had enough of inaction and leads his men east across the Nile into Mansura, then south towards the Ghebel Gharib desert.

2088 BC
    In early spring while the Old Kingdom, Herakleopolitan and Nubian armies remain vigilant, two thousand Minoan warriors cross into Ghebel Gharib. Realizing the enemy is earning income by trading through the Red Sea port of Mersa Gawasis, Kyrsi resolves to cut that trade route.
    The desert nomads pay tribute to Herakleopolis and see no reason to fight to continue doing that. Nevertheless Kyrsi orders them all enslaved which does provoke a fight. Unlike the Minoans (who regard the region as Hell) the natives are at home in the desert and slightly outnumber the invaders. They are however lightly armed and unused to massed bowmen who inflict hundreds of casualties upon them from a distance in the course of numerous ambushes and skirmishes. It still takes Kyrsi until the end of the year to kill enough tribesmen (including their war chief) that their power is broken; it costs the Minoans nearly 400 dead. Wisely they avoided doing any harm to the Egyptian Priesthood's temple shrine.
    Now cut off from Herakleopolis by wasteland, the elders of Mersa Gawasis revoke their port's tributary status and declare it neutral and independent.

2087 BC
    No one attacks. The Minoans prod long columns of shuffling slaves back through Mansura and across the Nile to Memphis by the end of the year.
    King Sekhimib of Herakleopolis, in his late 50s and worn down by years of strain, dies when overcome by heat during the particularly hot summer.
    Second of the Minoan Council Tavrys (healed from his wound at Thapsos) arrives late summer with a dozen galleys including four pentaconters to sweep the Nile for any ships trading at Herakleopolis. Alas for the would-be-pirates most Herakleopolitan galleys were sheltering in port. Three others were intercepted but run ashore and set afire by their crews before they could be boarded; their cargos of cedar at least smelled pleasing as they burned.
    In late autumn 50-something widowed Queen Netinbeti of Herakleopolis (and onetime Queen of Thebes) marries a local nobleman a dozen years younger than herself. Palace rumor has it they were more than friends even before Sekhimib was dead. Gotta admire a survivor.

2086 BC
    No one attacks. Tavrys returns to Memphis and loads as many slaves from Ghabel Gharib slaves as his ships can hold before heading downriver into the Gulf. Kyrsi (finally!) enjoys some time with wife Queen Ipu of the Old Kingdom who by the end of the year is pregnant.

Kingdom of Nubia Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Shasesi, King of Nubia
    Since heir Maraga was in Kerma he directed investment in military engineering and adding several more buildings to the University. Over a thousand men were trained as heavy spearmen while the newly conquered region of Upper Egypt was heavily fortified. Merchants were warned against "blockade running" trade with Herakelopolis, however profitable. Maraga then administered the realm while spending nights with his wife. She endured multipe miscarriages to birth a daughter in 2088. Shamen were mystified why their rituals to ward off evil spirits and bad luck proved so ineffective.
    King Shasesi remained in Upper Egypt guarding the border with Middle Egypt. [see Nile Valley War ]

The last mouthfull of Saraga

    Meanwhile Prince Selanat had trekked to Aswan to negotiate with its feudal vassal Saraga closer ties to Nubia, offering himself in marriage to a local noblewoman. Saraga was a former Prince of Nubia (and husband to Jebelein of Meroe) who'd been granted Aswan as a fief as reward for his good service. As such Selanat didn't encounter the usual language or religious problems in his discussions, just Saraga's stubborn nature. By autumn 2088 talks had reached the point where the wily Saraga was willing to pay tribute to Nubia. During a break a relaxing river excursion to view the ruins of Thebes ended in disaster when Saraga's barge ran into and was half-capsized by the remains of a stone pier now hidden by reeds, tumbling all aboard into the Nile. Naturally there were crocs and they feasted well. Only Selanat and a few servants made it ashore.

City-State of Meroe Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Saba, King of Meroe
    Saba put the slaves, gold and looted foodstuffs from Thebes to good use. The slaves joined Meroen laborers in digging irrigation ditches, building barns, fencing pastures and in general improving the rural areas of the homeland. Surplus population was augmented by using promises of food to attract people from beyond the kingdom until there were enough to build and populate a new river port, Soba, on the Blue Nile.
    Leaving his younger brother (and heir) Arakemani to keep an eye on the kingdom, Saba and escorts marched through Atbara to the grasslands of Beja, whereupon the king negotiated with the chiefs of the pastoral tribes. Despite differences in language he was a masterful diplomat and easily talked the chiefs into a vow of fealty to Meroe.


(including Horn of Africa)

Sabaean capital of Sa'na

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy exists throughout this area as shown below.

Land of Punt Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Fazi, King of Punt
    Fazi again made modest investments in military quality and improvements in metallurgy, and funded the University's hiring of several more scholars. A city to be named Tadjoura was ordered built on the coast of Ziela, giving the kingdom a port on the Bab-Al-Mand. All that set in motion, Fazi ruled his lands, assisted in administering by his lieutenant Samir.
    In the autumn of 2087 while holding court Fazi suddenly groaned he had a sudden, terrible headache, tried to rise then fell, dying within minutes. His quick-thinking widow Kahina immediately announced she would serve as Regent until their young son Finja came of age. The nobles and courtiers were caught up in the emotions of the moment and they all voiced agreement.

Sabaeans Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Zabar script glyphs)
Almakah, King of Sa'na
    Almakah, new to the throne but having desired it for years, embraced his new role. Investment was made in infantry quality and trying to establish a system to relay meessages quickly; apparently he hired smarter planners than his late brother because it finally got working. Much of the kingdom's wealth and labor however went to clear the forests and undergrowth in Abyan to make way for productive farms.
    The king then made a brief diplomatic visit to Sheba, offering himself in marriage to a Sheban noblewoman. The ambitious local lord Sami agreed to a full alliance in exchange for his sister becoming queen, and the deal was done. Almakah and his new bride returned to Sa'na to rule the kingdom.


(Eastern Mediterranean shore then west to Subartu)

City of Hazor in Jordan

Literacy exists throughout Greater Levant as shown below.

City-State of Hazor Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Hurriya, Regent for Ibiranu, son of late King Jabin
    Hurriya had neither aptitude nor patience for ruling; without supervision the bureaucrats and tax collectors had done as little work as possible. What little surplus income did exist she invested in improving military quality, in the purchase of supplies for the University or in the recruitment of thugs from prison for government work.
    Realizing someone had to assume the burden of administration, the Regent summoned the diplomat Paebel from Jerusalem to assume those tiresome duties. He arrived in Hazor late summer 2090 and the charismatic Regent soon obtained his support for her becoming Queen.1 It was agreed an accident would befall the children of the late King Jabin before any came of age, and when Hurriya took the throne she'd reward Paebel for his loyalty to her.
    The deal made, the Regent hastened to Jerusalem arriving in early 2089. Her betrothed Danel was a strapping young lad nearly a dozen years younger than herself, easily bent to her will. They married and she soon became pregnant, producing twins (boy, girl) in early 2088. She anticipated word any day from Hazor of the deaths of the royal children and the grieving populace turning to her for leadership. Life is good she thought, and about to get even better.
    Well, no. Word came from Hazor late in the year of the coronation of Jabin's eldest son Ibiranu as king. Accompanying word of the event were royal officials with orders confining her to Danel's modest home under pain of death, signed by the young king and his close advisor Paebel, Prince of Hazor.2
    The following year Ibiranu's brother Niqmepa came of age and was proclaimed heir. Hurriya birthed another son but this one was stunted and sickly; the midwives whispered Hurriya must've done something to draw down the curse of the gods.

1 a Regency is always a gamble (although better than anarchy) since if the Regent fails a loyalty check (which Hurriya did) he/she will decide they like the power and want to keep it.
2 unfortunately for the Regent, Paebel had also failed a loyalty check so the question was to whom was he disloyal? Well, a die roll decided it would be Hurriya. Would he seek an ally or act on his own? Another roll decided he'd try for a deal with Ibiranu instead of attempting a strongman overthrow.

City-State of Ugarit Civilized Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Niqmaddu II, First of the Council
    Niqmaddu II guided the Council into investing heavily in improving infantry quality, remembering his defeat in years past by the army of Assur. The homeland was further fortified and eight hundred recruits trained with sword and shield. The capital of Ugarit was enhanced with a library, open-air theater, heroic statuary and a paved Forum for public gatherings. Merchants were ordered to cease trade with Herakleopolis (it was debated in taverns if this was out of concern for the sailors in a war zone or if Niqmaddu had been intimidated by Minoan pressure) and to initiate trade down the Euphrates with Elam.
    With past problems of succession in mind, the honorable lieutenant Yaqarum was promoted to Second of the Council. The Lord Mayor of Ugarit and Viceroy of Aleppo were next in line for Council positions. Niqmaddu then settled down to the day to day rule of the city-state.
    Yaqarum took ship to the island of Tyros and met with the chief of the tribespeople who sparsely populated the lands outside Tyre itself. He was a middling diplomat and offered nothing as incentive for an alliance; talks were unproductive. In 2088 Tyre was taken by Minoan treachery and it brought home to the chief of how vulnerable the people of Tyros were to predatory powers, and he gave a vow of fealty to Ugarit in return for its protection.
    Yaqarum returned home in mid-2086 to find that Niqmaddu (and others) had died several years earlier after eating raw shellfish at a palace banquet. Lord Mayor Ashirta of Ugarit had kept an eye on the bureaucrats so they continued to work. The Council now voted to make Yaqarum the new First and promote Ashirta to Second.

Kingdom of Subartu Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Jovka, Queen of Subartu
    Jovka invested in improving military quality especially engineering and the Armenian lands were fortified in case of incursion from Assur. Leaving her lieutenant Dara to watch the borders the queen then crossed the mountains into Armenia to negotiate with the hill tribes. She wasn't taken seriously at first (a woman?!) but she was a superb negotiator and shared a common religion and language with the Armenians. Eventually the hillmen signed a treaty giving Subartan merchants preferential treatment including access to the obsidian trade. Pleased, she returned home in late 2086.
    Once there she learned Dara had died in 2089 in a brothel outside the military encampment; his influential family had covered up the unseemly details. Dara's next in command had assumed his responsibilities and did a better job.


(Mesopotamia & Persian Gulf littoral)

Temple Complex in Ur of Nanna-Sin, God of the Moon

Literacy exists throughout Greater Mesopotamia (cuneiform except for Elam which uses Elamite Linear script).

Mesopotamian Priesthood Civilized Bronzeworking Theocracy
Shuruppak, High Priest of Innana (Ishtar) at Uruk
    Shuruppak invested in military quality and civilian support for missionaries. Additional scribes were hired to handle the ever-growing record-keeping and the University funded for supplies and living quarters for theologians. Lay laborers were sent to rural Mosul, Mespotamia and Hahmar to work with farmers improving their lands. Realizing the Priesthood had overlooked opportunities for income, trade was initiated with many nearby city-states, even nonbelievers.
    Those secular activitis set in motion, Shuruppak left Uruk for the temple enclosure serving rural Hahmar. After years of effort its expansion into a full-sized temple complex was successful. In early 2087 he crossed the Euphrates to Babylon where he dedicated a temple shrine for the settlement.
    Meanwhile High Priestess Salabikh had journeyed north from Uruk until she reached Assur where she too oversaw the expansion of a temple enclosure into a full complex. In late spring 2087 she traveled to rural Circis to direct the upgrade of its simple temple shrine to an enclosure.
    Missionaries returned to the river port of Mari in Circis accompanied by lay helpers and this time enjoyed great success, con-verting the remaining population.

City-State of Assur Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ah-Kalla, King of Assur, favored of Ashur
    Ah-Kalla ordered small sums invested in both the military and government. The University received more supplies while surplus harvest was again preserved for lean times. Swampy areas along the Euphrates were filled to become productive for farming. The army received additional battlecarts and onagers - enough to carry four hundred warriors - in case their Ugaritan or Subartun enemies continued aggression. A navy was begun with local priests of Ashur blessing the construction of two pentaconter war galleys in the municipal aresenal on the Tigris.
    Next the widowed Ah-Kalla traveled to the river settlement of Ninevah seeking a treaty and offering himself as husband to a local noblewoman. The local leader was impressed with the power of Assur (and the king's gifts) and agreed to pay tribute. The king wed the leader's daughter Bau and returned with her to Assur, siring a girl in both 2087 and 2086.
    Lieutenant Shulpae and various allies of Assur remained alert for invasion but for the first time in many years the borders were peaceful. Babum of Diyala died peacefully in his sleep in his 50s and was replaced by his son Endukagga as vassal.

City-State of Kish Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Uruk & Lagash
Jushur II, 2nd King of the VI Dynasty, favored of Zababa
    Determined to keep his kingdom strong, Jushur II further increased his army with four hundred swordsmen and two hundred well-trained archers. The rest of the nation's wealth and labor was spent putting marginal land to the plow, fencing pastures and constructing silos and mills.
    Those efforts launched, Jushur II then ruled his kingdom and spent many passionate nights with wife Magda. She birthed a boy in 2089, another boy in 2088 followed by twin girls in 2087, then begged the king to please go enjoy his concubines while she regained her strength and figure.
    The famed general Manishtusu returned downriver to Babylon for lengthy discussions with the elders of that settlement. After many years of feasting they decided to merge their settlement with Kish before they all became morbidly obese.

City-State of Uruk Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Kish & Lagash
Kuda, 2nd King of the IV Dynasty, favored of Inanna
    Kuda funded supplies and the hiring of additional scholars for the University which had been neglected during the time of strife. Court scribes then conducted a census of all people, beasts and homes that the economy could be managed more efficiently. The lands of defeated Ur were heavily fortified lest some other city-state covet them, and Price Puzur-Ili stood ready with an army to counter any threat.
    Meanwhile the diplomat Ikun-pi-Istar was tasked with preparing for the state visit of King Nam-mahazi of Lagash for the ceremonies that would merge Uruk and Lagash into one kingdom. (The two royal families were already long intermarried.) Nam-mahazi arrived with retainers, court notables and army in early summer 2090 and was greeted not only by Kuda but his sister (Kuda's wife Gudea) and aunt (Aga, widow of a previous king). Many years were spent in discussions; such a merging of nations had many details to be decided.
    During this time the king also ruled his lands but spent most nights with his concubines. In 2088 he and wife Gudea drew close again, resulting in the birth of a sickly son late that year who died early in 2087. Convinced the gods had cursed his marriage Kuda returned to his mistresses while Gudea became smotheringly overprotective of their only child.
    By late spring 2086 the terms of the unification of realms were agreed upon. Kuda remained king while Nam-mahazi was pro-claimed his heir. The bureaucracies and Universities would be integrated and all knowledge shared. It was very fortunate languages and religions were the same to avoid misunderstandings.

City-State of Lagash Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - MERGED WITH URUK
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Kish & Uruk
Nam-mahazi, King of Lagash, favored of Bau
    Newly enthroned Nam-mahazi, after due consultation with advisors of the late king decreed investment in military engineering and storage of excess harvest for the future. In Lagash - which had few amenities - construction began on sewer and water lines while lowlands in Abadan were filled in and farmed. Queen Ishara, widow of the previous king Ur-ningirsu, and her children were given a small palace and servants to attend them as due their former station.
    The king, together with retainers, court officials and army then headed for Uruk for a historic state visit with its king Kuda and royal family. [see Uruk]

Traders of Dilmun Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Rasheed, First of the Council
    Despite his failing health, the Council agreed Rasheed would be the new First. He in turn chose Muqrin, also a Council member (and skilled orator) to be his Second. The Council next established "Rules of Precedence" whereby a Second automatically replaces a deceased or enfeebled First, and a new Second is immediately appointed from existing members who have captained their own ship - true seafarers!
    Hoping the problem of succession had been solved, Rasheed continued the ongoing enhancements to the capital, ordering con-struction of a museum-library complex adjacent to the University. Investment continued in naval architecture; meanwhile ten trade galleys of current design were built in the municipal dockyards.
    Rasheed then handled the day to day administration of the city-state while Muqrin and the fleet of new galleys departed on a mission of exploration. He returned late 2086 to find Rasheed had died several years earlier and the Council divided into mutually-suspicious factions who quickly agreed Muqrin was now First so someone would be in charge.

Kingdom of Elam Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Kangan of the Simashki Dynasty, King of Elam
    King Kangan shook off the lethargy of the last ten years and began utilizing his bulging treasury and huge numbers of unemployed workers. The remaining untilled land in the homeland was put to the plow; irrigation ditches and retention basins were built to keep the new farms watered. The University was able to construct new lecture halls and living quarters as well as restock supplies.
    Nor was the military neglected. Two thousand men were recruited and trained as swordsmen or skirmishers, and a series of stone keeps were built in strategic areas to defend the realm. While the king ruled, his lieutenant the famed (well, in Elam anyway) warrior Kindattu was given command of the entire army.



Silk Road marketplace in Gutian capital of Borahshi

Literacy exists throughout this area as shown below.

Kingdom of Gutia Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Gazsi, King of Gutium
    Gazsi invested heavily into the ongoing effort to initiate a messenger service with merchants rather than nobles supervising; the decision proved the key to success. Additional staff was hired for the University. Most of the nation's wealth however was spent upon the capital: paving roads, building public housing and inns for travelers, and installing more sewer & water lines.
    While his nephew (and heir) Mateen stood ready in case of invasion, the king ruled his lands and spent time with his wife Anahita, a local noblewoman. After producing a daughter near the end of 2090 many years went by without a pregnancy despite the efforts of priests who burnt incense, sacrificed unsuspecting goats and prayed for fertility. In early 2086 it was announced the queen was preg-nant. In autumn she birthed another girl after a long labor but died within a few days of fever. The king was grief-stricken and once again the populace murmured the royal family was cursed by the gods.

Kingdom of Ganweriwala Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Indus glyphs)
Vihana the Magnificent, King of Ganweriwala
    King Vihana realized his new realm needed access to the outside world if it was to grow its economy and survive. Carmania to the south while harsh semi-desert and scrub could provide such, and the king gave his brother (and heir) Aparajita the mission to make that happen. Vihana then married Rani, a woman of the Baluchistani nobility, hoping this would help placate the natives who still resented their conquest. The king then ruled and enjoyed his bride, siring a girl in 2089 and a son the following year. Alas, in 2086 Rani died in childbirth as did the child, leaving Vihana in shock.
    Meanwhile Aparajita along with the kingdom's wealth and all able bodies1 not already working had crossed over the mountains into Carmania along with a thousand infantry and 600 skirmishers. He was an exceptional commander and the former Indus valley warriors disciplined veterans. The local nomads banded together to resist but were incompetently led and slaughtered with minimal loss to the invaders. The colonists occupied the locations with water for their gardens and herds; the indigenous inhabitants were driven into the semi-desert scrub.
    The heir next headed for the trade center 2 at the terminus of the road bringing tin and lapis from the north. He demanded its surrender and the astonished merchants complied; the location was expanded into a port settlement. Aparajita stayed in Carmania for several years supervising the colonization and keeping order.
    Leaving garrisons to keep the locals pacified, in the summer of 2087 he traveled east to Bandar to speak to the hill chiefs of alliance with Ganweriwala. A skilled diplomat but contending with differences in language and religion, he offered himself in marriage to the daughter of a chieftan to sweeten the deal, and (to his pleasant surprise) the Bandari pledged their fealty.

1 a good number were former Baluchistani prisoners of war and their families who were offered parole. (The Colonization rules do not specifically exclude sNFP and it made sense POWs would accept the offer given the alternative of being worked to death as slaves - the usual fate.)
2 a trade center counts as a Village for purposes of colonization. See Rule Changes section 4.3.1 Trade Centers



"Birdman with Snakes" artifact (amulet?) found in excavation

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy (pictographic symbols) exists throughout this area.

City-State of Namazgadepe Civilized Metalworking Centralized Monarchy
Piyama, King of Namazgadepe
    Piyama invested a bit of gold in both military and governmental improvements. Surplus food was dried and stored for future use and the market plaza in the capital was paved. Another two hundred men were recruited and trained as archers. Dispatching his nephew (and heir) Dravint on a diplomatic mission, the king ruled his kingdom and enjoyed his Bokharan wife Kes. After several pleasurable but childless years she delivered sons in 2087 and 2086.
    Dravint headed for Kara-Khitai taking with him his athletic, hard-partying cousin Hircine and his red-haired rather demure sister Dibella. To the lord of that land he proposed a treaty, offering both ladies in marriage to local noblemen. Talks progressed slowly; the local lord enjoyed his autonomy and Dravint was at best a middling diplomat. The mission ended when Hircine dropped with one well-placed kick an arrogant noble who upon being bested at archery attempted to ravish her in revenge when he caught her alone that evening.

City-State of Gonur Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Bangul, Regent for Pudha, son of the late King HemÔvand
    Bangul directed gold be spent on upgrading infantry tactics and training. She also well funded attempts by metal workers to make an alloy of copper, and paid for a library for the university. A large surplus of grain was stored for future years and marginal areas of the homeland put to the plow to yet further increase yield. Under her watchful eye the palace scribes began a census of persons and possessions that they be more thoroughly taxed.
    The Regent then addressed the attempted coup by lieutenant Cyrus following the death of thte king. Lacking the power to defeat him, Bangul offered Cyrus the throne as king with her as wife and advisor; to show her sincerity she would send young Pudha to him for education in diplomacy. Cyrus agreed and actually kept his word.
    After waiting until late spring for Pudha's arrival, Cyrus and over four thousand warriors crossed the Oxus into Uzebek in company of Gonur ally Megabyzus for some serious diplomacy in force. He offered 11-year-old Pudha ("Step forward boy, and look royal!") in betrothal to a chieftan's daughter in exchange for alliance. The hill tribes were impressed by the army and apparently with Pudha (who came of age towards the end of negotiations) as well. The strongest chief signed a treaty giving Gonurian merchants preferred access to the Indus Valley trade center, and his daughter Zairichi married the heir of Gonur with much ceremony.



Tibetan capital of Lhasa

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.

Kingdom of Zhang Zhung Pastoral-Nomadic Metalworking Monarchy
Biming, King of Zhang Zhung
    Continuing his past policy Biming invested a bit of wealth into just about everything (well, not ship design) but the University got the most, allowing the hiring of additional scholars. More gold was spent improving the capital of Kyunghing by adding public water fountains. Another two hundred men were trained the rest with axe and shield.
    The king then directed the affairs of the realm and enjoyed his Khotani wife Fa. They were blessed with a son in late 2090 and twins (girl, boy) in 2087. But Fa's next pregnancy ended with her dying in childbirth, leaving Biming devastated.
    Meanwhile heir Dequan - already in Khotan - met with the elders of the Yutian settlement that provided food and lodging to Silk Road travelers. Dequan was a middling negotiator but he was persistant, nattering at the leadership for years until they agreed Yutian would be a feudal vassal to Zhang Zhung.

Kingdom of Tibet Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Metok, King of Tibet
    Understanding the ability to permanently record information was key to advancement, Metok spent lavishly hiring artists, philo-sophers and scholars - anyone with an idea how to create such a system. Much gold and labor was also devoted to agriculture: irrigation ditches were dug to channel snowmelt to fields, pastures were fenced and gristmills constructed. Neighboring Salween had stone keeps built in strategic areas.
    All that set in motion, the king and an honor guard worked their way along perilous paths and over the high mountains into Gtsang, where he met with the surprised but gracious local lord. Metok offered to marry a local noblewoman to enhance his chances for a treaty. Years of negotiations led to the native ruler becoming a feudal vassal of Tibet. In 2086 Metok and his bride returned to Lhasa and she was soon pregnant.
    Meanwhile the king's brother (and heir) Choenyi handled the day to day ruling of the kingdom. He had chosen a wife from a noble Tibetan family. After several years passed without a child, shamen from the temple in Lhasa performed numerous fertility rituals. A son was born in 2088 and a daughter in 2086 so apparently the shamen knew what they were doing.



City of Harappa in Punjab

Literacy (Indus glyphs) exists throughout the Indus Valley civilization.

City-State of Harappa Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Kalabagh, King of Harappa
    With the long Indus Valley War apparently over, Kalabagh poured the wealth and labor of Harappa into the Punjab: putting the last available land to the plow, filling in lowlands along the rivers for yet more fields, digging irrigation ditches, building mills, fencing pastures and bridging small streams to allow farmer's wagons to reach towns more easily. The king also ordered a census of the realm, long delayed due to the needs of the war. Merchants reported the trade road to Gonur was open again.
    Satisfied all was properly begun, Kalabagh ruled his lands while his court officials and their counterparts from Rupar met to discuss the minutae of merging the two kingdoms. He also enjoyed his wife who gave birth to daughters in 2088 and 2087; the priests of the local temple claimed their prayers had cured her years of infertility. These were the 7th and 8th daughters she had borne and the king was becoming desperate for a son.
    Meanwhile heir Abhinabyu was sent south through Sukkur and then the wasteland of Sind to take command of the entire Harappan army, which had been camped in Edrosia since the death of King Dharmsala. Apparently he was more interested in wine than plotting since he marched the army back north (leaving a small force behind to lay claim to Sind) and was content thereafter to encamp in Sukkur to react to any threats.
    By late spring 2086 the terms of the unification of realms were agreed upon. Kalabagh remained king and Abhinabyu his heir, while Bikampur of Rupar was proclaimed a Prince of the realm. The bureaucracies and Universities would be integrated and all knowledge shared. It was very fortunate languages and religions were the same to avoid misunderstandings.

City-State of Rupar Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - MERGED WITH HARAPPA
Bikampur, King of Rupar
    Following the same reasoning as his brother king in Harappa, Pikampur too poured the wealth and labor of Rupar into the homeland: terracing hillsides in the north and filling in lowlands along the rivers for yet more fields, building barns and mills, fencing pastures and bridging small streams to allow farmer's wagons to reach towns more easily. Court officials were dispatched to Harappa for meetings with their counterparts to discuss the minutae of merging the two kingdoms. [see Harappa]
    The above underway, the king left heir Ritpura to rule and headed south to the tributary city of Kalibangan where he spent many years in negotiations with its lord. Given the supremacy of the Harappa-Rupar alliance, the lord did not require much convincing to retire to a riverside estate and cede his holding to Rupar.

Traders of Dholavira Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Polyar, First of the Council
    Polyar invested a bit of gold in pretty much everything but most of Dholavira's wealth was spent on improving living conditions in the until-recently backwater city of Qana. The market square was paved and fountains installed to slake the thirst of buyers and sellers, the climate being hot and dry. Shade trees were planted both along the streets that radiated from the square and in several public parks.
    In the capital the First met with captains to reallocate shipping from the crowded docks of the island city to available anchorage in Quna, and to initiate trade up the Euphrates to Ugarit's port area. A number of prison inmates were taken from their cells by Council guards for reasons unknown.
    Polyar next married Imasha, daughter of the previous First of the Council (and sister of Harshan, current Sword of the Council) and handled day to day decision-making. He and his bride enjoyed their pleasures; in late 2089 producing twins (girl, boy) and in 2088 another girl.
    Meanwhile Harshan loaded twelve hundred infantry aboard trade galleys and transported them to Qana for garrison duty. When he arrived there he found the city had swelled with newcomers from Arabia, the Levant, the Horn of Africa - anywhere reasonably close - drawn by the reported discovery of gold in the wilderness of Hadramuht and seeking to make their fortune. The city was chaotic with fights breaking out over wagons, draft animals, tools and provisions; the arrival of garrison troops proved particularly timely. Harshan set the men to keeping order and returned home in time for the wedding of his sister Imasha.

City-State of Lothal Seafaring Bronzeworking Monarchy
Cherasan, King of Lothal
    Cherasan spent small amounts trying to recruit for government work as well as spiritual. The attempt to establish a system to relay news quickly was finally successful. Improvements continued in the homeland such as digging wells, fencing pastures and replacing millstones. To the court he announced that David, next younger royal male after himself, would become his heir upon coming of age the following year.
    A half-dozen more trade galleys were built in the shipyards of Lothal and Surkotada and the king met with captains to discuss their assignment. Harbor docking space for merchants was over capacity due to circumstances abroad that ended a number of trade routes, idling the galleys and crews and leading to arguments. Nearly a dozen pentaconter war galleys were built as well but at least they could anchor at the military docks.
    Leaving the bureaucracy run itself, Cherasan sailed south along the coast to Nasik with a dozen galleys and twelve hundred light infantry, anchoring offshore in early 2089 for some diplomacy in force with the Neolithic level inhabitants. Knowing his negotiating skills were at best average he came with a multitude of marriage offers between Lothal royalty and the locals: himself, his half-sister Ayela, his heir David and David's sister Daania. The Nasiki were a difficult people with whom to deal (as the kingdom of Chera had discovered years before) made worse by language and religious differences. However the offers were tempting and the display of Lothal naval power impressive; the locals became tributary to Lothal.
    The fleet returned to Lothal in mid-2088 with wives aboard for king and heir, the Nasiki women astonished by the sights & sounds of the city. Remaining behind were Ayela and Daania with their primitive hill tribe husbands, having gone from palace to hovel and grimly resigned to their new lives.



Atranjikhera on the Ganges

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area except as noted below.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.

+++++ Random Event 00010: Drought - years of below-average rainfall reduces agricultural production by 10% +++++

City-State of Hastinapura Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Elamite Linear script)
Lakhimpur II, King of Hastinapura
    At Lakhimpur II's decrees additional stone keeps were built to guard the homeland, while a significant harvest surplus was set aside for times of famine - which proved prudent given that the years ahead would be ones of reduced harvest.
    The king then ruled and spent time with his wife, a local noblewoman. After several years of just pleasure she became pregnant, bearing a son early 2087 and another mid-2086. The royal family's good spirits were dampened when news arrived from Rajput that the king's sister Isaphiena, married for years to the local lord, had died in childbirth.
    Meanwhile heir Rampjur II hired a light galley and headed downriver to explore the Lower Ganges. He returned to the capital triumphant with maps in hand.

City-State of Atranjikhera Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Ila, Queen of Atranjikhera
    Ila funded spent lavishly trying to organize a service to relay messasges quickly across the realm. A small agricultural surplus was stored for the future while most of the nation's wealth she devoted to digging wells and irrigation ditches - which proved prudent given that the years ahead would be ones of reduced harvest.
    Next the queen headed south over the Vindhyan Mountains to negotiate with the Neolithic people of Dahala, taking along her daughter Gandhara for education on both diplomacy and dealing with a different culture. Offering herself in marriage to a strapping local chieftan (her first husband having died by tiger the previous year) Ila obtained an agreement giving merchants of Atranjikhera preferential treatment. Returning home with her husband (who was awe-struck at the sight of her city) she quickly became pregnant and birthed a son late 2086.
    Meanwhile the queen's younger sister (and heir) Samavati remained in the capital to rule, educating orphaned royals Sagara and Subhadra in the art of administration.

City-State of Kaushambi Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy
Jagadambika, King of Kaushambi
    Jagadambika commanded much of the kingdom's saved gold be spent on improving agriculture in the just- cultivated homeland. Wells and ditches were dug, pastures fenced, mills and silos built and small streams bridged for farm wagons - all of which proved prudent given that the years ahead would be ones of reduced harvest. He then ruled while standing ready to repel another invasion, but all remained peaceful. His younger brother Jaafar having come of age became his heir.


(Indian subcontinent south of Vindhya Mountain range, plus Ceylon)

rural village snake worship shrine

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.

Kingdom of Chera Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Chola
Palyane Chel Kezhu, King of Chera
    Palyane ordered most available labor and gold expended to complete the cultivation of the homeland, the success of which was celebrated with festivals throughout the land. At the one held in Muciri the king took the opportunity to proclaim Senguttuvan Chera, the very charismatic son of a past king and queen, to be a Prince.
    The king then reigned and enjoyed his Malabaran wife Bhabavahi, who birthed a son late 2090 and another in 2088, but after a later miscarriage (and a high fever from which she barely recovered) she did not conceive again.
    Meanwhile heir Narmudi and several light galleys picked up two hundred infantry from the Maldives garrison before heading to Pandya where he joined golden-tongued diplomat Paranar. The two men hoped to persuade vassal Kakkaipatiniyar Nacellaiyar to closer ties with Chera, offering comely royal Kottavi to him in marriage. Kakkaipatiniyar vowed to be a full ally.
    In early 2087 heir and lieutenant headed north through Chera (acquiring twelve hundred skirmishers) and continued to Nasik. Previously Cheran diplomacy had failed badly; the pair had orders to try again but if talking failed they were to use force. However upon arrival they found the Neolithic peoples already tributary to Lothal. Not wishing to provoke hostilities they retreated to Malabar and sent a dispatch back to the king explaining the situation. While hunting outside their encampment Paranar was bitten by a cobra and died soon thereafter despite the prayers of the local Naga priests.

Kingdom of Chola Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (syllabaric Tamil script)
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Chera
Nedunkilli Chola, King of Chola
    Having realized the kingdom's University had been sadly neglected, Nedunkilli funded a massive expansion of its campus including new buildings, hiring of scholars and an abundance of supplies. At a gathering of the royal court the king proclaimed Karikala Chola to be his heir. Nedunkilli then handled the day to day running of the kingdom.
    Meanwhile lieutenant Aditya headed for the grasslands of Madurai. When its allied leader Rajendra had died his successor had been willing to maintain only economic ties with Chola. Aditya was a decent negotiator but was hampered by language and religious differences and years of talking (or nagging, depending on one's perspective) failed to sway the high chief of the nomads. At least the situation didn't get any worse.


(Tibeto-Burman migration from north down the Irrawaddy Valley displaced original Mon-Khmer peoples southward)

Beikthano, oldest Irrawaddy Valley city

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.

City-State of Halin Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Kanyaza of the Shakya Dynasty, King of Halin
    Kanyaza, devastated by the death of his young wife in childbirth, focused on the needs of his kingdom. The academics allegedly implementing the system of recording the Pyu language such as existed in Binnaka & Maingmaw (but instead living lavishly) were fired and scribes formerly employed in the twin cities hired for the job. It was a practical approach and worked.
    Knowing he needed an heir the king proclaimed his younger brother Abhirej would fill that role upon coming of age. Should Kanyaza die before that happened their mother Thebadda would rule as Regent as she had for him.
    The lights in the sky that had been omens of misfortune had faded and the king wished to avoid their return. He met with his shamen seeking their advice and was told to go north to Manipur.1 He did so, meeting with its lord Duke Aung and offering himself in marriage in exchange for a treaty. Upon meeting, the king of Halin and the Duke's daughter Kuwerami 2 were mutually smitten which helped move diplomacy along; Duke Aung agreed to the marriage and would pay tribute (much of it in teak) to Halin.

1 the puddled blood of a ritually sacrificed goat made patterns resembling the grain of freshly hewn teak wood. The interpretation is obvious.
2 known as the Flower-Lady of Manipur for her extensive palace gardens of exotic orchids.

City-States of Binnaka & Maingmaw Civilized Metalworking Monarchies - literate (Pyu script glyphs)
Thomanaya, King of Maingmaw & Regent for Ruranaya, son of Sawyun of Binnaka
    Thomanaya invested yet more gold and labor be expended attempting to create a relay system to rapidly carry messages throughout the kingdom, but the court advisors put in charge proved as incompetent as those they replaced. The University received more supplies to sustain it. Rural areas of the homeland were improved with flood-control levies plus bridges over small streams to expedite the passage of wagons to market. Ruranaya came of age and ascended the throne of Binnaka.
    The king of Maingmaw then crossed the river to Ava where he spent years at the court of its lord Kalawa until that nobleman agreed to retire to his estates and cede his lands to the twin cities before the endless feasting bankrupted him. Not long aferward came tragic news: Thomanaya's sister Emanaya had killed herself after her scandalous affair with a lowborn palace servant had been discovered.

City-State of Beikthano Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Dawnak, King of Beikthano
    The year 2090 began badly when younger son Jeshra drowned in the Irriwaddy delta when a royal saltwater fishing trip ended badly when the boat grounded upon a submerged rock and capsized. Servants managed to help his siblings to shore. Dawnak having lost a yet another family member ordered a week of national mourning.
    After returning to court routine, the king ordered investments in quality of infantry, hiring scholars to devise a system of recording the spoken word, and building a small storage building for the University. Three light trade galleys were built in the riverfront ship-yards and assigned to trade with Halin. Having lost his wife in childbirth several years earlier the king sought comfort with whatever palace servant girl caught his eye. One delivered a daughter in late 2090, another a sickly, stunted son in 2089. A third girl mis-carried. Thereafter the king was too depressed to do anything other than rule and drink heavily.
    Meanwhile the king's heir (and younger brother) Mahabaja headed to the river settlement of Sri Ksetra for talks with the elders. He was an average orator and offered nothing but stayed nearly five years until the locals were tired of listening to him and wearily signed an economic treaty.


(Viet migration from China starting to displace original Mon-Khmer peoples southward)

Lam Ap royal palace at Tra Kiew

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.

Kingdom of Langkasuka Seafaring Metalworking Monarchy
Krit Bunyasarn, King of Langkasuka
    Krit Bunyasarn continued to fund attempts to organize a message relay service. He also hired scholars, artists and philosophers to create a way to permanently record knowledge. The homeland defenses were augmented and the capital received public housing. All available laborers were set to clear jungle vegetation and ready the land for agriculture.
    The king then traveled south into the thinly-populated jungles of Johor hoping to entice the tribal chiefs into an alliance. He made no offers but was persistant and eventually the chiefs agreed to pay tribute to Langkausuka. Krit returned home in triumph only to learn of his son's grief.
    Meanwhile his son (and heir) Surat Bunyasarn administered the land and enjoyed his comely Andaman Islands wife Nuntida. She miscarried but became pregnant again and with difficulty delivered a son in 2089, but died several days later of a high fever, leaving Surat emotionally crushed.

Kingdom of Funan Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Kaundinya I, King of Funan
    Kaundinya directed more gold and labor of his kingdom to continuing the clearing of jungle so the land could be used for agri-culture, the project now close to completion. A small investment was made on a network to move news quickly through the realm. The king then returned to Preikuk where he again negotiated with the nomad chieftans urging closer ties. Despite being a middling diplomat he was more knowledgable of the local politics this time and thus more effective. Overcoming their suspicious nature he persuaded them to pay tribute to Funan.
    The king's cousin Huntian having failed at diplomacy in Siam was instead dispatched to Phan Rang which was at least the same religion as Funan. However he too was a middling orator and once again he had nothing to offer the local lord. Years of persistant annoyance eventually paid off when the lord pledged fealty to the kingdom.

Kingdom of Lam Ap Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Ang Bak, King of Lam Ap
    Realizing a cultivated homeland was key to economic prosperity, Ang Bak changed investment priorities and focused the kingdom's gold and available labor to begin clearing away jungle. The king then stayed watchful in case of invasion but found time to spend with his Cochin wife Anh, who produced twin boys in 2090, a girl in 2088 and another girl in 2086.
    Meanwhile the Ang Bak's cousin (and heir) Ti Tran returned to Cochin for further diplomatic talks. He was an average negotiator but offered himself in marriage to a local noblewoman. Years went by but finally the local lord agreed to a full alliance.

Kingdom of Van Lang Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
H¨ng Vuong of Chan Dynasty, King of Van Lang
    H¨ng Vuong came to the same conclusion as the King of Lam Ap: cultivation should be top priority. The kingdom's saved wealth and all its laborers were devoted to clearing the land and making it ready for farming. The project supervisors reported the resources were sufficient however the sheer amount of area to be cleared meant it wouldn't be completed until 2084.
    The king escorted his bride from Mison back to the capital and showed her around the city and palace, then in 2089 headed north for the settlement of Phung Nguyen. The settlement leaders were quite astonished by H¨ng Vuong's arrival; their dirt poor community was remote and never before had anyone of importance visited them. Despite the king being a poor orator and his battle scars giving him a frightening appearance the locals were awed and agreed to be tributary to Van Lang.
    During this time the king's cousin (and heir) Thuc Phan had traveled to the settlement of Ban Chiang. Here too was a squalid, im-poverished place where no one signficant had ever stopped. While Thuc Phan was a middling negotiator contending with a different language, once again the natives were so amazed that royalty - even foreign royalty - would be interested in them they agreed to give Van Lang merchants preferential treatment.

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