Newsfax Turn: #7 ( 2100 - 2096 BC )
January 23, 2016

ANNOUNCEMENTS: New or changed from previous turn will be in red.
My Stats program only accepts whole gp for University investment, and only stores whole nfp leftover at end of turn.
Progress in metallurgy, literacy & government will be in green and is the situation at the start of the turn.

Want another position? Ask the GM what area(s) you can choose from. Writing all the conditionals was becoming too complicated. A request for a 2nd position gets priority over a request for a 3rd position.
1. Some nations are falling behind on tech point production. If your University level is 2 or less you probably aren't producing them.
2. The rules for interacting with Primacies and migrating tribes are deferred until after turn 8.

QUICK SCROLL if you know where you want to go:
Iberia <--- westward expansion!
Italy Centered
Aegean & Black Sea Areas
Greater Nile Valley
Greater Levant
Greater Mesopotamia
Oxus Valley
Tibetan Plateau
Indus Valley
Ganges Valley
Southern India
Irrawaddy Valley
Southeast Asia <--- eastward expansion!



fortified Settlement of Los Millares

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.

Lusitanian Tribes Barbarian Metalworking Tribal <--- read Rule Changes about Barbarian tribes
Many hamlets combined to equal a Settlement. Wilderness homeland half-cultivated.
    advanced in time; OPEN FOR A PLAYER

Kingdom of Tartessos Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Many villages combined to equal a city. Wilderness homeland half-cultivated.
    advanced in time; OPEN FOR A PLAYER

Celtiberian Tribes Barbarian Metalworking Tribal <--- read Rule Changes about Barbarian tribes
Many hamlets combined to equal a Settlement. Wilderness homeland half-cultivated.
    advanced in time; OPEN FOR A PLAYER


(Corsica, Sardinia, Italian penninsula, Sicily & Malta)

Nuragic field fort with distinctive stone Nuraghe towers

Literacy has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.

Nuragic Civilization Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Alessandru, Lord of Albucci, de facto leader of Nuragic Civilization
    Alessandru ordered the wilderness trails whereby Sardinian farmers brought their produce to market to be widened and small creeks bridged. Defenses were added to Corsica and two trade galleys built in the Albucci shipyards. He then ruled the many Nuragic villages.
    Rafiele and feudal ally Petru of Filitosa took command of one trade galley each and departed on missions of exploration, Rafiele to the west and Petru to the southeast. After many years each returned safely to widespread acclaim.

(Proto-)Etruscans Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Arnza Ulthese, King of Etruscans
    Recognizing that continuing illiteracy was a major problem for his growing kingdom, Arnza directed all resources be devoted to developing a way to record language. Unsurprisingly the scholars closely studied the system already in use by the neighboring Apennine Culture and were ultimately successful.
    While his sister Stenia administered, the king continued his diplomatic talks with the Calabrians, eventually persuading them to join their lands fully to those of the Etruscans. During the negotiations tragic news arrived in 2097: fire had broken out in the palace one night, killing many. The bodies of his wife Pevtha of Latium and his brother-in-law Thresu of Malta were both found in Pevtha's bed-chamber, presumably because Thresu tried to rescue her. Fortunately Stenia escaped along with his young son Vulca.

Apennine Culture Barbarian Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Brutus, Lord of Scoglio, de facto leader of Apennine Culture
    Brutus commanded most Apennine resources expended continuing the cultivation of the homeland, although the university was funded to purchase supplies. He then ruled, and in mid-2100 rejoiced in the birth of a son. Alas, the following year his wife Beatrix died in childbirth along with the child. Brutus was plunged into a deep depression and began drinking heavily.
    Meanwhile Decimus, his second, spent years in Spoleto negotiating a closer, non-tributary relationship with the Apennine culture, offering himself in marriage to a (hopefully) comely local noblewoman. When word arrived in 2098 that the king had drunk himself to death, Decimus remained faithful to his orders and kept discussions going. At last the lord of Spoleto agreed to abdicate to his sea-side estates, his lands merging with the Apennine, and Decimus marrying his daughter.


(Balkans, Aegean Sea littoral, Western Anatolia & Black Sea littoral)

Achaean Greek capital of Mycenae

Literacy has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.

Illyrians Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Pleurias, King of Illyrians
    Pleurias decreed work cultivating the homeland would continue as well as investments in military quality. Realizing many years had passed since hostilities with the Achaeans he approved merchants resuming trade along the Dalmatian coast.
    Young heir Medak and his Slovenian bride produced a son in 2099, another in 2098 and a daughter in 2097. In the winter of 2096 King Pleurias - an old man in his late 50s - took ill with a severe cold that became a fatal pneumonia. Medak ascended the throne and proclaimed his younger brother to be his heir.

Achaean Greeks Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ellas, King of Achaeans
    The Achaean kingdom continued to have financial difficulties; Ellas spent much gold funding scholars, artists and unemployed scribes from other nations to create a "written" version of the Greek language, but they had no success. Olive trees and grape vines were planted on the hillsides to increase agricultural yield.
    King Ellas then set out for Macedon in company with the diplomat Adulucies. Enjoying much feasting and drinking with the local chieftans, he was so hungover he hardly reacted when a messenger arrived from Mycennae in 2099 saying Ellas's sickly young son had died. After many years the king and Adulucies convinced the Macedonians to join completely with Greece.
    Meanwhile Akakios and Alcibiades, sons of the previous king Basileios, ruled and administered the kingdom's day to day needs. Akakios took time to marry a local noblewoman and sire sons in 2100 and 2097.

Minoans Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (Linear A glyphs)
Kyrsi, First of the Council
    With the Tyrrhenian Sea mapped, trade was initiated with the Nuragic Civilization and the Etruscans. Kyrsi obtained Council approval for investments in warship quality and government hiring, plus supplies for the university. Most of the Oligarchy's wealth however was spent recruiting and training 1,400 archers and assigning them to the pentaconters commanded by the very capable lieutenant Lonchi.
    Kyrsi and Lonchi left Knossos with the archers plus two thousand mixed infantry aboard a fleet of nearly twenty galleys of various types and sizes. The force passed through the Aegean then headed south with its destination being Heliopolis on the Lower Nile. Having grown increasingly worried about the threat of an Egypt united under Thebes, the Minoans had decided to intervene on behalf of the Old Kingdom. [see Nile Valley War ]

    Tavrys, Second of the Council (and grand-nephew of Diskliakos, the previous First) left Knossos early 2100 and returned early 2097 accompanied (it was said) by a young bride. No explanation was given by the Council.
    Meanwhile feudal ally Phaisto of Cyprus decided he'd make a name for himself and take over the port settlement of Kalavosos. As he approached the small grouping of houses, shops and wharves with eight hundred mixed infantry, the astonished leaders hastened out to surrender. Phaisto left them in charge but with the understanding they followed his orders.
    Minoan ally Zakro of Phylakopi traveled to Sicily where he obtained a pledge of fealty, in effect creating a sub-nation* within the Minoan holdings since the pledge was to him rather than the Council.

*see LOTE Basic Rules the last paragraph of 7.1.4 Full Allies. Sicily and Phylakopi shaded a bit darker than the Minoan color to show this.

City-State of Troy Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy - literate (Luwian hieroglyphics)
Ezine, King of Troy IV
    Ezine sent orders (yay literacy!) to Troy for his clerks to invest in improving the quality of the military as well as hiring civilians both pious and unsavory. Eight hundred men familiar with the bow were trained as archers to bolster the defenses of the city.
    Next he led his army south to the ferrys, taking most of 2100 for all five thousand to cross back across the Hellespont strait to Bithnia. In mid-crossing a storm blew in from the Aegean causing several galleys to capsize. Naturally Ezine was aboard one of them; his armor and that of his retainers and personal guards pulled them under the waves. Fortunately his heir Ucalegon was on a different boat and assumed command of the stunned troops.
    Once the Hittite priests completed their funeral rites, Ucalegon was proclaimed king. His first act was to carry out his late father's wishes and (despite misgivings) appoint his half-brother Acamas the new Heir.
    Ucalegon then took passage to Moldavia for diplomatic meetings with the steppe chieftans, offering himself as husband for a nomad princess. He was an amazingly skilled orator and managed to overcome language differences and significant religious hostility; eventually the most powerful chief became a feudal ally and gave his younger sister in marriage. The new royal couple returned to Troy, the bride being completely awe-struck by a major city. Inspired by lavish gifts from her husband, with enthusiasm she produced a son in 2097 and another in 2096.

Hitties Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Luwian hieroglyphics)
Annitas, King of the Hittites
    Annitas directed that the kingdom's resources be invested in many areas of interest: better infantry training, training priests, attempting to initiate a messenger service and other schemes. Dormatories and lecture halls were constructed for the University and warehouses were built for storage of dried fruits, vegetables and grain to see the nation thruogh times of famine. He also persuaded merchants to initiate trade with Subartu and Ugarit over the high mountains bordering Cappadocia.
    All that set in motion, Annitas ruled the kingdom whilst enjoying his Pontic wife Hurik. She birthed a boy in 2100 and a girl in 2099, but after a miscarriage in 2098 she did not conceive again despite prayers, purifying incense and sacrifices of bleating livestock by Hittite priests of fertility goddesses Aserdus and Sauska.
    In early 2096 the king proclaimed his younger brother Telipinus to be his heir. It was said the teen could persuade anyone to do anything (a useful skill in seducing the ladies of the court) but had no patience for lessons or administering.

Maykop Culture Barbarian Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Many villages combined to equal a city. Wilderness homeland half-cultivated.
    currently NPN; put on the map so it's not forgotten


(including Horn of Africa)

High Priest Menkaure calls for the vengence of the gods upon the Nubians

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area except as noted below.
Literacy has reached as far south as Meroe.

Egyptian Priesthood Civilized Metalworking Theocracy
Menkaure, High Priest of Osiris
    High Priest Menkaure traveled to Mersa Gawasis to oversee the conversion of its modest temple shrine into a walled temple enclosure. Fortunately being well away from the fighting, High Priestess Hatshepsut directed the successful expansion of Aswan's temple enclosure into a full temple complex. A group of lower-level priests from Byblos took passage to offshore Tyros but were unable to convert any of the inhabitants.
    Several months into 2098 word reached Menkaure and Hatshepsut of the destruction of Thebes and with it the temple of Amun. Disbelieving they dispatched agents who returned to confirm the holy site had been sacked by command of King Shasesi of Nubia and its priests & novices led away in chains. Priests of different patron gods may compete for status, but they are united in service to a common pantheon; an attack upon one temple is an attack upon all. At year's end in the great mortuary temple complex of Osiris outside of Abydos, Menkaure called down the vengence of the gods upon the pagan Nubians.
    currently NPN

Old Kingdom of Egypt Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ipu, Queen of the VIII Dynasty, favored of Ra
    Ipu, sister of the late King Baufra who had fallen in battle, ruled the Old Kingdom remnants. She was enchantingly charismatic and persuaded her demoralized officers to continue the war. The local priests of Ra assured all concerned that although Ptah (patron god of Memphis) had apparently turned his back upon the Old Kingdom, Ra (patron god of Heliopolis) would not.
    Inspired, Ipu ordered fortifications built in Mansura and a wall begun around Heliopolis itself. Feudal ally Ruia was sent east into the Sinai to defend it should a Levant nation take advantage of the Old Kingdom's weakness to seize the valuable turquoise mines. All surviving warriors from the fall of Memphis plus local garrison troops were put under the command of the queen's younger brother Scota, an accomplished fighter and strategist. Ipu confided to Scota that help was coming from distant Crete; his army would have to hold out until then against an attack that was expected imminently.
    Fortunately for the Old Kingdom the months passed without invasion. In late July 2100 a Minoan fleet of some twenty galleys arrived in Heliopolis, during August unloading a mix of archers, swordsmen and skirmishers marching behind a white banner with purple outlining a bull's head. The skilled Minoan commander Lonchi and First of the Minoan Council Kyrsi sat with heir Scota to plan the defense. [see Nile Valley War ]

City-State of Herakleopolis Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - FREE STATE TO THEBES
Sekhimib, 3rd King of the IX-X Dynasty, favored of Heryshef
    Sekhimib decreed more gold invested attempting to establish a messenger system to relay news quickly. Great quantities of wheat, barley, dried vegetables and salted fish were stored for lean times. Most of the city-state's income and manpower was expended training another two thousand men to fight with stone- or copper-bladed axe and shield. Sekhimib signed a treaty stating the armies of Herakleopolis and Thebes could freely travel throughout each other's lands. The treaty also transferred to Herakleopolis formal possession of Lower Egypt, Memphis, Ghebal Gharib and Mersa Gawasis; Thebean conquests had become too extensive for them to rule effectively.
    Sekhimib then remained in the city to rule, putting all Herakleopolitan warriors under the command of the heir Akhtoy II who was a highly skilled warrior. They encamped on the west bank of the Nile opposite Mansura awaiting Thebean word to launch a joint invasion. [see Nile Valley War ]

City-State of Thebes Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ramses, 2nd King of the XI Dynasty, favored of Amun
    Ramses commanded civilians of an analytical mind be hired into the government for purposes unknown. Huge quantities of food were dried or salted, and stored for future needs, although much was exported to the Minoans by the extant trade route. So confident was Ramses of victory over the Old Kingdom remnants in Mansura that surplus population was equipped and sent to colonize the half-populated Eastern Desert rather than expand the army.
    Ramses also signed a treaty stating the armies of Herakleopolis and Thebes could freely travel throughout each other's lands. The treaty also transferred to Herakleopolis formal possession of Lower Egypt, Memphis, Ghebal Gharib and Mersa Gawasis; Thebean conquests had become too extensive for them to rule effectively.
    Since his heir Titus had fallen in battle, he proclaimed Tutmoses II - a mediocre general but steadfastly loyal - to be his new Heir. He ordered Tutmoses to delay finishing off the Old Kingdom long enough to bring to Thebes the booty captured from fallen Memphis. He then settled back to rule and await news of more conquests.
    The newly-appointed Heir was already marching the army back from Lower Egypt by way of Middle and Upper Egypt, crossing the Nile into Aswan and arriving in Thebes late June 2100. He presented Ramses with captured gold and grain, carried by hundreds of enslaved Old Kingdom prisoners. After the Thebean troops had a few days in the brothels and taverns, Tutmoses led the army north through the baking desert of Ghebel Gharib intending to attack Mansura from an unexpected direction. In late September 2100 the Thebeans reached the Mansuran border...

GM Comments:
    (1) Six different nations were involved (Thebes & Herakleopolis vs Minoans, Old Kingdom, Nubia & Meroe) moving and fighting. With the exception of the Minoans everyone wrongly tried moving their armies 8AP/year. While a leader has that many APs for non-movement actions, if they have units with them they move at the speed of the slowest unit - in this case infantry which gets 6AP/year. Leaders of 9 combat stat and higher have +1 to movement so those armies move 7AP/year; however if moving or coordinating with a 6AP/year army then it would be limited to the speed of its slower-moving ally. Thus everyone except the Minoans fell steadily "behind schedule" as far as when they planned to be somewhere or do something.
    (2) When a region is invaded from two sides, if there are two defending armies they will each confront one invader. If there is one defending army it will be split with half to face each invader. Either response can be overruled by player standing orders.
    (3) Apologies in advance if I missed anything - there were so many contingency orders I was flipping back & forth between turnsheets until I had to stop and just say "I'm done here".

2100 BC
    Spent in movement as detailed in individual kingdom sections above & below.

2099 BC
    A Herakleopolitan army of over 5,000 experienced warriors began crossed the Nile from Lower Egypt into Mansura while a second army of over 3,000 veteran Thebeans invaded from Ghebel Gharib. The defenders split to confront both threats.
    An untested Minoan force of over 3,000 archers, swordsmen and skirmishers would defend along the Nile. If driven back they'd protect Heliopolis where their galleys were anchored. The Herakleopolitans suffered from Minoan archery as they crossed but then bludgeoned the Minoans out of the way inflicting more lossses than they received. Both sides manuvered for advantage.
    One night the Herakleopolitan heir was stabbed in his tent1 - although wounded he remained in command but his effectiveness was greatly reduced. This made all the difference and the Minoans had much the better of the next encounter, driving the Herakleopolitans back across the Nile this time with heavier losses than their own.

    Meanwhile Scota had led nearly 3,000 Old Kingdom veterans to face the Thebeans where he could anchor his line on three recently constructed stone forts. The invaders had been inspired by heir Tetmoses's pre-battle address and were the best-trained infantry in the Nile Valley but their ranks broke upon the Old Kingdom's forts while counter-attacking Old Kingdom infantry rolled up their flanks. About a third of the Thebeans escaped the slaughter, fleeing south into the desert led by a junior officer. The Old Kingdom had taken comparatively light casualties.
    No sooner had Ramses received word of both defeats than another messenger arrived with news that the armies of Nubia and Meroe had invaded the Eastern Desert! "Nubia was an ally! May Amun curse them!"

    Six hundred Thebean border guards were swept aside by nearly 7,000 Nubians and 3,000 Meroeans. By midsummer the Eastern Desert (including the astonished Thebean colonists) was pacified without Thebean reaction.
    Next the combined armies turned west invading Aswan itself with the Meroen portion now led by Saba, who had come of age and been proclaimed king. The Thebean homeland had field forts at strategic locations but unlike the forts in Mansura lacked any supporting mobile forces, allowing them to be stormed on all sides while Nubian archers added to the garrisons' losses. The Thebeans fought virtually to the last man but were overwhelmed. By the end of the year Aswan was secured. The ungarrisoned Eastern Desert reverted to Thebean ownership but the settlement of Berenice declared its independence.

2098 BC
    The Herakleopotian, Minoan and Old Kingdom armies spent much of the year recovering: their wounded healing and returning to active duty. Same for the Thebean army survivors sweltering in the Ghebel Gharib desert.
    Further south, however, in the spring the armies of Nubia and Meroe assaulted Thebes itself. The capital had no walls and only 600 defenders. Nubian archers made casualties of many of them; then an overwhelming wave of attackers took the city, liberating hundreds of enslaved Old Kingdom prisoners. The garrison fought to the death. Ramses and his Herakleopolitan queen Netinbeti along with retainers escaped 2 in a light trade galley.
    King Shasesi ordered Thebes sacked and its people enslaved; the unrestrained warriors included the temple enclosure of Amun 3 in their rampage. Two hundred temple guards fought and the civilian population resisted, but all were crushed although not without loss to the victors. The loot and slaves were given over to the men of Meroe as compensation for their long march from home, resulting in some discontent among the Nubian soldiery. Leaving any dead Thebeans as food for the circling vultures, the two armies camped some distance away. Behind them the city was deserted but still standing.

    As the year progressed Lower Egypt was increasingly restive with rumors of a beautiful woman who spoke inciting the populace to rebellion against Herakleopolitan occupation. However a healed & rested Akhtoy had nearly 4,000 warriors at his command and the locals remained submissive. His warriors soon had much more to worry about: in autumn almost five thousand Minoan and Old Kingdom warriors began crossing the Nile from Mansura into Lower Egypt bent on liberation.
    Simultaneously Kyrsi, the Minoan 2nd in command (and First of the Council) left Heliopolis with a fleet of pentaconter war galleys and headed south (upriver) to play pirate.

2097 BC
    Despite the protection of volleys of Minoan arrows, the combined armies had a hard, desperate fight but it was now the Herakleopolitan's turn to be bludgeoned back from the river, taking over 2,000 casualties. Akhtoy withdrew his forces south to Middle Egypt which being his homeland was far more valuable to protect. The Minoan army suffered over 800 casualties and the Old Kingdom army over 600. The opportunists who'd ruled Lower Egypt and Memphis after the Thebean conquest fled ahead of the liberating armies.
    Meanwhile Kyrsi swept the Lower Nile of Thebean trade galleys (msp) capturing those they could and causing the rest to flee to the nearest safe river port. Trade galleys of other nations were left untouched. The Minoan crews having enjoyed themselves immensely (and developed a mysterious penchant for crying "arrr!") the boats returned north (downriver) to Heliopolis and their anchored transports whose crews sulked they'd missed the excitement.
    Well to the south the warriors of Nubia and Meroe (and freed Old Kingdom prisoners) lived well, feasting and drinking, served by enslaved Thebeans. In the autumn Regent Jebelein of Meroe died in her sleep of old age.

2096 BC
    In the spring the 2,000 remaining mixed Minoan soldiery led by Lonchi along with a thousand Old Kingdom swordsmen led by Scota boarded Kyrsi's various-sized galleys and headed south. Wary Herakleopolitan troops in Middle Egypt watched the fleet's passage upriver and breathed a sigh of relief when it passed out of sight.
    The orders of the waterborne force were contingent upon Thebes being on fire 4 when they approached. Since it wasn't burning the land forces debarked there rather than on the Upper Egypt side of the Nile. The men prepared with enthusiasm before setting multiple fires. The flames spread quickly with no one to fight them and soon the entire city was ablaze. The soldiers of Crete and the Old Kingdom savored the spectacle awhile then boarded their galleys to return downriver before the year's end. 5

1 Akhtoy had taken a beautiful courtesan to his bed. He stirred in his sleep just as she used his own dagger to stab him, the blade just missing his heart. At his outcry his guards rushed into the tent but the woman had slit the back and escaped in the darkness and confusion.
2 Ramses died early the next year a broken man. Netinbeti rules the Thebean remnant from Abydos.
3 when religions are mutually hostile this is automatic unless the victorious leader risks ordering his men to spare the site.
4 despite a campaign requiring multiple years, no one had questioned the phenomenal odds of that event happening just as the fleet arrived.
5 upon his return to Memphis, Kyrsi married beautiful Queen Ipu thus linking Crete and the Old Kingdom. According to society scribes, she wore a light blue Minoan-style gown with purple outlining the Egyptian bee symbol, a gift from the elite of Knossos.

Kingdom of Nubia Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Shasesi, King of Nubia
    King Shasesi funneled significant investment into the nation's infantry training, and the kingdom's army expanded by more than a thousand men trained with sword and another six hundred with the bow. The king, his Heir Maraga (son of the previous king) and lieutenant Meneferi divided the army between them and put it through manuvers. The warriors had a steadily increasing sense of anticipation that great events were about to unfold.
    In late June 2100 Jebelein, Regent of Meroe, and a army of axemen and skirmishers arrived in the Nubian capital of Kerma. The kingdoms had long been friendly; Shasesi and other notables greeted Jebelein and the members of Meroe's royal famiy who'd accompanied her. It was decided that Prince Saraga of Nubia would marry Jebelein's daughter (also named Jebelein) when the girl came of age, and the King of Nubia would marry her sister Candace when she came of age, thus interlinking the two royal households. Days of feasting and drinking followed.
    The gathering had non-festive purpose as well: having grown increasingly worried about the threat of an Egypt united and ruled by Thebes, the monarchs of Nubia and Meroe had decided to intervene. Thus a few days later their armies marched together through the dry scrub of Lower Nubia and in late 2100 reached its border with the Eastern Desert. [see Nile Valley War ]

City-State of Meroe Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Jebelein, Regent of Meroe
    At Jebelein's direction wealth and labor were sent digging irrigation ditches and wells to improve crop yield in the homeland of Funj. With assistance from visiting Nubian metalworkers the craftsmen of Meroe continued attempts to produce a useful alloy of copper. In a few years' time they would finally succeed.
    Jebelein next gathered the royal family and Meroe's army, taking them north through the grasslands of Kassala. At the border of Upper Nubia the column was met by Nubian guides. [see Nubia]

    In late 2097 word came of the death of Regent Jebelein and the people mourned, but took heart that Saba had already become king so the dynasty continued.

Land of Punt Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Makale, Lord of Punt
    King Makale decreed investments spread over many areas but favoring the military, development of a written language and improvements in metallurgy. Fortifications were built to control strategic passes in Adowa and Zeila, and six hundred recruits trained with axe and shield. Makale then ruled his kingdom.
    The diplomat Samir traveled across Zeila into Djibuti and spoke with the chiefs there of the benefits of alliance with Punt. He offered the very handsome heir Fazi as husband for a chieftan's daughter to sweeten the deal. The tribal elders agreed to pay tribute and sent the comely Kahina back with Samir to marry Fazi. She soon became pregnant. Life is good thought Fazi.
    Not for long. In the spring of 2097 at a royal banquet the "tame" performing chimpanzees got away from their inattentive trainers and into the wine supply then ran amok when cornered. Leaping and screeching they attacked anyone grabbing or striking at them or shouting or screaming, which meant pretty much everybody. Tearing flesh off bone and ripping off limbs they killed or injured dozens before guards finally killed enough of them that the rest fled. Among the dead was King Makale who tried to protect his son and daughter-in-law, who were both grieviously hurt. Amid the blood and bodies overturned tables Fazi was now king. A few days later weak from shock and blood loss Kahina miscarried. The royal couple very slowly recovered.

    In late 2096 a group of scholars presented to healed (but scarred) Fazi and Kahina their accomplishment: a written version of the Cushite tongue. They'd modified the Old Nubian pictographs used in neighboring Meroe, Cushite having much in common with the Nilo-Saharan spoken there. Literacy had come to Punt!


(Western Arabia north to Levant then west to Subartu)

City of Hazor in Jordan

Literacy exists throughout Greater Levant as shown below.

Sabaeans Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Zabar script glyphs)
Athtar, King of Sa'na
    King Athtar ruled a prosperous, quiet kingdom.

City-State of Hazor Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Jabin, King of Hazor
    Jabin poured much of the city-state's wealth into creation of a method of relaying news and royal edicts quickly. The minor nobleman who'd been responsible up to now was dismissed as incompetent and a merchant put in charge. In a relatively short time the service was operational.
    Four hundred men were trained with sword & shield and added to the king's guard. The homeland was further protected with additional castles. Engineers sought audience with the king to discuss new fortification ideas. There were even rumors of shipwrights being hired to design galleys for when the kingdom had shipyards!
    Keeping a close eye on events to both his east and west, Jabin settled down to rule and enjoy his wife. A son was born in late 2100 but the queen died in childbirth, leaving Jabin grief-stricken.

City-State of Ugarit Civilized Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Amurabi, First of the Council
    The Council resolved to invest again in improving the city-state's infantry and in expanding its already impressive university. The city itself had the main square and its intersecting streets paved with stone and public fountains were built. The army was increased by six hundred archers and four hundred swordsmen.

Mentha the Prophetess
    With much celebration First of the Council Amurabi initiated trade from the newly built port area down the Euphrates to both Ur and Uruk. Amurabi then returned to Ugarit to manage the day to day running of the city-state. Upon his return he and Second of the Council Niqmaddu II were confronted by Mentha, mother of Niqmaddu II and self-proclaimed seer.
    "One Mad Eagle has arosen in land between the Valleys, another will rise soon," she warned, "Strike east to defend or never see the mad eagle coming." Both men accepted her words without question, her apparent certainty and their ready belief in seers and things mystical lending them weight. Deciding the 'Mad Eagle' was the deceased Sinjar of Assur who'd foolishly attempted to invade Subartu a few years earlier, they decided to launch a pre-emptive strike on Assur before another 'Mad Eagle' arose with Ugarit as the intended prey.
    Soon Niqmaddu II marched northeast towards Edessa with a host numbering over five thousand mixed swordsmen, archers and skirmishers. At the border he was met by Subartun guides who led the men of Ugarit across Edessa to the border with Carhae, which Niqmaddu promptly invaded. It was held by Kur, a feudal ally of Assur with twelve hundred household troops who manned prepared positions across the Ugarit line of march. The Levant archers inflicted heavy losses even before the fighting became close-quarter, at which point Kur and his followers were wiped out with only slight loss to the attackers. Overtaken as she fled the area was Kammani, wife of Kur and older daughter of King Ashur-Uballit of Assur.
    Niqmaddu's army camped in Carhae for the rest of the year waiting for a reaction from Assur but none came. However news did come of the death of First of the Council Amurabi. During a visit to the city's harbor an unexpected swell while he was boarding a galley caused Amurabi to tumble between it and the stone pier; the following reverse motion of the water crushed him before he could even cry out. The ambitious Niqmaddu II was pleased a rival had been removed.
    In the spring of 2098 the men of Ugarit broke camp and invaded Mosul, the Assuran homeland. Confronting them were five thick-walled mud-brick forts and an army of over four thousand led by Ashur-Uballit. Overly confident from their earlier easy victory, Niqmaddu's army surged forward only to find itself unable to handle both the storm of projectiles from the forts and the better-trained fighters of Assur.
    As the morale of the invaders wavered, scores of Assuran battle carts assailed their flanks; the unfamiliar sights and sounds causing panic. The ranks of Ugarit crumbled while the warriors of Assur gave chase cutting down enemies from behind. With more than half his men dead, Niqmaddu managed to rally his troops enough to fight their way clear and back into Carhae, leaving hundreds of their severely wounded behind to be captured. King Ashur-Uballit had lost only a few hundred killed, and when his men seized the enemy encampment they freed his daughter Kammani.
    When first word of the army's rout in Mosul reached Ugarit, Mentha threw herself off the palace wall in premature grief believing her son was dead. Ooops.

    Not all had gone badly for Ugarit. The diplomat Amanru traveled to Cilicia where he spent years at the court of its lord. Amanru's persistance eventually overcame religious hostility and language differences and the lord signed a treaty giving the merchants of Ugarit special trading rights within his lands.

Kingdom of Subartu Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Anthousa, Regent for , son of the late King Anu
    At Anthousa's direction investment was made in military improvements and further attempts to devise a method to relay messages quickly. Finally this effort paid off and a relay service established. Prisoners taken during the border combat with Assur were put to work digging wells and fencing pastures in the Subartu countryside.
    Mindfull of the threat of Assur, two hundred archers were recruited and eight hundred men trained with sword and shield. Stone forts were built at key locations and walls begun around the new city of Samosite. The Regent sent men to the border with Aleppo to guide the Ugaritan army through Edessa to the border with Assur vassal Carhae. [see Ugarit]
    The issue of succession again had to be dealt with. Anthousa proclaimed her older daughter Jovka to be queen when she came of age. To strengthen her position the Regent then married Ercan who'd led the defense of the realm against Assur. Anthousa then ruled the kingdom. In mid-2100 it was announced she was pregnant despite being 40 years of age, but she soon miscarried. Pregnant again in 2098, she bore a girl but died soon after of childbirth fever.
    A heartbroken Ercan assumed the Regency and ruled. When Jovka came of age in 2097 he honorably gave up the throne and assumed the role of heir.


(Mesopotamia, Persian Gulf, Iranian Plateau)

City of Ur including the Temple Complex of Nanna-Sin, God of the Moon

Literacy (cuneiform) exists throughout Greater Mesopotamia except for Elam which uses Elamite Linear A script.

Mesopotamian Priesthood Civilized Bronzeworking Theocracy
Shuruppak, High Priest of Innana (Ishtar) at Uruk
    Shuruppak traveled to Circis where he established a temple shrine to bring spiritual comfort to the people while their land was a battleground between Kish and Ur. Meanwhile High Priestess Salabikh journeyed to Mesopotamia where she oversaw the expansion of the rural temple enclosure to a full temple complex.
    Mid-level priests remained in Circis speaking of the true gods, and converted the remainder of the population to the worship of the Mesopotamian pantheon.
    currently NPN

City-State of Assur Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ashur-Uballit, King of Assur, favored of Ashur
    Ashur-Uballit spent gold hoping to improve infantry tactics and seigecraft, and ordered surplus harvest stored for times of famine. More land in Mosul was put to the plow and additional irrigation ditches dug. At public ceremony he proclaimed Prince Ah-Kalla to be his heir replacing the deceased Sinjar who'd led an army to destruction again Subartu in a quest for glory.
    Ashur-Uballit then ruled his kingdom and enjoyed the pleasures of the palace. In late summer 2100 a messenger arrived with news feudal ally Carhae had been attacked by warriors of Ugarit. [see Ugarit ]

    In late 2097 while traveling near the army's encampment in Mosul Ashur-Uballit's driver lost control of the onager team when they spooked, the battle cart overturning and killing both soldier and monarch. His son Ah-Kalla back in Assur was crowned king in the temple of Ashur and then hastened to Mosul.

City-State of Kish Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Jushur II, 2nd King of the VI Dynasty, favored of Zababa
    Jushur again ordered surplus harvest stored for lean years. With the recent attack by Ur in mind, the rest of the nation's wealth was spent on additional forts in Mesopotamia and enough battle carts to carry a thousand warriors. That set in motion, he married a young noblewoman of Kish. They welcomed a son in late 2100 but thereafter his wife suffered multiple miscarriages causing her to ex-cessively protect and indulge the boy.
    Leaving a strong force in Kish itself with the king, in early spring famed general Manishtusu led over six thousand men across the Euphrates into Circis. [see Euphrates Valley War ]

City-State of Ur Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ur-Nammu, 1st King of the III Dynasty, favored of Nanna
    Defending Selucia with the remnants of his forces, Ur-Nammu sent word to his court at Ur to recruit and train a 600-man battle cart force and four hundred swordsmen. His lieutenant Shamas brought them from Ur to reinforce the king's army, increasing it to above three thousand warriors. Shamas returned to the capital to command its defense. In late spring Ur-Nammu launched a probing attack into Circis ...

GM Comments:
    Four different nations were involved (Ur vs Kish, Uruk & Lagash) moving and fighting. This was completely separate from the Ugarit vs Assur conflict above.

2100 BC
    An army of Kish led by general Manishtusu crossed the Euphrates into Circis and advanced northwest along the trade road to Mari, reaching the river port by the end of April. The Kishite leader called upon the Urian garrison to surrender pointing out the city's walls had not been rebuilt; the commander refused, believing a relief force would arrive in time.
    The army of Ur led by King Ur-Nammu had waited a month in Selucia for additional units to arrive. In April the reinforced army plus twelve hundred Selucian skirmishers under feudal ally Utultar launched an attack across the border into Circis. Facing no opposition at the border the combined force caught up to the army of Kish in May, finding them already engaged in their attack to liberate Mari.
    Fortunately for Kish their patrolling battle carts had seen the Ur-Selucian approach and at Manishtusu's command the rear Kishite ranks turned to fight them. Both sides had a unit mix of battle carts, infantry, archers and skirmishers with generally even combat experience and generalship. Kish's army had the numeric edge but had been caught in an awkward position.
    Archers exchanged volleys, honors being about even as the armies closed. Hard fighting followed, again with honors about even. However a thrown javelin had hit Ur-Nammu, wounding him. Intending all along for his foray into Circis to be brief, the king ordered a disciplined withdrawal back towards the Selucian border taking his wounded with him. About 900 men of either side lay dead on the battlefield.
    Menishtusu did not pursue as his orders were to liberate Mari then remain in Circis on alert. The street to street fighting ended with the remaining Urian warriors in Mari surrendering once they realized relief was in fact not coming.

    Meanwhile events were unfolding to the south. It had taken months for the armies of Uruk and Lagash to cross the Euphrates into Kuwait due to the masses of heavy spearmen included in both forces. It wasn't until August the combined force - with Ur-Ningirsu the Brave of Lagash in overall command - launched its attack upon Ur's homeland.
    Kuwait was defended by five thick-walled forts of baked mud brick; while formidable they lacked any supporting mobile units and could be stormed from all sides. Additionally the Urukish contingent included 800 engineers specially trained in seige warfare and having mining equipment to tunnel under and/or undercut just such fortifications.
    Warriors of Uruk and Lagash totalling over 14,000 stormed the forts while Lagashan archers fired covering volleys and battle carts patrolled. The garrisons fought bravely until they were almost wiped out and their forts rubble, inflicting about 500 casualties upon their enemies.

2099 BC
    Receiving word of the invasion by Uruk and Lagash ("May Nanna-Sin curse them!") King Ur-Nammu of Ur rushed southward with three thousand men while his vassal Utultar remained in Selucia. Meanwhile the armies of Uruk and Lagash were seiging Ur itself. The soldiers atop the walls rained down javelins, rocks, boiling water and burning tar upon the warriors climbing scaling ladders or ramming against the gates. Archers from Lagash picked off what defenders they could.
    Arriving early April the men of Ur found their city under seige and its harbor blockaded by war galleys. While the army of Lagash continued the seige, that of Uruk marched to intercept Ur-Nammu's approaching force. The warriors of Ur realized they were badly outnumbered and grimly resolved to take as many foes with them as possible.
    The army of Ur fought with desperation but could not hold against the ranks of Urukish heavy infantry advancing in phalanx-like formation. They broke through the Urian center while Urukish swordsmen and skirmishers assailed the crumbling flanks. King Ur-Nammu and a few hundred men managed to flee northward by battle cart; the rest of his army were either slain or captured. To their credit they'd managed to kill nearly 1,000 Urukish and wound twice as many.
    By this time the walls of Ur had been reduced and its small garrison crushed. Although Shamas was in command he had aban-doned his post and escaped during the fighting. It fell to the ignored heir Ninazu, son of the previous king, to emerge from the palace and surrender the city to Ur-Ningirsu of Lagash.
    Kuwait is garrisoned by Urukish forces and the city of Ur by Lagashan. To the astonishment of the population there is no looting, sacking, enslaving or burning.

2098 BC
    The Kishite force led by Manishtusu remained in Circis. The armies of Uruk and Lagash remained in Kuwait. Rumors out of Selucia reported the deaths of both King Ur-Nammu and its lord Utultar; whether they are linked or not is unknown. Selucia declared itself independent as did the Babylon settlement.

2097 BC
    The armies of Kish, Uruk and Lagash remained watchful.

2096 BC
    Manishtusu and his army invaded Selucia, severely thrashing the local militia at slight cost. An ambitious minor noble was then appointed satrap on behalf of Kish.
    The armies of Uruk and Lagash cross back over the Euphrates to triumphant welcomes in their respective homelands and cities.

City-State of Uruk Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Kuda, 2nd King of the IV Dynasty, favored of Inanna
    Kuda invested much into making the government and its accounting more efficient. Surplus food was dried or salted and stored for later need and the walls of Uruk were improved. Putting new naval architecture knowledge to use, a trio of pentaconter war galleys were built in the municipal arsenal on the Euphrates. The king next proclaimed that Puzur-ili, son of the previous king, would become a Prince of Uruk upon coming of age in 2099. A feast naturally followed, at which Kuda addressed his court:
    "An attack upon our brother king of Kish is an attack upon Uruk and Lagash. To remove this perfidious stain, we march to war upon the dogs of Ur!" This was met with a roar of drunken approval.
    After a month of preparation over seven thousand warriors of Uruk commanded by Kuda began crossing the Euphrates into Kuwait, the pentaconters guarding against interference. [see Euphrates Valley War ]

    Meanwhile the diplomat Ikun-pi-Istar returned to Ahvaz for lengthy negotiations. Offering neither gold nor a noble marriage, he relied on persistance to wear down the local chiefs. It worked, with the strongest becoming a full ally of Uruk.

    Upon his return in 2096 Kuda celebrated with his wife Gudea resulting in a son born a few days before the year ended.

City-State of Lagash Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - FREE STATE TO URUK
Ur-Ningirsu, King of Lagash, favored of Bau
    Ur-Ningirsu directed gold spent improving seigecraft and ship design. The latter was to reap benefits when naval architects produced prototypes of larger trade galleys and war galleys. Eight hundred men were trained to fight with spear and shield. Lacking any children of his own, the king next proclaimed Ur-Gar, son of the previous king, to be his heir. Ur-Gar was a master swordsman and strategist but crude and blunt-spoken; fortunately he was in line to rule and maintain order rather than diplomacize. Naturally a feast followed, where Ur-Ningirsu addressed his court, giving the same speech as the king of Uruk had since they shared a speech-writer swift with stylus and tablet:
    "An attack upon our brother king of Kish is an attack upon Uruk and Lagash. To remove this perfidious stain, we march to war upon the dogs of Ur!" These words were greeted with the same alcohol-fueled enthusiasm.
    Soon afterward Ur-Ningirsu and seven thousand fighters of Lagash began crossing the Euphrates into Kuwait, also protected by the Uruk pentaconters. [see Euphrates Valley War ]

Traders of Dilmun Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Abdullah, First of the Council
    Abdullah obtained Council approval for the construction of seven large galleys for internal trade. In addition the new neighbor-hoods created by the expansion of Dilmun received sewers, public fountains, paved market squares and gravelled side streets to enhance the area to the level of the "old city". Seven trade galleys were begun in the municipal arsenal for internal trade use. He then met with merchant captains to discuss a more efficient allocation of shipping. Finally, trade was initiated with distant Ugarit via its recently built port area on the Euphrates.
    Abdullah then ruled while Rasheed, Second of the Council helped administer the realm. Among the citizens however there grew concern that neither official had children to train for future Council duties.

Kingdom of Elam Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Simashki, King of Elam
    King Simashki ruled a prosperous, quiet kingdom. At least until one night he had a fatal fall from his bedchamber's balcony into the dry moat below. Palace rumor said it had been preceded by angry voices coming from the royal rooms and a scream from his young wife Hita. Simashki's adopted son and heir Kangan took the throne. Hita watched with much interest.

Kingdom of Gutia Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Erridupizir, King of Gutium
    Erridupizier ordered construction of sewers, public fountains and paved market squares bordered with statues to improve the new areas of Borashi populated by the city's expansion. More gold was invested in creating a messenger service. The University received funds for additional staff and supplies, and food was stored for lean times.
    The king's son & heir Gazsi was sent on a diplomatic mission to Tepe Sialk, a fortified settlement in Persia with inns and hostels for Silk Road travelers. Gazsi took along his sister Esfir whom he offered in marriage to its young lord. After much discussion he agreed to retire with his bride to his family estates and Tepe Sialk became part of Gutia.
    When Gazsi returned to Borashi his father - now nearly 50 and quite old for the time - abdicated to enjoy what few years he had remaining. Gazsi became king with much ceremony followed by lengthy celebrations. Amazingly, nobody died.



"Birdman with Snakes" artifact (amulet?) found in excavation

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy (pictographic symbols) exists throughout this area.

City-State of Namazgadepe Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Frasaostra, King of Namazgadepe
    Frasaostra allocated small amounts of gold on improving military quality and preserving food. Most of the kingdom's wealth was spent equipping surplus population with tools, building materials and wagons; they were sent to expand the recently pacified Koi Kyrlgan river settlement into a true city. A garrison ensured the original inhabitants remained submissive.
    The palace being overcrowded with many of his adult children, the King found a bride for Khoqi and husbands for Anahit, Namaj and Objula, all amongst the local nobility, strengthening their loyalty to the crown.
    Missing all the festivities was the heir Crown Prince Piyama who'd gone to Bokhara for a long-term mission to the court of its lord, offering himself in marriage to a Bokharan noblewoman. Piyama was a middling diplomat of low charisma, but a noble's ambitious daughter was willing to overlook that (as she confided to her ladies-in-waiting) since someday she'd be queen of Namazgadepe. Bokhara pledged fealty to Namazgadepe but no more than that.
    Piyama returned somewhat discouraged in early 2096 with his bride Kes, but upon arriving discovered Frasaostra had died of sickness late the previous year and he was now king. Yes! thought Kes.

City-State of Gonur Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
HemÔvand, King of Gonur
    HemÔvand put a new nobleman in charge and again funded attempts to set up a message relay system; this time the effort was a success. Much wealth and labor was spent bringing more land into cultivation, digging irrigation ditches, fencing pastures and con-structing barns.
    Accompanied by two thousand mixed infantry, the king journeyed to the settlement of Tepe Fullol in Tadzik for some diplomacy-in-force. He stayed many years and eventually the elders signed a treaty giving Gonurian merchants favored trading rights.


See mixed-terrain and Tibetan Plateau additions on Map Changes page!

Tibetan capital of Lhasa

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.

Kingdom of Zhang Zhung Pastoral-Nomadic Metalworking Monarchy
Biming, King of Zhang Zhung
    Biming invested a bit of wealth into just about everything but the University got the most, financing the hiring of faculty and the purchase of supplies. Much gold was spent improving the capital of Kyunghing with sewers and public wells. Four hundred men familiar with the bow were recruited, and an equal number trained to fight with axe and shield. Biming then ruled his kingdom while awaiting news from Khotan.
    Heir Dequan had crossed over the mountains into Khotan and met with nomad chiefs, offering Biming as husband for a sister or daughter of a strong chieftan. Dequan was a skilled fighter but a middling diplomat, however he was persistant and the chiefs respected a fellow nomad much more than a soft city-dweller, agreeing to pay tribute in jade to Zhang Zhung. Fa, daughter of the strongest, was betrothed to Biming.

Kingdom of Tibet Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
    Quiet times in the mountains.



City of Harappa in Punjab

Literacy (Indus glyphs) exists throughout the Indus Valley civilization.

City-State of Harappa Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Dharmsala, King of Harappa
    Dharmsala invested into infantry improvements and tried again to establish a message relay system. He was confident enough of victory over Ganweriwala that most of the kingdom's resources were spent putting a lot more land to the plow, water management, construction of barns and food storage facilities.
    Again leaving his heir Kalabagh behind to rule, Dharmsala stood ready to defend his lands until it was evident no one was going to invade. Having failed at diplomacy with the tribal chiefs of Kashmir (and been rejected as a suitor for a chieftan's sister or daughter, which he took very personally) he headed north with an army of over 8,000 mixed infantry through the Karakoram Pass into the wilderness beyond to bring Kashmir into the kingdom a more violent way.
    While having a low population density, Kashmir was a large region and the hill tribes accustomed to fighting. Nearly fifteen hundred warriors met the Harappan advance in spite of the odds - honor demanded it. They were annihilated at a cost of several hundred Harappan casualties. A minor chief who groveled appropriately was appointed satrap, and Dharmsala led his army south back through the Pass.
    It took almost two years of marching for the Harappan force to reach Bauluch (now friendly, the population deciding to join the winning side), collect its garrison and reach the border with Edrosia. In early 2097 they invaded Edrosia prepared for serious combat; the region was almost a wasteland due to repeated raiding and the scattered survivors stared sullenly at the Harappans but offered no resistance.
    It was spring of 2096 and Dharmsala ordered his experienced warriors to pacify Sind. After leaving a garrison in Edrosia he still had nearly seven thousand men with sword & shield augmented by nearly 2,500 skirmishers and felt confident of victory. Perhaps too confident considering he may be king but was a middling military commander. Waiting in Sind were the Ganweriwalan defenses of five well-placed mud-brick forts supported by 600 heavy spearmen, three thousand swordsmen and nearly a thousand skirmishers all led by Vihana, a younger but more skilled commander with the advantage of knowing his homeland's terrain.
    The attack broke upon the walls of the forts and the rain of projectiles from them while veteran Ganweriwalan infantry pressed the Harappans from all sides. A charge by heavy spearmen led by King Vihana broke through and Dharmsala's army collapsed in retreat towards Edrosia leaving over two thousand dead and that many seriously wounded behind. Only their high level of training kept the Harappans from rout and disintegration. The exultant Ganweriwalans took around 1,100 casualties in total.

    Meanwhile heir Kalabagh ruled and enjoyed his wife. In 2099 she birthed a sickly boy who died within a year. However the next three years each welcomed a healthy daughter.

City-State of Rupar Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - FREE STATE TO HARAPPA
Bikampur, King of Rupar
    Bikampur commanded gold be invested in infantry efficiency, yet another attempt to get a messenger service working, and hiring civilians with an analytical mind for government work. Additional forts were built at strategic points in the homeland and agricultural improvements made. Finally, many hundreds of men were recruited as skirmishers - much cheaper than equipping them with swords and shields.
    The king then waited in the capital to defend his lands until it was evident no one was going to invade. Leaving his heir Ritpara to rule, in 2099 Bikampur's men moved south to Sukkur and again waited for Ganweriwalan attack but none came. Emboldened, in the spring of 2098 the king repeatedly raided Sind, his men ranging far pillaging and destroying what they couldn't. Due to Bikampur's genius for war the defenders were consistantly outmanuvered so his men took negligible losses.
    The Ruparian army then encamped in Sukkur alert for Ganweriwalan response but none came; the Ganweriwalans had their hands full fighting Harappans.

    Back in Rupar heir Ritpara married a local noblewoman who relieved his stress of ruling with passionate nights. They had a girl in late 2100 and another in 2099 but the mother died shortly thereafter of a high fever, leaving Ritpara devastated.

City-State of Ganweriwala Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Vihana the Magnificent, King of Ganweriwala
    King Vihana ruled a prosperous, quiet kingdom. Well, actually not. He, his brother Aparajita and the still surviving warriors of Ganweriwala sensed the fate of their nation was likely to be decided in the next great battle. They vowed to take as many men of Harappa and Rupar as they could with them. Fortunately paying the army wasn't an issue - so many had died that the kingdom's resources were adequate to maintain the remainder. [see both Harappa & Rupar]

Traders of Dholavira Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Harshal, First of the Council
    In Harshal's absence his son Harshan, Sword of the Council, obtained Council agreement to invest in military improvements, storing surplus food and paving additional streets in the capital. Five trade galleys were built in the municipal arsenal while surplus population was rounded up and provided tools and supplies.
    A few months later Harshal assumed command of the galleys and took the colonists back to Qana where their numbers and construction expanded the settlement into a full city. Walls were built around it for protection from nomad raiders. The First then returned home to Dholavira and ruled the city-state while Harshan resumed his patrol around the home island.
    Not long afterward worn out from his travels and past 50 years old, Harshal died from a flu virus that swept the city. His son Harshan administered day to day affairs but his heart wasn't in the job; he'd rather be aboard ship at sea.

City-State of Lothal Seafaring Bronzeworking Monarchy
Baroda, King of Lothal
    Baroda allocated gold to establishing a service to relay messages quickly, purchase supplies for the University and store surplus grain for the future. The rest of the kingdom's wealth and available labor were expended bringing overgrown rural lands under productive cultivation complete with wells, irrigation ditches and farm buildings.
    He then ruled his realm with his young son (from a previous wife) Cherasan at his side, educating him in the arts of administration. Nights were spent with his Jats bride Deepika who gave him a son in 2099 and another son in 2096.
    Meanwhile excited merchant traders and ship captains initiated numerous trade routes from the new port city of Surkotada. Being located a ways further west on the Gulf of Oman it brought the river cities of Mesopotamia and the Red Sea littoral within range of Lothalian seafarers.



Atranjikhera on the Ganges

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area except Kaushambi.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.

City-State of Hastinapura Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Rampur, King of Hastinapura
    Rampur returned home with his army and turned to more peaceful pursuits. The lapsed effort to create a system of recording the Elamo-Dravidian language was rejuvenated with a fresh group of hired scribes and scholars from Elam. Large amounts of surplus harvest was stored for lean times.
    The king next promoted young Rampjur II to be a Prince of the realm, which was followed by the traditional feasting and drinking. Rampjur was blunt-spoken but extremely handsome and was much favored by the ladies of the court.
    Bidding his heir Lakhimpur II to react to any retaliatory invasion from Kaushambi, Rampur settled back to rule the kingdom. He was in his early 50s, quite old for the time, and unsteady of balance. In the spring of 2099 he fell in the royal bath, cracking his skull on the marble tub. Lakhimpur II took the throne and appointed Rampjur II to be his heir.
    Late in 2096 a group of scholars requested audience with the king and reported success. By modifying Linear Elamite script1,2 they were able write the dialect of the Elamo-Dravidian tongue spoken in the Ganges Valley. Literacy was at hand!

1 while Elam later adopted Mesopotamian cuneiform for writing, around 2100BC their unique Linear script was in use.
2 why not Sansrkit? The earliest evidence dates back to the Aryan invasion which hasn't happened yet.

City-State of Atranjikhera Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Ila, Queen of Atranjikhera
    Ila spent the necessary resources to complete the cultivation of the homeland - much celebrating ensued - and had irrigation ditches begun as well. Realizing Vatsa was now a more tempting target, additional fortifications were built. Merchants began caravans over the mountains to Lothal trading ivory for goods imported from distant kingdoms.
    Ila then traveled to the Malwah settlement in Avanti for further talks, taking her younger sister Samavati with her for education in diplomacy. The queen soon persuaded the elders to fully join with Atranjikhera. In 2098 Ila headed east to Jihjhoti where again much negotiation ensued; however the local chiefs were suspicious and unmoved to closer ties with Atranjikhera. A discouraged Ila and a surprised Samavati returned to the capital. Ila spent time with her husband but no child resulted.
    One night late in 2096 Ila's mother and longtime mentor Purna was overdue returning to the palace with her retainers. A search of the capital found their bodies in an alley; they had been strangled and robbed. After the funerals a devastated Ila proclaimed Samavati to be her new Heir.

City-State of Kaushambi Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy
Jagdish, King of Kaushambi
    Jagdish again directed a bit of investment in pretty much everything. Four hundred men were recuited and trained with sword and shield while another two hundred as skirmishers to reinforce the army in case the Hastinapurans returned. Although past 50 and increasingly experiencing chest pains he then ruled the kingdom.
    In early summer 2099 during a heated discussion with his advisors he groaned and collapsed, dying without having regained consciousness. Since his oldest son Jagadambika was years away from coming of age, his quick-thinking widow Laxmi proposed she would serve as Regent until that time. Wishing to avoid a struggle for the throne when the kingdom could be invaded again at any time the nobles agreed.
    While Laxmi governed Jagadambika attended her to be educated in the ways of rulership. In autumn 2096 he came of age and was proclaimed king. His mother gave up the Regency to return to keeping her many other children in line.


(Indian subcontinent south of Vindhya Mountain range, plus Ceylon)

rural village snake worship shrine

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.

Kingdom of Chera Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Indara Chuzwel Akapane, King of Chera
    With the kingdom having expanded, Indara proved unequal to handling the more complex finances. He spent what little gold was collected storing surplus food and continuing work to cultivate the wilderness areas of the homeland. At least a long-ignored program to improve military training finally paid off, according to reports he received. Aware the populace blamed him for difficult economic times, he then ruled the nation but uneasily.
    Heir Palyane Chel Kezhu decided Chera couldn't survive (or at least prosper) with Indara on the throne, so he attempted to take control of the 600-man palace guard as first step in overthrowing the king with little loss of life. However the guards were loyal to Indara and now suspicious of the heir's motives. Palyane had to signal his much larger force - several thousand warriors - to storm the palace. Bloody fighting ensued among the corridors and rooms before the majority of the guards were killed or wounded and the seat of government was secured. Surrounded by dead and dying guards, Indara agreed to abdicate immediately.
    Palyane proclaimed himself king and for the moment the capital was calm. He ruled and enjoyed his Malabaran bride Bhabavahi, siring a son in 2099 and another in 2098.

Kingdom of Chola Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Nedunkilli Chola, King of Chola
    Nedunkilli poured most of the kingdom's resources into restarting the attempt to record the Tamil tongue, hiring artists, teachers, philosophers and pretty much anybody with an idea. Despite intense effort (and a lot of arguments) no coherent writing system resulted. The king was dismayed at the lack of results.
    He ruled while sending his lieutenant Thirumavalavan (fresh from diplomatic success in Vengi) to Madurai whose nomad chiefs had stubbornly resisted previous overtures. The lieutenant offered the king himself in marriage to a chieftan's sister or daughter in exchange for a treaty. Thirumavalavan was an average diplomat but persistant. The strongest chief agreed to a full alliance if his daughter became queen of Chola, thereby much increasing his own prestige.
    Unfortunately at the post-betrothal banquet Thirumavalavan got into a drunken fight with a lesser chief over the affections of a comely serving girl and was stabbed, dying shortly afterward. His retainers brought word of the agreement back to Chola along with the diplomat's ashes and the pickled head of his killer, offered as compensation.


(Tibeto-Burman migration from north down the Irrawaddy Valley displaced original Mon-Khmer peoples southward)

Beikthano, oldest Irrawaddy Valley city

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.

City-State of Halin Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Abhiraja of the Shakya Dynasty, King of Halin
    Abhiraja spent heavily recruiting learned men to devise a system of recording the Pyu language as had been done in neighboring Binnaka & Maingmaw. However the more elitist scholars wanted their own style which led to divergent effort and no progress. More successful since academics weren't involved was the digging of additional irrigation ditches for rice fields.
    The king then proclaimed Kanyaza to be his heir. More of a negotiator than a swordsman he was often at odds with his warlike father but he was the only son. With the succession grudgingly assured Abhiraja turned to ruling his realm and enjoying his wife Thebadda who became pregnant early 2099. Life is good thought the king.
    Until Abhiraja was out hunting later that year and monsoon season came early, widespread floodwaters drowning the royal party on its way back to Halin. With Kanyaza not yet of age the nobility compromised on Thebadda as Regent rather than see a rival gain power. She ruled as well as birthing a boy towards the end of the year.
    In 2097 Kanyaza came of age and was crowned as king.

City-States of Binnaka & Maingmaw Barbarian Metalworking Monarchies - literate (Pyu script glyphs)
Sawyun, King of Binnaka & Thadominbya, King of Maingmaw
    Sawyun spent time with his wife Taraminia siring another son in 2100. He then spent many years in talks with feudal ally Kalewa of Ava hoping to persuade him to closer ties with the twin cities. He offered neither marriage nor gold but was persuasive enough that Kalewa finally agreed to a full alliance. Unfortunately at the banquet that followed Sawyun and a number of guests died of food poisoning. Fortunately (at least for the treaty) Kalewa was not among them.
    Meanwhile in Sawyun's absence Thadominbya administered the land and oversaw the commitment of all the realm's wealth and labor into completing its cultivation. The success of this exhausting effort was celebrated but without the traditional feasting since the land was in famine - hence the desperate need for additional cropland.
    Thadominbya also continued to enjoy his wife Arinassa but did not produce a child until a daughter in 2098, followed by a stillbirth that left the couple stunned and grieving. Another shock came in 2096 when news of Sawyun's death was received. Per previous arrangement the king of Maingmaw would act as Regent for Sawyun's young son Ruranaya until he came of age.

City-State of Beikthano Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Dawnak, King of Beikthano
    Dawnak spent small sums on supplies for the university and storing surplus food, but most of the nation's gold and muscle was applied to the ongoing cultivation of the homeland's wilderness areas. The king then ruled and enjoyed his wife Martaban. She birthed a sickly daughter in 2100 who died less than a year later, and the people began whispering about a curse on the royal family. Dawnak asked shamen to perform purifying rituals in the palace to ward off malign spirits. Apparently that worked for in 2098 another girl was born who was healthy & robust. However their son Sung who'd been stunted since birth remained small and easily prone to illness; the shamen debated what to try next.
    His younger brother Mahabaja was sent to Pegu to negotiate ties to Biekthano. Mahabaja was a fierce warrior but only an average diplomat and offered nothing to Khun, the rather dour local lord, to sweeten the deal. Mahabaja stayed for years freeloading at the noble's court until finally Khun gave in and became a feudal ally.


(Viet migration from China starting to displace original Mon-Khmer peoples southward)

Lam Ap royal palace at Tra Kiew

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.

Kingdom of Langkasuka Seafaring Metalworking Monarchy
precursor kingdom to Kedah
"Sea traders ... upon reaching the coast, engaged porters to transport goods by raft, elephant and man-carry along the rivers ... to the opposite coast." - Wikipedia article, History of Kedah.
The historic Langkasuka trans-peninsular capability (in effect trading in both directions) is represented by the port area on west coast and port city on east coast. They weren't true seafarers but it's the closest LOTE culture that fits.
    advanced in time; OPEN FOR A PLAYER

Kingdom of Funan Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
precursor kingdom to Khmer
    advanced in time; OPEN FOR A PLAYER

Kingdom of Lam Ap Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
precursor kingdom to Champa
    advanced in time; OPEN FOR A PLAYER

Kingdom of Van Lang Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
precursor kingdom to Da Viet
    advanced in time; OPEN FOR A PLAYER

Click to return to top.