Newsfax Turn: #8 ( 2095 - 2091 BC )
March 12, 2016

ANNOUNCEMENTS: New or changed from previous turn will be in red.
My Stats program only accepts whole gp for University investment, and only stores whole nfp leftover at end of turn.
Progress in metallurgy, literacy & government will be in green and is the situation at the start of the turn.

Want another position? Ask the GM what area(s) you can choose from. Writing all the conditionals was becoming too complicated. A request for a 2nd position gets priority over a request for a 3rd position.
1. Some nations are falling behind on tech point production. If your University level is 2 or less you probably aren't producing them.
2. The rules for interacting with NPN Primacies and migrating tribes are deferred until I have time.
3. If a monarch assigns command of most of their army to another leader, they risk a "strongman overthrow" if that leader is disloyal and convinces the troops to follow him/her (ex: Julius Caesar) to march on the capital. I've started paying attention to this which will explain some Newsfax reporting.

QUICK SCROLL if you know where you want to go:
Italy Centered
Aegean & Black Sea Areas
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Greater Levant
Greater Mesopotamia
Oxus Valley
Tibetan Plateau
Indus Valley
Ganges Valley
Southern India
Irrawaddy Valley
Southeast Asia



fortified Settlement of Los Millares

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.

Lusitanian Tribes Barbarian Metalworking Tribal Council
Mandonio the Golden Tongued, Chief of the Lusitanians
    Mandonio invested in military improvements and supplies for the small university. Grain and dried vegetables were stored for future needs. Homes were built and equipment provided to lure surplus rural population into Furninha where their numbers expanded the capital into a real city.
    Leaving his younger brother Babpo to administer tribal affairs, the Chief traveled to nearby Salamanca, offering himself in marriage to the sister or daughter of a fellow chief, hoping to secure access to the region's tin deposits. It was said he could talk a fish out of the water, and his persuasiveness resulted in the tribal chiefs of Salamanca agreeing to an economic alliance. Mandonio returned late in 2091 with his bride Stena, fortunately (well, for them) leaving before the raiding by men of Tartessos.

Kingdom of Tartessos Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Guillermo, King of Tartessos
    As soon as he took the throne Guillermo was a busy, busy king, first ordering much of the kingdom's wealth and surplus labor be used to clear the wilderness parts of Tartessos so they'd become productive farmland. He spent more gold to hire foreign scribes and domestic artists, philosophers and scholars to create a method to record the Tartessian tongue.
    That underway, he recruited two hundred men skilled with the bow and ordered all skirmishers to be re-equipped with axe and shield to be more formidable warriors. Heading east, he crossed the Guadal River at the head of over four thousand men and attacked the hapless folk of Granada. Guillermo was a highly skilled commander while the Granadan leader had been chosen for tribal connections and was a miserable general. Tartessian arrows made casualties of nearly 200 locals before the armies even closed, and Tartessian axes slaughtered the remainder for minor losses.
    Installing an opportunistic local as satrap, the king led his army back across Tartessos and in midsummer 2094 struck north into Talavera. Men encumbered with axes and shields were disadvantaged moving through the high steppe grass while the locals - mostly skirmishers - moved about freely although still suffered from Tartessian archery. The Talaverans (more numerous than the Granadans and somewhat better led) made their stand at the stone keep that served as home to their chief and managed to inflict over a thousand casualties on the invaders before being overwhelmed, their fort being the last to fall.
    Again appointing a satrap, Guillermo rested his army so the wounded could heal. Although he'd acquired two silver mining regions, he had an army to keep busy. In 2091 from Talavera he sent raiders over the mountains into Salamanca. The poor hill tribes had little to be stolen and the raiders returned with very little for their trouble but enjoyed themselves immensely. King and army returned in triumph to Tartessos with hundreds of captured enemy warriors shambling in chains.
    Meanwhile his heir Eduardo had been told to rule in his absence but had little interest in managing the kingdom. Instead being young and lusty (and not having been told to marry) he had utilized his good looks and the palace wine stocks to seduce numerous maidservants but fortunately produced no children.

Celtiberian Tribes Barbarian Metalworking Tribal Council
Ihintza, Queen of the Celtiberians
    Ihintza provided funding to metalworkers experimenting with alloys of copper as well as scholars trying to devise a way to "write" the Iberian language. Surplus population was provided with tools and building materials and put to work expanding the capital of Cortes into an actual city. Several hundred men experienced with the bow were recruited for the army.
    The Queen (daughter of the previous Chief) then crossed the mountains to Old Castille and briefly met with local chiefs but failed in that short time to gain their fealty. She then crossed yet more mountains and met with the leaders of Aragon, staying for years and offering herself in marriage. Ibai, the strongest chief accepted her offer and pledged the region would pay tribute. They returned to Cortes in 2091 but despite many nights of passion no child resulted.
    Ihintza's cousin (and heir) Amets was a warrior rather than a diplomat. At the head of over three thousand mixed axemen and skirmishers he advanced into Catalonia. Archers dropped local militia from a distance and with axe and sling the remainders were routed with negligible loss to the Celtiberians.
    Setting up a groveling minor chief as satrap, Amets pressed on to the port settlement of Ullastret. Without so much as a surrender demand he ordered the settlement stormed as soon as scaling ladders could be produced using timber cut from the nearby forest. The archers hit a few dozen defenders among the parapets while the ladders were being raised up against the walls. Skirmishers and axe men climbed while taking punishing losses from rocks and cauldrons of boiling water from those above. The Celtiberians eventually gained footholds and cleared the walls with ferocious fighting until the remaining men of Ullastret, nearly all of them suffering wounds, surrendered. Amets's army suffered four hundred dead and twice that badly injured. Leaving a garrison, the heir and his men were given a hero's welcome upon their return to Cortes in the summer of 2094.
    Late in 2091 an excited group of metalworkers requested audience with Ihintza and Ibai.


(Corsica, Sardinia, Italian penninsula, Sicily & Malta)

Nuragic field fort with distinctive stone Nuraghe towers

Literacy has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.

Nuragic Civilization Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Alessandru, Lord of Albucci, de facto leader of Nuragic Civilization
    Alessandru obtained agreement for another round of bridging small creeks to improve the wilderness trails Sardinian farmers used to bring their produce to market. Supplies were purchased for the University and surplus vegetables dried and stored for later use. Following the successful exploration of the Ionian and Aegean seas, trade was initiated to Mycennae and Troy. He then applied himself to coordinating day to day events.
    Second of the Council Rafiele took a trade galley westward, arriving early 2094 in Ses Paisses in the Baeleric Islands where he negotiated for several years with the astonished elders of that fishing village. Despite hostile religious views and different languages he was an exceptional diplomat and discussions were headed toward the elders agreeing to pay tribute. Rafiele then met with the tribes-people of the islands and despite their suspicious nature he was able to obtain a vow of fealty.
    Returning to Albucci expecting a warm welcome he instead found Alessandru had died while he'd been away and with no designated successor there had been no one to rule. From the streets of the capital to the small farming hamlets order was breaking down and crime was rampant.
    Meanwhile feudal ally Petru of Filitosa had taken another trade galley and departed early 2095 to explore, returning safely after nearly five years to find his own lands afflicted with similar woes.

(Proto-)Etruscans Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Arnza Ulthese, King of Etruscans
    Arnza ordered the construction of two light trade galleys in the municipal shipyards, but kept the remaining wealth of the kingdom for future use. He then ruled his kingdom wisely.
    His sister Stenia took one of the galleys and headed southeast through the Straits of Messina to explore. She was not expected back until late 2091 but to the king's surprise the galley returned early 2093. Widowed and still lusty, his sister had taken several crewmen as lovers, each unknown to the other. Until one night the secret came out, violence ensued and while trying to separate the men Stenia fell overboard and was lost to sight.
    Later that same year his son Vulca - spoiled since the death of his mother and now very self-centered - came of age and was proclaimed Heir.

Apennine Culture Barbarian Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Decimus, Lord of Scoglio, de facto leader of Apennine Culture
    Decimus decreed most Apennine resources expended finishing the cultivation of the homeland (followed by much celebratory feasting and drinking) although the university expanded with several new buildings. He then ruled the kingdom and enjoyed his bride Drusilla of Spoleto. She birthed a girl late 2095 and another in 2093, then sons in 2092 and 2091. Life is good thought Decimus, and amazingly it continued that way.
    Also in 2093 amidst much fanfare Cassius, son of the late king Brutus, was proclaimed a Prince.


(Balkans, Aegean Sea littoral, Western Anatolia & Black Sea littoral)

Achaean Greek capital of Mycenae

Literacy has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.

Illyrians Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Medak, King of Illyrians
    Medak poured most of the kingdom's wealth and labor into the long-running project of cultivating the homeland as well as improvements in military quality. He then ruled his kingdom and spent his nights with his Slovenian wife, who birthed a son in 2095 but died shortly thereafter of a raging fever, plunging the king into black grief.
    Meanwhile Medak's younger brother (and heir) Cabar traveled to Slovenia to discuss closer ties with its lord Goriza, proposing a marriage between himself and a local noblewoman. After much discussion Goriza agreed to retire to his coastal estates and his lands would merge fully with Illyria.

Achaean Greeks Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ellas, King of Achaeans
    Still in Macedon, Ellas sent a retainer to Mycennae with orders to continue funding scholars and hire scribes from the Minoan lands to create a "written" version of the Greek language. This led to success: by modifying the existing Minoan Linear-A glyphs they produced a variant for Greek.
    Also per the king's orders much gold and labor was expended in Attica digging wells and retention basins, fencing common pastures and constructing barns and mills. Fortifications were built in Macedon with a wary eye to the east.
    In company with the diplomat Adulucies the king then crossed the mountains into Bulgaria to entreat with the hill chiefs. Ellas himself was extremely persuasive but the Achaeans faced religious hostility and language differences; fortunately they could offer the handsome Prince Alcibiades as husband for a chief's daughter. Negotiations were ongoing when in summer 2094 a wild boar hunt turned tragic: the king and a chief were both gutted by tusks and several more hunters injured before the enraged porcine was slain. It was rumored wine had fatally slowed the mens' reactions.
    Following his orders, Adulucies continued the diplomatic mission by himself, impressing the locals with his determination and was able to obtain an economic agreement. Exhausted from his efforts and an old man in his mid-40s he died peacefully in his sleep in one of the tribal camps.
    Meanwhile Akakios and Alcibiades, sons of the previous king Basileios, ruled and administered the kingdom's day to day needs. Akakios also sired a daughter in 2094 but the birth was long and difficult, and afterward his wife suffered a series of heartbreaking miscarriages. Not even Akakios becoming king restored the spirits of the couple.
    Which set them apart from the rest of the court and city. The new alphabet apparently lent itself to writing for a number of poets and bards began committing their stories to more permanent media, encouraging interest in literacy beyond court scribes (at least among the upper class who had the time to be tutored). The wealthy began supporting public performances of theater which in turn gave Mycennae a certain vibrancy that attracted immigrants, swelling its population.

Minoans Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (Linear A glyphs)
Kyrsi, First of the Council
    In the absence of Kyrsi the Council was unable to decide expenditures and so resolved the nation's wealth be saved for future use. The First was with the Minoan forces in Memphis, and ordered the half the accumulated battlefield and piracy loot distributed among the men, in turn enriching the city's brothels and taverns. Ships and soldiers were redistributed with the pentaconter Auge Fos and the trade galley Fidi Thalassa set aside for Minoan ally Zakro to acquire later in the year.
    Kyrsi and gifted Minoan general Lonchi then met with Old Kingdom queen Ipu (incidently, Kyrsi's wife) and her brilliant general Scota to plan the campaign ahead. [see Nile Valley War ]

    Tavrys, Second of the Council (and grand-nephew of Diskliakos, the previous First) remained in Knossos to rule the realm and savor his bride whose origins remained unknown. The palace announced a son born late 2095 and a daughter in 2093; rumor had it a later pregnancy ended badly. That same year Gonimotia, elderly widow of a past First and known for her skill at weaving died when a severe cold progressed into pneumonia.
    Feudal ally Phaisto of Cyprus ruled his fief and guarded against invasion from the mainland. He died in early 2092 and his young but aggressive son Tjehene became governor of the island.
    Meanwhile Zakro of Phylakopi had taken his pentaconter and light galley and headed west along the Egyptian coast. Later in 2093 the ships anchored in Phylakopi harbor -years earlier than expected - showing evidence of storm damage, and in dockside taverns the haggard crews drank to "those taken by the gods of the seas".

City-State of Troy Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy - literate (Luwian hieroglyphics)
Ucalegon, King of Troy IV
    At Ucalegon's command efforts to improve the quality of the military were well funded as well as the continuing attempt to establish a messenger service. Under a dynamic new appointee it was finally successful. Large quantities of surplus grain were stored in case of a bad harvest. In the homeland grape vines and olive trees were planted on the slopes of the mountains.
    The university was lavishly funded with food, supplies and a new dormatory on the assumption comfortable students could better focus on learning. However the reverse happened: the students spent their time feasting, wenching, holding lengthy pointless drunken debates and were generally apathetic to their teachers.
    Leaving the bureaucrats to keep the realm running, the king along with his Moldavian wife Cassandra and their young sons took ship north across the Mare Negri to the port settlement of Tyras. Their vassal (and older brother of Cassandra) Iapyx met them there to provide security and meet his new nephews. The diplomatic effort to sway the settlement's leaders began with a month of parties (like the University students but more dignified) before the long years of discussions. The king was a superb orator and his wife worked behind the scenes. Despite hostile religions and differing tongues the leaders agreed to pay tribute to Troy. Another month of parties capped the visit. The royal family returned to Troy in high spirits which were dampened in 2091 when the queen had a still-born child.
    Meanwhile Ucalegon's half-brother (and heir) Acamas journeyed south to Isauria hoping to persuade the stubborn local lord to closer ties with Troy. Acamas was a middling diplomat but persistant and finally convinced the Isaurian noble to sign a treaty giving Trojan merchants priority. Celebrating later at a tavern Acamas was seen leaving but never returned to the palace; a search the next day found his stripped body in an alley apparently the victim of a robbery.

Hitties Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Luwian hieroglyphics)
Annitas, King of the Hittites
    Annitas ruled a quiet, prosperous kingdom. In 2094 the royal widow Pudukhepa died, but since she was in her mid-50s nobody was surprised. Unlike the death in 2091 of royal daughter Papaya who, feeling humiliated after her advances had been rebuffed by an unfortunately (for her) ethical married nobleman threw herself off the highest palace tower.

Maykop Culture Barbarian Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Many villages combined to equal a city. Wilderness homeland half-cultivated.
    currently NPN; put on the map so it's not forgotten


(including Horn of Africa)

Pyramids at Giza near Memphis in Lower Egypt

Knowledge of bronzeworking exists throughout the area except as noted below.
Literacy exists throughout the Greater Nile Valley (Egyptian hieroglyphics or as shown below).

Egyptian Priesthood Civilized Metalworking Theocracy
Menkaure, High Priest of Osiris
    High Priest Menkaure (having realized the threat to his gods posed by foreigners) ordered investment in infantry training for temple guards as well as metalurgy to (belatedly) learn bronze casting. The then ruled the Priesthood, frequently invoking the gods (especially Osiris, patron god of the mortuary temples) to curse all those associated with the destruction of the temple of Amun in Thebes. Priests of different patron gods may compete for status, but they are united in service to a common pantheon; an attack upon one temple is an attack upon all.
    High Priestess Hatshepsut returned to Abydos and coordinated directed the successful expansion of its temple enclosure into a full temple complex. To her relief the seizure of the city in 2094 by the Nubians did not result in that effort being undone. Meanwhile a group of lower-level priests from Mersa Gawasis built and dedicated a temple shrine in the Eastern Desert near the copper mines so the laborers could have their spiritual needs met.
    In early 2093 the Nubians withdrew from Abydos having disarmed the local watch. Lest the city fall into chaos the elders asked Hatsepsut for help. Soon guards from the temple of Sobek, patron god of Abydos, were patrolling the city streets.

Old Kingdom of Egypt Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ipu, Queen of the VIII Dynasty, favored of Ra
    Ipu commanded that four hundred men be recruited and trained with sword and shield. Fortifications were built in reconquered Lower Egypt to defend the homeland and a new wall begun around Memphis. The adult royal children were touring the site to encourage the workers when suddenly with a snapping of wood a section of scaffolding collapsed, crushing two of the Queen's younger sisters and killing a score of workmen. Ipu declared a week of mourning in the capital.
    The priests of Ra in Heliopolis claimed Lower Egypt had been liberated because of their prayers, and hinted rewards were expected. Meanwhile the priests of Ptah in Memphis insisted their god had never abandoned the dynasty and was in fact responsible for the victory, and the deaths of the two women were Ptah's punishment for royal skepticism - and royal cooperation with the Minoans who'd burned Thebes and the temple of Amun with it.
    Meanwhile feudal ally Sipa had headed east into the Sinai and met with its chieftan Nekht who'd been married by proxy to Ipu many years earlier, a forgotten legality realized after Ipu had married Kyrsi of the Minoans. After some months of talks and an offer of marriage to Neith, another sister of Ipu, the nomad agreed to his union with Ipu being declared void.
    Queen Ipu and her brilliant general Scota then met with Minoan leader Kyrsi and his gifted general Lonchi to plan the campaign ahead. [see Nile Valley War ]

    In 2092 Kyrsi finally got to spend quality time with Ipu who later births a son, but the boy is sickly and jaundiced. Priests of Ptah and Ra both suggest a suitable royal donation may help remove the gods' curse.

City-State of Herakleopolis Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Sekhimib, 3rd King of the IX-X Dynasty, favored of Heryshef
    Sensing the coming battles would decide the fate of his kingdom, Sekhimib ordered twelve hundred men be trained as infantry. Two hundred men skilled in construction were hired as military engineers. Again large quantities of surplus food were stored for lean times. Finally, the king announced the merger of his realm with that of Netinbeti, queen of the remnants of the Thebean state, to be sealed with marriage upon her arrival in the Temple of Heryshaf, patron god of the city.
    Sekhimib then remained in the city to rule, the Herakleopolitan army remaining under the command of the heir Akhtoy II who was a highly skilled warrior. [see Nile Valley War ]

City-State of Thebes Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Netinbeti, Queen of the XI Dynasty, favored of Amun
    Ruling from Abydos, Netinbeti directed what resources existed spent on training another thousand men with sword and shield. Surplus food was stored if needed. After sending a retainer with orders to the ranking officer with the Thebean army remnants in the Eastern Desert, she announced the merger of her realm with that of Sekhimib, King of Herakleopolis, to be sealed with marriage upon her arrival. The queen then boarded her light galley and traveled downriver fortunately just before the Minoan fleet established its blockade of Abydos...

GM Comments:
    (1) again, six different nations were involved (Thebes & Herakleopolis vs Minoans, Old Kingdom, Nubia & Meroe).
    (2) when a region is invaded from two sides, if there are two defending armies they will each confront one invader. If there is one defending army it will be split with half to face each invader. Either response can be overruled by player standing orders.
    (3) apologies in advance if I missed any contingencies.

2095 BC
    Kyrsi of the Minoans departs for Knossos with various sized galleys, taking Herakleopolitan prisoners back for slave labor, leaving a large Minoan army to assist the Old Kingdom's defense of Lower Egypt. Over the border the Herakleopolitan army defends Middle Egypt and is reinforced in late spring by several thousand Thebean infantry which proves critical to events.
Both sides expect the other to attack but neither does. There are reports of small groups of unknown warriors in the western parts of Middle Egypt.
    The Meroan army marches south returning home; their swords will be missed several years' hence. A pentaconter squadron under Lonchi of the Minoans protects the crossing of the Nubian army from Aswan to Upper Egypt. Nubian King Shasesi leaves a garrison in Aswan and then crosses the Nile with nearly five thousand mixed swordsmen and skirmishers plus six hundred skilled archers. Once the army was across the Minoan ships moved back downriver to blockade Abydos.
    The Thebean region was defended by a lone stone fort supported by skirmishers.1 Nubian archers make casualties of most of the skirmishers; the fort was then overwhelmed and the region subjugated by year's end with minimal loss, the victory easing the Nubian warriors' lingering resentment concerning earlier distribution of loot.

2094 BC
    Again the two sides guard the Middle Egypt/Lower Egypt border, expecting the other to attack. The unknown warriors are identified as men dressed similarly to Minoans and rumors persist they came from the oasis of El-Wahat despite the lack of supply-carrying draft animals who could survive such a trek.2
    In Upper Egypt the victorious Nubians approach Abydos planning to storm the port. It had neither walls nor garrison and its elders fearfully surrender the city. To their astonishment it was not put to the sack as Thebes had been.
    In autumn Herakleopolitan general (and heir) Akhtoy II receives orders from King Sekhimib to move the entire army into Upper Egypt. He has grave misgivings at leaving the homeland almost defenseless and agonizes whether to obey. The issue becomes moot when he collapses during his evening meal 3 and spends many days unconscious and wracked with fever. Afterward he begins a slow recovery during which the move to Upper Egypt is delayed.
    Kyrsi of the Minoans returns about the same time with eight hundred reinforcements. Plans are made with Scota of the Old Kingdom to invade Middle Egypt in the new year.

2093 BC
    In early spring over two thousand Minoan infantry and skirmishers along with a thousand archers led by general Lonchi and First Kyrsi cross into Middle Egypt from the north accompanied by almost 2,500 Old Kingdom infantry commanded by heir Scota.
    The western force numbers only two hundred skirmishers commanded by Dori, a Minoan feudal ally, and conduct hit & run ambushes to sow confusion.
    Moving in from the south is a Nubian army of nearly four thousand mixed infantry and skirmishers plus six hundred archers under King Shasesi. While Upper Egypt has been garrisoned, Abydos has not and reverts to neutrality.4
    Receiving news of serious invasions from opposite directions, King Sekhimib splits the Herakleopolitan-Thebean army to confront both. He leaves the capital and takes command of approximately three thousand infantry to oppose the closer Minoan/Old Kingdom threat. Akhtoy II, still in ill health, is sent with approximately three thousand infantry to deploy against the Nubians, both armies anchoring on three stone forts near the respective violated borders and both using home terrain to advantage.

    The main forces engaged in the north were three veteran armies 5 with bronze weaponry led by skilled commanders. Minoan archers launched volleys as the invaders closed on the defensive lines inflicting casualties on the defenders. But the attacking armies lack seige engineers and break upon the stone forts and the prepared positions between them, resulting in heavy losses. Over 800 Minoans are killed and twice that wounded while the Old Kingdom lost almost 500 killed and nearly a thousand wounded.
    Minoan feudal ally Dori was a middling warrior seeking to live up to his "the Magnificent" title; he and his untested household guard are lost in an ambush.
    The Herakleopolitan-Thebean forces only lose a bit over 400 dead and almost 900 wounded - a very good exchange rate for which the fort garrisons can take credit.
    Lonchi and Scota realize another assault would destroy their armies.6 Stunned Minoan and Old Kingdom survivors withdraw back into Lower Egypt taking thousands of wounded with them.

    Meanwhile ... in the south of Middle Egypt both armies have bronze weapons. The defenders are veterans while the Nubians are largely untested: their victories have all been against very small numbers of enemies. Balancing that is King Shasesi being a skilled commander while Akhtoy is still suffering blackouts from his near-death.
    The Nubians rush the defenders with archers dropping arrows ahead of the charge. But here too the invaders lack seige engineers and take heavy losses scaling the stone forts while the Herkleopolitan-Thebean infantry hammer at their flanks. Nearly a thousand Nubians are slain - including 2nd in command Memeteri - and almost double that wounded. The defenders lose half that many but Akhtoy is among the dead, hit by a random Nubian arrow while viewing the battle. His 2nd in command takes over the defense.
    Shasesi is wise enough to see his army will be destroyed 6 if he continues so orders his shaken forces to withdraw back into Upper Egypt taking their wounded with them. Demoralized, the warriors' thoughts again dwell on the battlefield booty from past years (and the drinking & wenching it would've made possible) of which they felt they'd been cheated.

2092 BC
    All armies remain vigilant while their wounded heal. No one attacks. Allied plans for the division of the Herakleopolitan kingdom are abandoned for now.

2091 BC
    All armies remain vigilant. No one attacks. Kyrsi informs his Minoans they will not be returning home as planned.

1 just missing several thousand Thebean infantry who had passed through the area on their way to Middle Egypt.
2 the camel has not yet spread from Central Asia thus travel to oases is not yet practical.
3 Akhtoy had eaten only a few mouthfuls of a meat stew when he collapsed in agony. The officers sharing the meal summoned a skilled physician who determined the heir had been poisoned and used a potion to induce vomiting. Apparently a beautiful servant girl new to the camp had prepared the heir's meal that evening, but had escaped in the darkness and confusion.
4 since the city watch had been disarmed by the Nubians, the elders appealed to the priests of patron god Sobek to protect the populace. The priests agreed - [see Egyptian Priesthood]
5 Kyrsi leads the Minoan contingent in the Prayer Before Battle: "Hear me i'Mitera Gi, prelude of the spears, you to whom men fall as offerings for their homeland in deathĺs holy sacrifice."
6 if a player's orders call for multiple attacks but the first round goes very badly, a d10 is rolled vs the leader's combat stat. Success means the leader stops attacking. Failure means the leader is enraged and orders another attack.

Kingdom of Nubia Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Shasesi, King of Nubia
    King Shasesi sent a messenger back to Kerma with his orders (yay literacy!) again authorizing significant investment into the nation's infantry training. The newly conquered region of Aswan was fortified and the kingdom's garrisons (depleted to create Shasesi's army) were expanded with 1,400 swordsmen and another two hundred archers. Marginal areas of the homeland were put to the plow to increase crop yield. Finally, the king decreed that the tribes of Lower Nubia be granted a measure of autonomy provided they continued to pay taxes to the kingdom.
    King Shasesi dispatched his heir Maraga back to Kerma in the company of the army of Meroe, moving slowly encumbered by loot and slaves from Thebes. On the subject of loot, Maraga took with him all that scavanged by the Nubian army from its battle-fields, leaving the troops with the king feeling cheated out of their traditional half.
    Once home, the heir took command of the defenses and enjoyed his wife. After a miscarriage she did not bear a child again until 2091, and the girl was small and sickly. Shamen predicted she would not live long.

    King Shasesi (oblivious to the discontent of his warriors) and his lieutenant Meneferi marched the army west towards Upper Egypt with fresh conquests in mind. [see Nile Valley War ]

    Meanwhile Prince Saraga had been administering the kingdom following his marriage to Jebelein of Meroe. In 2091 Saraga was awarded the region of Aswan as his personal fief as reward for his good service.

City-State of Meroe Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Saba, King of Meroe
    From his army's camp in Aswan, Saba sent orders back to Meroe. All the kingdom's wealth was again spent on improvements to the homeland: building gristmills, fencing pastures, and making rural travel easier by bridging small creeks. That underway his orders went out to break camp. He had become king while on campaign and needed to head home to formally take the throne according to ancient ceremony.
    The army moved slowly back to Meroe burdened with gold and agro looted from Thebes and its temple of Amun. Herded along were long lines of shuffling slaves including priests and novices from the pillaged temple. The priests frequently called upon Amun to avenge them but to Saba's amusement no ill luck had befallen Meroe.
    Upon his return the king sent his younger brother (and heir) Arakemani with nearly two thousand warriors to protect Upper Nubia while the Nubian army was away engaging in further conquest. Saba then married a local noblewoman and ruled his kingdom. His bride birthed a son in 2093 and a daughter in 2092. Life is good the king had thought, but his wife died in childbirth the following year, leaving him grieving.
Saba & army return to Meroe

Land of Punt Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Fazi, King of Punt
    Fazi ordered modest investments in military quality and improvements in metallurgy. Taking advantage of the ability to record knowledge, he tasked his lieutenant Samir to oversee a census of the kingdom. The king then ruled his kingdom and spent quality time with his Djibutian wife Kahina, siring a boy then a girl followed by another girl. The last birth was difficult and thereafter Kahina did not become pregnant again despite many fertility rituals by the shamen.
    The diplomat Samir then returned to Djibuti taking royal family member Samina with him, offering her in marriage to the son of a chief. Negotiations were going well until in the hot summer of 2094 dysentery swept the tribal encampment, killing both commoner and noble alike, including Samina, despite many purification rituals by the shamen. Samir managed to obtain a treaty with Kahina's chieftan brother agreeing to become a full ally of Punt.


(Western Arabia north to Levant then west to Subartu)

City of Hazor in Jordan

Literacy exists throughout Greater Levant as shown below.

Sabaeans Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Zabar script glyphs)
Athtar, King of Sa'na
    King Athtar shook off his lethargy and making use of much saved wealth ordered the construction of a port city to be named Jizan in the region of Asir. There was a groundbreaking ceremony with much celebration afterward; thousands of future inhabitants then began the work of many years.
    Great sums of gold were also spent on agricultural improvements in Abyan (mostly involving rainwater retention and irrigation) as well as the capital of Sa'na where the great market square was paved and decorated with statuary. Investment was made in naval architecture producing surprisingly quickly an innovative shipbuilding capability.
    After this whirlwind of activity the king settled down to rule his kingdom and enjoy his Sheban wife Sin. Their nights of pleasure resulted in a steady production of royal children: a girl, another girl, a boy and another boy.
    Meanwhile Athtar's younger brother (and heir) Almakah was sent to Sheba to continue diplomacy as well as keep him away from the palace. Almakah was a jealous man and the king was tired of listening to his brother's endless criticism. Almakah was a middling diplomat but persistant and eventually convinced the Shebans to give Sabaeans merchants preferential treatment. In early 2091 word reached him that Athtar had been boating offshore on one of the first vessels built in Aden's shipyards when it capsized. There were no survivors and Almakah was now king.

City-State of Hazor Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Jabin, King of Hazor
    At Jabin's behest gold was invested in military quality and storing huge amounts of surplus grain, dried fruits and vegetables and salt fish for future needs. With recently acquired engineering knowledge the walls of the capital were further improved. A thousand men were recruited and trained with sword and shield.
    The king then ruled his kingdom and savored his skilled concubines. Lieutenant Paebel was sent to Jerusalem along with almost three thousand warriors for some diplomacy-in-force, camping outside the city walls to the surprise and fear of the settlement's inhabitants. To Danel, a hulking warrior who seemed to be in charge, Paebel offered the hand of Hurriya, a comely royal daughter from a past king, in marriage in return for a treaty. Danel (who'd never had much luck with women) agreed Jerusalem would be hence tributary to Hazor.
    In early 2091 a messenger arrived with news King Jabin had died when he got between two two jealous concubines. One tried to cut the other with a broken bottle, missed and slashed Jabin who bled out before physicians could reach him. Since none of Jabin's children were of age Hurriya met with the dead king's advisors and other power brokers and convinced them to declare her Regent for the royal children lest the kingdom be plunged into civil war.
    A side effect of the king's death was a decline of confidence in the gods to protect king or kingdom. Temple attendance lessened while more secular gatherings flourished.

City-State of Ugarit Civilized Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Niqmaddu II, First of the Council
    The Council decided to offer the position of First to Niqmaddu II who quickly accepted having wanted the post for years. The bureaucrats and tax collectors had slacked off after the previous First had died and nobody was ruling; the city-state's limited finances were spent on improving military quality and the training of a thousand men with sword and shield.
    Niqmaddu II retreated from pacified Carhae with the assistance of Subartun guides who led the surviving men of Ugarit across Edessa to the border with Aleppo. When the Ugaritans left Carhae the steppe region lapsed into anarchy. Once back in Ugarit the new First ruled and proved to be a far better administrator than empire-builder. Although the troops who'd returned with him from Carhae grumbled over not receiving any battlefield loot.
    As reward for his diplomatic success in Cilicia the common-born Amanru was made a lord and Second of the Council. He then assisted Niqmaddu in restoring efficient government.
    Ugarit's feudal allies in Lebanon and Byblos stood ready to help should Assur make a retaliatory strike but it proved unnecessary. All remained surprisingly quiet.
    In 2091 Lord Amanru developed a persistant cough the physicians could not cure. It worsened and by autumn he was coughing flecks of blood. He died near the end of the year.

Kingdom of Subartu Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Jovka, Queen of Subartu
    Jovka, new to the monarch role (but quickly learning) decreed the recruiting and training of two thousand men as infantry. Small amounts of gold were spent on improving military quality. After consultation with her advisors she chose a local nobleman to marry who would serve as royal consort. She henceforth ruled her kingdom, and with much enthusiasm she produced a daughter in 2094 and a son in each of the following years.
    The loyal general Ercan stood ready to defend the homeland should Assur again attack. Guides waited in Edessa at its border with Carhae to expedite the Ugaritan army's retreat.

    Lieutenant Dara and the two thousand new infantry guarded Armenia and its obsidian mines from potential Assuran aggression until the end of 2095. In the spring of 2094 he followed his orders to take the fight to them, leading his men over the mountains to invade Arbiliq, a feudal holding of Assur. Dara was a middling general and his army tired from the crossing. Opposing him was feudal lord Ninazu, a mediocre warrior with 1,400 mixed native infantry and skirmishers. Arriving from Assur with a unit of battle carts was lieutenant Namtar, an even worse leader who'd gotten his command through court connections.
    However poor was the leadership of the warriors holding Arbiliq, it was more than compensated for by better training, knowledge of the terrain, defensive deployment, light units to scout and the shock value of battle carts upon an opponent encountering them for the first time.1 The Subartuns suffered a sharp repulse taking nearly 300 dead and over 500 wounded. The men of Arbiliq and Assur suffered half that. Regrouping, Dara attacked again determined to prove himself as a warrior. With the battle carts no longer a shock the margin of the defenders' victory was narrower, with casualties almost equal, but it was victory nonetheless. The Subartans con-ducted an orderly withdrawal back into Armenia taking their wounded with them.
    Ninazu, Namtar and their men remained encamped in Arbiliq and alert to further incursions. In 2093 dysentery swept the army sickening many and killing those of weak constitution, Namtar among them.

    In late 2092 Ercan and his retainers fell into an icy stream when the wooden bridge they were traversing collapsed due to rot and neglect. Weighed down by armor and winter clothing they were lost in the fatally frigid foaming waters.

1 their value here was reduced by the disadvantages of wheeled vehicles in wilderness, but still provided a combat bonus.


(Mesopotamia, Persian Gulf, Iranian Plateau)

Lagash-ruled City of Ur with Temple Complex of Nanna-Sin, God of the Moon

Literacy (cuneiform) exists throughout Greater Mesopotamia except for Elam which uses Elamite Linear script.

Mesopotamian Priesthood Civilized Bronzeworking Theocracy
Shuruppak, High Priest of Innana (Ishtar) at Uruk
    Shuruppak and High Priestess Salabikh agreed on investing in the quality of temple defenders and various civilian services. Six hundred of the most faithful were trained to fight with spear and shield to protect holy sites. Mid-level priests attempted to convert the river port of Mari but managed only slight success.

City-State of Assur Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ah-Kalla, King of Assur, favored of Ashur
    Ah-Kalla ordered gold invested in military efficiency; it was enough that a genius among his small group of naval architects proto-typed new ship designs at the municipal dockyards on the Tigris. Much surplus grain, fruits and vegetables were stored for times of famine. Marginal land in Mosul was made productive for farming. Finally battlecarts enough to carry 600 warriors were built and their crews trained, in case the Ugaritan enemy returned.
    Ah-Kalla realized the royal line required heirs and married a local noblewoman. He then ruled his kingdom and enjoyed his bride. She birthed twin girls in late 2095. The king's elation was cut short early in 2094 when a messenger arrived with news feudal ally Arbiliq had been attacked by men of Subartu. [see Subartu ]

    The twins' births had been difficult and the king's wife did not concieve again for years. Elation at her pregnancy in 2092 turned to sorrow when she died of a raging fever late in the year a few days after bearing a son. Soon afterward the king's sister Manatum drowned in the Tigris; palace rumor said it was deliberate after a forbidden love affair went wrong.
    In early 2091 Ah-Kalla led his main army into Carhae with the intention to drive out the Ugaritans and quench his grief in blood, but found to his frustration the enemy long gone and the region in chaos.

City-State of Kish Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Jushur II, 2nd King of the VI Dynasty, favored of Zababa
    To replace losses suffered in the recent war, Jushur II increase his army. A thousand men were trained with swords or javelins and a unit of battle carts added. Circis - recently much fought over - was fortified and a wall begun around its river port of Mari. Much wealth and labor was also spent improving agriculture in the homeland with additional irrigation ditches and wells since rainfall was generally uncommon in this part of the world.
    After attending the placement ceremony of a victory stele [see Uruk] he set to ruling his kingdom and enjoying his wife Magda. She delivered a boy in 2095 and a girl in 2093, but then endured several miscarriages.
    Leaving his veteran army in Kish, the famed general Manishtusu traveled downriver to Babylon to meet with the elders of that settlement. They were awed by his reputation and receptive to his words, eventually signing an economic treaty.

City-State of Uruk Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Kuda, 2nd King of the IV Dynasty, favored of Inanna
    Kuda was faced with low revenues; without the presence of king or heir the civil servants had slacked off. He distributed all the battlefield loot to his men in lieu of pay which kept them content. What gold remained funded a great festival during which the people gave thanks to the gods for victory. At the conclusion he attended the placement ceremony of a victory stele where the regions of Mesopotamia and Hahmar share a border.
    On the stele were chiseled images and text1 regarding the Treaty of the Triple Alliance. A giant king (representing three monarchs combined) led warriors while trampling enemies underfoot. Below the figures was the text of the treaty inscribed in both Levantine-dialect Semetic and Akkadian, here translated into the barbarous Newsfax tongue:

    By the immutable word of Enlil, king of the lands, father of the gods, Jushur of Kish, of Lagash and Kuda of Uruk set a boundary to their lands. Kuda, King of Uruk, at the command of his deity Inanna, set up a pillar of basalt in the plantation of that field which lies at the junction of the lands of Kish and the lands of Uruk.
    We are as brothers, the three mighty ones spoke, bowing before the gods. Our lands are as brothers. Our cities are as brothers. If demons of the underworld strike at us, we will grapple them together. If barbarians from far lands cast spears at us, we will raise our shields together. If men of war in bronzed chariots come against us, we shall draw bow and loose shaft together. As brothers we shall defend house, field and city against all enemies.
    So says Ur-Ningirsu of Lagash, favored of Bau.
    So says Jushur II of Kish, favored of Zababa.
    So says Kuda of Uruk, favored of Inanna.

    The king next ordered a thousand captured Urian prisoners to work improving the farms of Hahmar, and several hundred more put to work clearing land in Ahvaz. Merchants were granted license to open trade over the mountains with the Gutians. Kuda then ruled his realm and spent time with his wife Gudea of Lagash but - despite numerous fertility ceremonies by priests and many horoscope castings by the court astrologers - no children resulted.
    Prince Puzxur-Ili took command of the Kuwait garrison and the war galleys patrolling the Eurphrates, but no threat developed. Ally Sin-Kasid of Ahvaz likewise guarded the eastern border but it was peaceful as well.
    The diplomat Ikun-pi-Istar visited Elam and its capital of Susa to offer the good wishes of Uruk (and Lagash) staying at the court of King Kangan a halfyear to ingratiate himself to the locals. From there he headed west to Lagash where he remained for several years at the court of King Ur-Ningirsu maintaining the goodwill between the two city-states. Returning to Uruk in late spring 2091 he composed a record of his travels under the exotic-sounding pen (well, stylus) name of Ibn Battuta.

1 the player sent the treaty text in all 3 languages which was impressive. Unfortunately my text editor couldn't save the Phoenician and cuneiform fonts (it didn't recognize either) after a copy/paste.

City-State of Lagash Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - FREE STATE TO URUK
Ur-Ningirsu, King of Lagash, favored of Bau
    With the war concluded Ur-Ningirsu decreed in Abadan that marshy areas along the Tigris be filled to allow farming. More funds were invested trying to organize a messenger service to relay news. Using gold and food captured from Ur the king hosted a great festival during which the people gave thanks to the gods for victory. At the conclusion a scribe read aloud a copy of the text chiseled upon a victory stele [see Uruk]. Ur-Ningirsu then ruled his kingdom and enjoyed his wife, who birthed boys in both 2093 and 2092, followed by a girl in late 2091.
    Meanwhile under the watchful eye of Prince Ur-Gar and his swordsmen repairs were made in the conquered city of Ur to both damaged structures (Urian slaves got the most dangerous work) and the city wall. The merchants were ordered to begin trading with Kish and Ugarit via the Euphrates. By summer 2093 the Ur university's tablets were carefully packed and taken to Lagash for study. Most of the professors opted to relocate to Lagash as well rather than be homeless and destitute. The survivors of the Ur royal family (except heir Ninazu who died from unknown causes) were also escorted to Lagash where they were settled in comfortable quarters befitting their station, with the understanding they lived their lives quietly.
    Ur-Gar and his retainers were enjoying themselves at a tavern before returning to Ur when they were caught up in a wild drunken brawl between rival groups within the city watch that turned bloody when swords were drawn. At least a half-dozen patrons died, including the Prince, and many others wounded. After a funeral service at the local temple of Bau, the king proclaimed Ur-Gar's brother Nam-mahazi the new heir.
    In late 2091 after a banquet celebrating the birth of his 3rd child Ur-Ningirsu headed to his chambers but having consumed much wine fell down the stairs, cracking his head on the stone. He died after several days without ever regaining consciousness. An over-whelmed Nam-mahazi was sudddenly king.

Traders of Dilmun Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Abdullah, First of the Council
    Abdullah obtained Council agreement to invest in military improvements and implementing a messenger service to relay news swiftly. The capital benefitted from lavish spending to pave all its streets, erect statues to the gods in numerous neighborhood parks and hire artists to decorate the walls of buildings bordering large plazas.
    Abdullah then ruled and spent time with his wife, the daughter of a wealthy merchant. She delivered a boy in 2095, twins (girl & boy) in 2094 and a sickly boy in 2093 after a difficult, feverish pregnancy. Not long after the birth Abdullah suffered massive chest pain during a Council meeting and died almost immediately, an old man in his mid-50s.
    Rasheed, Second of the Council helped administer the realm. He was in his late 50s and in failing health toward the end of 2091. It was obvious the Council would need new leadership very soon.

Kingdom of Elam Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Kangan of the Simashki Dynasty, King of Elam
    King Kangan ruled a prosperous, quiet kingdom. Hita, widow of the previous king, continued her flirtation with him but at least in public nothing happened.

Kingdom of Gutia Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Gazsi, King of Gutium
    Gazsi, concerned about the frequency of war in the area, ordered the homeland extensively fortified with stone keeps at key locations. Four hundred men were recruited and trained with spear and shield. Surplus root vegetables and grain was stored for future needs. Much gold was sunk into the ongoing effort to initiate a messenger service but as the years passed the minor nobles overseeing the effort spent more time hunting and gambling than attending to the job.
    Gazsi took a local noblewoman as his bride and set about ruling the kingdom. He sired a son in 2094 and a celebratory feast followed. To his disappointment his parents - the previous king who'd abdicated and his wife - hadn't attended. Eventually the remains of their party were found; apparently on the way from their country estate to Borahshi they'd been ambushed by bandits who'd killed everyone and stolen everything including the clothes off the bodies.
    In 2093 his nephew Mateen came of age and was proclaimed heir. In 2092 the king sired a daughter but the girl was born small and jaundiced and was continually in poor health. Rumors again surfaced the royal family was cursed by the gods.



"Birdman with Snakes" artifact (amulet?) found in excavation

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy (pictographic symbols) exists throughout this area.

City-State of Namazgadepe Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Piyama, King of Namazgadepe
    Piyama funded improving military quality and preserving much surplus food. Public fountains were built in Koy Krylgan and a wall begun around the city. Another two hundred recruits were trained to the bow while a light galley was built at the municipal aresenal for river trade. With all that underway, at public ceremony the king proclaimed his nephew Dravint to be his Heir.
    Piyama then ruled his lands while enjoying pleasurable nights with his Bokharan wife Kes, resulting in a girl in 2094 and a boy in 2093. The boy however was small and had trouble breathing and died after a year. During this time Dravint married a local noble-woman and sired daughters in 2094 and 2093 but thereafter his wife miscarried repeatedly. The royals consoled each other in their times of loss and prayed to their gods.
    Toward the end of 2091 the court scribes invented a more efficient way to handle administration.

City-State of Gonur Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
HemÔvand, King of Gonur
    HemÔvand ordered significant investments in military quality, developing a durable copper alloy, expanding the bureaucracy and preserving agricultural surpluses. 1,400 men were hired and trained to fight with war axe and shield. Mindful of dynastic continuity the king announced his young son Pudha would become his heir upon coming of age.
    HemÔvand then settled back to rule and spend quality time with wife Lilyah who birthed daughters in late 2095, early 2093 and summer 2092. The last delivery was difficult and Lilyah developed childbirth fever and died within a few days despite (or because of) the potions of the court physicians. Stunned, the king began drinking heavily to numb his grief.
    Meanwhile having been assigned over four thousand axemen - the majority of the army1 - the diplomat Cyrus headed east along the trade road in company of ally (and renouned warrior) Megabyzus and feudal vassal Kesavaro to Tadzik for some serious diplomacy-in-force. He offered the future heir Pudha in betrothal to a chieftan's daughter in exchange for alliance. The hill tribes were impressed with the power of Gonur and had agreed to join their lands to the kingdom when news arrived that King HemÔvand had died after days of binge-drinking leaving no adult heir to the throne.
    Cyrus was ambitious and quick to grasp the opportunity. After obtaining the support of Megabyzus and the grudging neutrality of Kesavaro he proclaimed himself king and marched on the capital. Reaching the border of Transoxania he learned Bangul, widow of the previous king had announced herself acting as Regent for young Pudha. She retained the loyalty of the late king's guardsmen and the fortifications of the homeland.
    Cyrus and Megabyzus lacked the strength to overcome the forts supported by guardsmen and fell back to Tadzik, remaining by the border. Bangul lacked the offensive punch to leave the homeland and defeat the rebels in the field, and so a stalemate ensued. Meanwhile Kesavaro renounced his feudal vows and Kophat Dagh returned to neutrality.

1 this is the situation for a potential "strongman overthrow" scenario unless the army leader is very loyal, which Cyrus was not, and can convince the men to follow him, which he did. He wouldn't have been bold enough to march on the capital with the king alive, but the king dying without an heir inspired Cyrus to try for the throne, gambling that no one would rally the homeland to oppose him.



Tibetan capital of Lhasa

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.

Kingdom of Zhang Zhung Pastoral-Nomadic Metalworking Monarchy
Biming, King of Zhang Zhung
    Once again Biming invested a bit of wealth into just about everything but the University got the most, allowing the construction of living quarters and lecture halls. More gold was spent improving the capital of Kyunghing by paving the main market square. Six hundred men were recruited, a third to be trained to the bow and the rest with axe and shield. Merchants were given license to trade over the mountains with Harappa to obtain the products of Indus civilization.
    In late spring 2095 heir Dequan arrived from Khotan escorting Fa, daughter of a powerful chief and betrothed to Biming; she was amazed as she toured Kyunghing, a true city. A wedding followed and the couple got to know each other while Biming ruled his kingdom. A daughter was born in 2094 followed by a stillbirth the next year. Shamen performed rituals to ward off spirits of evil beings many times over the next years until Fa became pregnant again and birthed another daughter in 2091.
    Heir Dequan returned over the mountains into Khotan to continue talks with nomad chiefs. While a below-average diplomat he was a skilled fighter which impressed the nomad chiefs. They finally agreed to a treaty of full alliance.

Kingdom of Tibet Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
    After a bad harvest badly depleted food reserves, the king was motivated to devote the realm's wealth and labor into completing the cultivation of the homeland. Additional forts were built at key mountain passes to make invasion more difficult.



City of Harappa in Punjab

Literacy (Indus glyphs) exists throughout the Indus Valley civilization.

City-State of Harappa Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Dharmsala, King of Harappa
    Dharmsala dispatched a retainer to the capital with instructions (yay literacy!) to the scribes and clerks. Gold was invested into improvements to all things military and again to establishing a message relay service, still without results since the current minion in charge was no more competent than the previous one. His orders also directed much wealth and labor to further development of the homeland: filling in low-lying areas along the Ravi River, bridging small streams to facilitate farm-to-market transport, and sowing a variety of higher-nutrition cereal crops. Merchants were encouraged to utilize Kashmir to trade over the mountains with both Zhang Zhung and Gonur - the latter route's profits much reduced by rebel occupation of Tadzik. [see Gonur]
    Dharmsala remained with his army in Edrosia for a year ready to react to Ganweriwalan attack. Since the border remained quiet the king led the army back across the Indus into Bauluch in spring 2094. No sooner had the crossing been completed than news arrived a Ganweriwalan army had moved into Edrosia in company with large numbers of civilians with carts and wagons. Dharmsala ordered the army to react back across the river. [see Ganweriwala]

    Meanwhile heir Kalabagh ruled and enjoyed his wife. After a series of miscarriages she birthed twin girls in 2093. She was soon feverish but managed to recover, although did not conceive again.
    In late 2091 came word King Dharmsala had died when dysentery sickened many in his encampment in Edrosia, a staff officer assuming temporary command. Kalabagh took the throne and since his children were all quite young (and female!) proclaimed Abhinabya, son of a previous king, to be his Heir.

City-State of Rupar Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - FREE STATE TO HARAPPA
Bikampur, King of Rupar
    Bikampur - with growing impatience - yet again spent gold in an attempt to get a messenger service working and it was finally successful. Additional forts were built at strategic points in the homeland and a thousand men recruited and trained as engineers.
    Marching the army south to Sukkur, the king turned over command to heir Ritpara1 then returned north and crossed the mountains into sparsely-populated Dhera-Dun. To the hill chiefs of that cold, harsh wilderness he offered Abishek, young son of a previous king in marriage to a chieftan's daughter. The negotiations were hampered by differences in language and religions but eventually the tribes swore fealty to Rupar. In 2091 the king returned southward with Abishek's barbaric bride.

    Meanwhile Ritpura and the Ruparian army encamped in Sukkur during 2095 alert for Ganweriwalan attack but the border sadly (from Ripura's perspective since he was itching for a fight) remained quiet. In early 2094 he sent the army to raid south into Sind. To their surprise the forts previously encountered had been burned and their garrisons gone. As they scouted ahead they found villages burnt, wells fouled, levees and ditches wrecked ... basically Sind was a wasteland.
    Frustrated, they returned to Sukkur empty-handed but sheparding nearly two thousand Harappan soldiers who'd been captured several years before, kept as slaves and then turned loose by the Ganweriwalans when they evacuated their homeland.

1 this is the situation for a potential "strongman overthrow" scenario unless the army leader is very loyal or fails to persuade the men to follow him.

City-State of Ganweriwala Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Vihana the Magnificent, King of Ganweriwala
    King Vihana and his brother Aparajita realized time had run out for their kingdom. Everyone could fight to the end against overwhelming odds... or leave. All the battlefield loot from the previous fighting was given to the surviving warriors in lieu of salary. The region of Sind and city of Ganweriwala were stripped of anything useful and the inhabitants evacuated with whatever possessions they could load into wagons or carry themselves. This was accomplished by the end of 2095.
    In spring 2094 the populace and army crossed into Harappan-occupied Edrosia. They found only overgrown fields1 and crude encampments where there had been prosperous farming communities. Travel was slower than expected as dirt roads had been swallowed by the forests. However by mid-summer Vihana's four thousand mixed heavy spearmen, swordsmen and skirmishers had dealt with the the Harappan garrison of 800 skirmishers with slight loss.
    Both Vihana and Aparajita failed to persuade the inhabitants of Chanhu-Daro 2 to join them. The migration turned westward towards Carmania but a Harappan force of 4,600 mixed swordsmen and skirmishers was approaching from the north intending to drive the invaders out - not knowing the Ganweriwalans were planning to leave anyway.
    Both armies were veterans, well-trained and wielding bronze weaponry. Vihana however was a better strategist than Dharmsala plus agents recruited among the Edrosians kept him informed of the Harappans' progress. When the enemies caught sight of each other, both charged and met with a crash. The Harappans worked around one flank and fell upon the civilians striking down all they could before the Ganweriwalan spearmen arrived to drive the assailants back. The diversion of effort from the main battle proved costly; amidst the tumult Dharmsala realized his main force was getting the worse of the exchange. The Harappans withdrew 3 having suffered over two thousand casaulties while Vihana's warriors had lost less than a thousand. The Ganweriwalan civilians were badly shaken having lost nearly 1,500 of their number killed or wounded.4
    By early 2093 the migration 5 had reached the Carmanian border. It wasn't until late summer everyone was over both the Indus and the mountains and into the unwelcoming (especially for civilians who'd spent all their lives in temperate cropland or a city) semi-desert. By year's end they'd marched to the border with Baluchistan leaving a trail of graves behind them.
    In spring 2092 the Ganweriwalans were ready to colonize their Promised Land. The Baluchistanis saw things differently and 2,400 hillmen with stone axes or slings fought a relentless war of ambushes and skirmishes. It took the rest of the year and almost six hundred more Indus warriors dead to pacify the region. Lacking walls the settlement of Konar Sandal surrendered at the approach of a Ganweriwalan column.
    By the end of 2091 the migrants had colonized the region, the army keeping a wary eye on the locals who seethed with hostility. Konar Sandal had become a true city and the capital of a new Ganweriwala.

1 years of raiding left the region reduced to half-populated with half the farmland unworked and now overgrown. The region has therefore degraded from cultivated to half-cultivated wilderness.
2 who had only economic ties to Ganweriwala and felt they'd be just as well off with Harappa.
3 which put them back in Bauluch again. After regrouping Dharmsala again reacted into Edrosia but the Ganweriwalans were gone.
4 while they can't attack, tribal points are like traveling forts in the sense they can soak up a lot of enemy damage that would've otherwise been inflicted upon warriors.
5 "a rag-tag fleet fleeting the Cylon tyranny" (from intro of original Battlestar Galactica)

Traders of Dholavira Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Polyar, First of the Council
    Harshan, Sword of the Council, was an exceptional naval strategist at home aboard ship, and told the Council he was not inter-ested in being First. So they chose member Polyar, blunt-spoken but an able administrator for the job. Small amounts of gold were invested in all areas of military efficiency and bureaucracy. Many citizens with investigative and/or analytical skills were hired. In Dholavira a public theater and maritime museum were constructed while Qana (until recently a backwater) had its first sewers and public fountains installed.
    Polyar then handled day to day decision-making. He also met with ship captains and oversaw the transfer of docking licenses from the capital's crowded harbor to Qana's largely empty harbor.
    Harshan and his squadron of war galleys patrolled the waters around Kutch.

City-State of Lothal Seafaring Bronzeworking Monarchy
Baroda, King of Lothal
    Baroda again spent gold attempting to establish a service to relay messages quickly and added a small lecture hall to the university. Small streams in the homeland were bridged to expedite bringing produce to markets. Over a dozen trade galleys were built in the shipyards of Lothal and Surkotada; Baroda met many times with merchants to discuss deployment of the new ships and more efficient use of existing ones.
    He then ruled his kingdom and spent time with his Jats bride Deepika. Apparently the fertility rituals of the priests were effective; in successive years she delivered girl, girl, boy, boy, girl. In 2093 Baroda's son (from a previous wife) Cherasan came of age and was proclaimed Heir. Which was good, because in late 2091 the king groaned he had a terrible headache then slumped over dying within minutes. Cherasan took the throne without incident.



Atranjikhera on the Ganges

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area except as noted below.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.

City-State of Hastinapura Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Elamite Linear script)
Lakhimpur II, King of Hastinapura
    Lakhimpur commanded much gold be invested in infantry improvements and storing harvest surplus for times of famine. Tarain was given autonomy to reduce government expense. Now having literate scribes he ordered a census taken of people and anything they owned to make tax collection more efficient and put heir Rampjur II in charge of it.
    The king ruled his realm and enjoyed his concubines. After some years of pleasure he realized he needed to sire legitimate royal children and so married a local noblewoman, producing a son in 2092 and a daughter in 2091.
    After overseeing the census effort Rampjur II headed for Nepal taking with him Keries, daughter of a past king to offer in marriage to a Nepalese chieftan. Rampjur was handsome as a god but this made him arrogant and a terrible diplomat. After years of clumsy negotiating (and narrowly avoiding being caught several times bedding the wives of chiefs) he persuaded the forest tribes to admit Hastinapura had some claim upon their loyalty. He returned home in 2091 leaving Keries behind with her cursing Rampjur until he was out of sight.

City-State of Atranjikhera Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Ila, Queen of Atranjikhera
    Ila funded the building of a dormatory at the university but most of the nation's wealth she devoted to its defense, extensively fortifying the homeland and building a wall around the capital.
    While her younger sister and heir Samavati remained in the capital to rule, Queen Ila returned to Jihjhoti for further diplomacy. Previous talks had gone nowhere but now she offered Samavati in marriage to a local nobleman. After several years Yudhisthira, the strongest chieftan, agreed to a full alliance and being husband to Samavati. The next day Ila received word her own husband Nabhiga had been badly mauled when a royal tiger hunt went badly; he died several days later feverish and necrotic.
    A Queen with very mixed emotions returned home bringing Yudhisthira back with her. Once in Atranjikhera he and Samavati were married in the local temple and spent much time getting to know each other, producing a son in late 2091.

City-State of Kaushambi Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy
Jagadambika, King of Kaushambi
    Jagadambika ordered all available labor (including hundreds of captured Hastinapuran prisoners of war) be devoted to completing cultivation of the homeland. Tools, wagons and oxen were provided as great tracts of forest and brush were cut, hauled away and the land put to the plow. Having just taken the throne he saved much wealth for later spending when he had more experience. He then ruled while standing ready to repel another invasion, but all remained peaceful.
    Feudal vassal Aakash died of snakebite in the summer of 2095 and was replaced by his cousin.


(Indian subcontinent south of Vindhya Mountain range, plus Ceylon)

rural village snake worship shrine

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.

Kingdom of Chera Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Palyane Chel Kezhu, King of Chera
    Palyane spent heavily on implementing a system of relaying news swiftly, and the effort's new leadership proved more efficient and was successful. More labor and gold were devoted to the continuing work to cultivate the homeland. Several light galleys were built in the shipyards of Muciri. A treaty of mutual defense and cooperation with Chola against outside attack. Considering Palyane wasn't much of a war leader this was met with popular relief and approval.
    Having captured hundreds of guards loyal to the deposed king Indara, instead of executing or enslaving them Palyane opted to be merciful. He settled them with their families on the Maldive Islands, claiming them for Chera. Upon his return he proclaimed Narmudi Cheral, son of a past king and queen to be Heir since Palyane's own children were very young. Narmudi was a skilled warrior and orator plus handsome enough that the women of the court (even the married ones) all wanted him.
    He then ruled his lands and enjoyed his Malabaran wife Bhabavahi. After several years without pregnancy the royal bedchambers were blessed by a group of Naga priestesses who apparently knew their business; in 2094 the couple produced a son.
    In 2094 feudal ally Kappuiyarruk Kappiyanar of Pandya died in his sleep in his late 50s.

Kingdom of Chola Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Nedunkilli Chola, King of Chola
    Nedunkilli invested more gold in the attempt to record the Tamil tongue, continuing to fund artists, teachers, philosophers and pretty much anybody with an idea. Trade was initiated with distant Kaushambi despite the difficult terrain and lengthy journey. A treaty of mutual defense and cooperation with Chera against outside attack was announced to general approval.
    The king sent his lieutenant Aditya northward to take command1 of the Cholan army in Kalinga where it had spent many years on soft garrison duty. Nedunkilli then settled back to rule his kingdom. A month later his ally Rajendra of Madurai arrived escorting Pennaraciyar, his betrothed from the previous year's diplomacy. They were married in the Naga temple in Arikamedu and spent many passionate nights together resulting in a son, a daughter, another daughter and another son.
    In autumn 2092 ally Rajendra died after a banquet apparently of food poisoning. His successor was only willing to maintain economic ties with Chola.
    Late in 2091 an excited group of scholars sought audience with the royal couple. Once granted, they demonstrated a way to "write" the Tamil language as a syllabic (aka syllabaric) script of 200+ symbols representing consonant-vowel combinations, henceforth known as Tamil script.

1 this is the situation for a potential "strongman overthrow" scenario unless the army leader is very loyal or fails to persuade the men to join him.


(Tibeto-Burman migration from north down the Irrawaddy Valley displaced original Mon-Khmer peoples southward)

Beikthano, oldest Irrawaddy Valley city

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.

City-State of Halin Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Kanyaza of the Shakya Dynasty, King of Halin
    Kanyaza continued the royal policy of spending heavily to devise a system of recording the Pyu language such as existed in Binnaka & Maingmaw. However the self-proclaimed languages expert (who easily impressed the young king) now in charge wasted the funds on lavish academic gatherings that achieved little.
    The king married Sherizhan, a comely daughter of a noble Burmese family. He then settled down to govern his realm and enjoy his new wife, siring a girl born in early 2094. Life is good he thought.
    In autumn strange lights appeared in the sky. The populace believed them an omen but disagreed on whether for good or bad. Divinations by shamen were contradictory. A week later while the ladies of the royal family were enjoying an excursion in the city's marketplace the axle of an overloaded wagon broke, spilling heavy barrels of salt pork, beef and fish. The king's thirteen year old sister was fatally crushed, his wife hurt badly enough to miscarry and both his mother and another sister were injured.
    Fresh shamanistic divinations concluded spirits had cursed the royal family for spending the nation's wealth on foolish pursuits rather than donating to the shamen who could speak for them. In spring 2092 Sherizhan birthed a boy who was stunted and sickly. In late 2091 she delivered a healthy girl but died in childbirth. Kanyaza was devastated.

City-States of Binnaka & Maingmaw Civilized Metalworking Monarchies - literate (Pyu script glyphs)
Thadominbya, King of Maingmaw & Regent for Ruranaya, son of Sawyun of Binnaka
    Thadominbya decreed much gold and labor be expended attempting to create a system of rapidly carrying messages throughout the kingdom. Surplus food was stored for future famine and additional irrigation ditches dug to help agriculture. He next oversaw palace scribes recording a census of all things (well, all things that could be taxed) in the kingdom.
    The Regent then ruled the realm of the two cities and spent time with his wife Arinassa but grew increasingly unwell. In 2093 he became lethargic and jaundiced, dying mid-year. Fortunately his and Arinassa's oldest son Thomanaya was of age and acclaimed the new King of Maingmaw.

City-State of Beikthano Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Dawnak, King of Beikthano
    Dawnak again spent small sums on supplies for the university and storing surplus food, but most of the nation's resources were expended to complete the ongoing cultivation of the homeland. Much public celebration followed, and as a side benefit overland trade was now easier.
    The king then ruled and enjoyed his wife Martaban. She endured a difficult pregnancy finally bearing a daughter laste 2095 but died several days later of childbirth fever. Adding to the king's woes was the death early the next year of their 6-year-old son Sung who'd been stunted since birth. Dawnak sank into a deep mourning.
    Meanwhile the king's younger brother Mahabaja returned to Pegu to to negotiate closer ties with Biekthano. Mahabaja was a middling diplomat and offered neither gold nor marriage offer to feudal vassal Khun. However years of persistance paid off when Khun agreed to special rights for Beikthano merchants.


(Viet migration from China starting to displace original Mon-Khmer peoples southward)

Lam Ap royal palace at Tra Kiew

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.

Kingdom of Langkasuka Seafaring Metalworking Monarchy
Krit Bunyasarn, King of Langkasuka
    Krit Bunyasarn funded attempts to organize a way to relay messages through the jungle faster. He spent lavishly on the capital of Pattani which had sewers and water pipes installed, public fountains emplaced and the market square paved. Sea trade was initiated east to the distant kingdom of Lam Ap.
    The king then traveled north into the thinly-populated jungles of Mon hoping to entice the tribal chiefs into an alliance. Offering himself in marriage to a chief's sister or daughter, after much negotiating he obtained a full alliance from the strongest chief, returning in 2091 with a bride who gaped in wonder at the sights and sounds of Pattani.
    His son (and heir) Surat Bunyasarn took ship to the Andaman Islands and stayed for years of discussions with the tribal councils among the impoverished fishing clans. To overcome differences in language and religion he offered himself in marriage (to the shock of his courtly retainers) to a daughter of a council member. Eventually the islanders agreed Langkasukan traders would have exclusive rights, and he returned in 2091 with a bride who also gaped in wonder at a real city.

Kingdom of Funan Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Kaundinya I, King of Funan
    Kaundinya allocated the wealth and labor of his kingdom to clearing vast tracts of jungle so the land could be used for agriculture, the project making substantial progress. Trade was begun down the Mekong and east along the coast to the kingdom of Lam Ap.
    The king then crossed the river to Preikuk where he hoped to gather information about the nomad chieftans that would help his upcoming diplomatic mission. Despite his considerable charm (and its effect upon ladies in the nomad camps) differing languages and religions complicated his efforts. By bad luck he was recognized by a former palace servant who'd been exiled from Funan. His identity revealed, he began with embarassment his negotiations for an alliance, offering himself in marriage to the daughter of a chief. After lengthy talks the strongest chief made a vow of fealty, and Kaundinya returned to Vyadhapura with a bride who was over-whelmed by the capital city.
    Meanwhile the king's cousin Huntian had been dispatched to Siam to discuss closer relations. He was a middling diplomat and offered neither marriage nor money. Despite persistance he failed to sway the jungle tribesmen.

Kingdom of Lam Ap Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Ang Bak, King of Lam Ap
    Ang Bak invested gold into improving military quality, starting a message relay system and hiring scholars to devise a method of permanently recording the Mon-Khemer tongue. The capital of Tra Kiew had its main streets paved and public fountains installed conveniently adjacent. Merchants were given license to trade with the kingdoms of Van Lang to the north and Langkasuka around the coast then southwest.
    Believing in the old phrase "better safe than sorry" the king then remained vigilant to defend Lam Ap. His cousin Ti Tran meanwhile traveled to Cochin where he sought alliance with the chiefs of the jungle tribes, offering the king in marriage to a chief's daughter or sister. A middling diplomat the most he could obtain was a vow of fealty. Ti Tran escorted the king's bride Anh back to the royal palace in Tra Kiew (which as expected amazed her) for marriage to Ang Bak.

Kingdom of Van Lang Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
H¨ng Vuong of Chan Dynasty, King of Van Lang
    H¨ng Vuong hired scholars, artists and philosophers and tasked them with creating a system of recording the Viet language. A small dormitory was built for the university. The majority of the kingdom's wealth was saved for future use.
    The king then added garrison troops to his personal guard and set out for some diplomacy-in-force in Mison. The native tribes were much impressed by the marching ranks of axemen and skirmishers. H¨ng Vuong proposed an alliance and offered himself as husband for a chieftan's daughter or sister. Despite language differences he got his point across effectively; the large army with him certainly helped. One tribal chief took the oath of a feudal vassal and offered his youngest sister. The king was badly scarred from an old battle wound but the bride thought hey, I'm going to be a queen, I can do this.
    During this time his cousin Thuc Phan had crossed the mountains into Nampung where he parlayed with the chiefs of its jungle tribes. Although offering nothing and being a middling diplomat, he was persistant and after years of nagging obtained a vow of fealty from the natives.

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