LORDS OF THE EARTH 38 - THE DAWN OF CIVILIZATION
Newsfax Turn: #6 ( 2105 - 2101 BC )
November 16, 2015

ANNOUNCEMENTS: New or changed from previous turn will be in red.
My Stats program only accepts whole gp for University investment, and only stores whole nfp leftover at end of turn.
An area's progress in metallurgy & literacy will be in green and is the situation at the start of the turn.

Want a second position?
Players in Italy, Aegean/Black Sea, Nile or Levant could have another in Tibet, Indus, Ganges or Irrawaddy.
Players in Mesopotamia could have another in Tibet.
Players in Mesopotamia or Oxus could have another in Italy, Aegean/Black Sea or Irrawaddy.
Players in Indus, Ganges or Southern India could have another in Italy, Aegean/Black Sea or Nile.
Most migratory tribe icons were removed as placed too early. Hold off interacting with remaining ones until turn 8.
Primacies will be available for players turn 8. Details to follow.


QUICK SCROLL if you know where you want to go:
Italy Centered
Aegean & Black Sea Areas
Greater Nile Valley
Greater Levant
Greater Mesopotamia
Tibetan Plateau <--- read important info on Map Changes page!
Oxus Valley
Indus Valley
Ganges Valley
Southern India
Irrawaddy Valley

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ITALY CENTERED
(Corsica, Sardinia, Italian penninsula, Sicily & Malta)
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Nuragic field fort with distinctive stone Nuraghe towers


Literacy has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.

Nuragic Civilization Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Alessandru, Lord of Albucci, de facto leader of Nuragic Civilization
    Alessandru, concerned that Sardinia could be raided, ordered the island's first pentaconter built and crewed. He invested gold in various quality improvements and then ruled the many Nuragic villages.
    The golden-tongued Rafiele, already in Corsica continued negotiations with the local chiefs, offering Alessandru as husband to a Corsican lady of noble birth. Despite language differenced by late 2014 they had agreed to fully join the Nuragic civilization. Rafiele (with Alessandru's bride in tow) then met for several years with the leader of the Filitosa port settlement resulting in his vow to serve as a feudal ally.
    He finally returned to Sardinia in early 2101 and presented the king with his bride. The royal couple spent much time together and at the end of the year a son was born. The labor had been difficult and the mother died after a few days of a high fever.


(Proto-)Etruscans Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Arnza Ulthese, King of Etruscans
    Arnza again ordered all gold saved for future spending, then took ship from Sardinia across the Thyrrenian Sea, reaching the Calabrian coast midsummer. Once ashore he met with the local lord and his court, speaking to them of the advantages of joining with the Etruscan kingdom. In autumn Kyrsi of the Minoans anchored offshore and - the conflict over Malta apparently resolved - joined King Arnza at several diplomatic banquets, explaining to the Calabrians that allying with the Etruscans would also bring them Minoan protection of their coastal towns. After a few weeks Kyrsi took his leave [see Minoans] but Arnza remained for years, his persistance ultimately securing a full alliance.
    Meanwhile his younger sister Stenia traveled to the coastal settlement of Narce in Latium, beguiling its leader and urging him to submit to the Etruscans. Her wiles convinced him henceforth to pay tribute.


Apennine Culture Barbarian Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Brutus, Lord of Scoglio, de facto leader of Apennine Culture
    Brutus directed surplus food be preserved for lean times, and work continue (albeit very slowly) on increasing Apulia's cultivated area. Public mills and graneries were built to help farmers but at high cost due to having to move materials and workers through wilderness. A census was taken of people and possessions to improve tax revenue. Finally, he considered the lack of an adult successor and chose Decimus from a family with extensive landholdings in Apulia.
    All that underway, he headed north into Spoleto to meet with the local leaders. The Spoletans were hostile (having been pacified only 10 years previously) but impressed by gifts and his offering himself as husband for one of their noblewomen. In 2103 he received word from the palace that his son Cicero, sickly since birth, had died in his sleep at age 7.
    Grieving but determined, Brutus continued the negotiations until he won over the chiefs and they agreed to pay tribute. He returned with his bride mid-2101 and she was soon pregnant.

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AEGEAN & BLACK SEA AREAS
(Balkans, Aegean Sea littoral, Anatolia & Black Sea littoral)
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Achaean Greek capital of Mycenae


Literacy has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.

Illyrians Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Pleurias, King of Illyrians
    Pleurias ordered a census taken of all peoples and possessions - hopefully it would lead to a badly needed increase in royal income. He then returned to Slovenia for more diplomatic talks, offering Medak (son of the previous king Cadmus) in marriage to a Slovenian noblewoman. In due time its lord Gorizia accepted, signing an economic treating and sending his sister back with Pleurias. In early 2101 Medak came of age and was proclaimed Heir, and shortly thereafter married his Slovenian bride.
    OPEN FOR A PLAYER


Achaean Greeks Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Xanthe, Regent for Akakios, older son of the late King Basileios
    The Achaean kingdom continued to have financial difficulties; it had grown far faster than its illiterate royal court could administer. Xanthe focused what income it had into funding ongoing efforts to create a "written" version of the Greek language. Then records could be kept and a counting of people could be done to increase revenue. The unemployed of Mycenae were sent to make themselves useful digging wells and building barns in the farmlands.
    Next she traveled to Dalmatia and collected the garrison with the understanding the local chiefs would pay tribute to the Greeks in exchange for self-rule. Returning to Mycenae she married the nobleman Ellas of Attica whom she had previously appointed as heir. Despite no aptitude for ruling, Ellas was proclaimed King by a nobility who detested a woman on the throne. He proved to be a terrible administrator, far more interested in Bacchanalian pleasures than tending to the day to day decision-making, and the decisions he did make were whims ignoring the advice of his advisors.
    Xanthe evaded pregnancy for several years but birthed a son in 2102. He was stunted and sickly and gossiping courtiers spread rumors regarding his paternity. Amazingly another son born in 2101 appeared healthy.
    The diplomat Clitus was ordered from Macedon to Morea to persuade the local lord for a treaty but mutually hostile religions were a major obstacle. While witnessing an Earth Mother harvest ceremony in 2103 a bored Clitus made a series of disparaging remarks. Before his aghast retainers could hustle him away several outraged attendees seized him and beat him mercilessly; he never regained consciousness before he died the following day.


Minoans Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (Linear A glyphs)
Diskliakos, First of the Council
    Diskliakos led the Council in agreement to construct an entire university campus including multiple buildings for teaching and lodging. Elsewhere additional warehouses were built for storing surplus gain and dried vegetables. Some trade galley owners were persuaded to rebase their ships to Phylakopi to free up dock capacity in Knossos. The experienced naval captain Lonchi was put in command of a squadron of pentaconters to patrol the Aegean and protect the home islands.
    The First then proclaimed a national holiday, honoring Gonimotia (widow of the late Council head Labrys) and Estia (his own wife) with a festival to celebrate the artistry of their crafts-work. The royals judged entries by other artists in ceramics, embroidery, carving, dyeing, weaving, flower arranging, feather accessories, precious metal jewelry, seal stones and goddess statues. Entry fees and taxes paid by hostels and vendors more than covered the cost of the exhibition.
    Second of the Council Kyrsi headed to Borg in-Nadur bringing troops for its garrison and a number of Minoan beauties of good family from which feudal ally Dori would hopefully choose a bride. From the Maltan harbor Kyrsi and his ships headed north and anchored off the Ionian shore of Calabria; Kyrsi went ashore to join the Etruscan King Arnza who was negotiating with the local lord. After a month of attending banquets and voicing support for Arnza, Kyrsi departed accompanied by an Etruscan navigator familiar with the Tyrrhenian Sea.
    Guided along the coast to the strait between Calabria and Sicily, for the next several years Kyrsi and his squadron explored the Tyrrhenian, successfully mapping its borders before heading back to Malta in mid-2101. Upon arrival he found Dori of Borg in-Nadur had indeed married one of the eligible Minoan ladies. Kyrsi collected the leftover maidens plus the prisoners of war from the earlier pacification of Malta. The captives had been languishing on gruel, stale bread and questionable meat for over four years and were in sorry condition. Once back in Knossos he learned Diskliakos had died and Kyrsi was now First of the Council.
    Due to his family connections young Tavrys (grand-newphew of Diskliakos) was voted onto the Council as its new Second; many admired his boldness and ambition.


City-State of Troy Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Luwian hieroglyphics)
Ezine, King of Troy IV
    Fresh from his victory over the Luwians and with an eye to his next conquest, Ezine ordered numerous light galleys constructed to provide a ferry service across the Hellespont. Fortifying the Luwian homeland before leaving, he marched from Ephesus back to Troy taking its captured clerks to add to his own city-state's bureaucracy. Luwian prisoners of war accompanied the column and were put to work on the farms of Bithnia.
    Ezine and his veteran army of over five thousand headed north, the new ferrys taking most of 2104 to transport them and all their equipment across the Hellespont strait to Thrace. The Thracians were already hostile to Troy because of earlier failed diplomacy, and nearly two thousand of them - mostly skirmishers - began arriving from distant villages to counter what was obviously an invasion. By digging ditches and building palisades they hoped to contain the growing bridgehead/encampment.
    In early 2013 Ezine gave the order to attack. The Trojan heavy infantry, accustomed to using a phalanx-like formation for shock value found themselves at a disadvantage in the broken terrain of the penninsula. The Thraceans knew their land and were well prepared, but Ezine's men were better equipped and trained, and veterans of the recent war against Luvia. Once across the ditches or over the palisades they cut down the undisciplined Thracians, killing or capturing almost the entire militia opposing them while losing less than three hundred dead.
    After securing the region and appointing an opportunistic lesser chieftan as satrap, the king decreed henceforth Thrace would follow the Hittite religion and worship Hittite gods. Trojan warriors seized temples and sacred places so priests from Troy could conduct rituals of purification and consecration. The populace revolted but were subdued while the satrap urged his fellow Thracians to accept the gods of Troy - who were obviously more powerful than their old ones.
    Meanwhile ... Ezine's bastard son (and Heir) Ucalegon - who'd matured into an incredibly skilled orator - traveled south to Isauria to diplomacize the local chiefs. They had only the year before declared themselves independent of the Luwians and were not anxious to submit to another power. Ucalegon had been sent with neither gold nor marriage to offer and the best he could obtain was a grudging oath of fealty. Not wishing to push his luck, he headed for Thrace to join his father.


Hitties Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Luwian hieroglyphics)
Labarna, King of the Hittites
    Labarna decreed more priests be trained to spread the word of the Hittite gods, and attempts were made to initiate a messenger service to carry news swiftly. The University was funded to purchase scrolls and ink for students. Four hundred men familiar with the bow were recruited and trained as archers. Having set his plans in motion he collected the warriors from Pontus who'd been encamped there since his brother's untimely death some years ago. He then ruled his kingdom.
    Meanwhile Labarna's son Annitas gathered skirmishers and archers as a bodyguard and traveled to Cappadocia, taking with him Silili, widow of his late uncle Hattusili. Silili was of Cappadocian nobility and Annitas hoped her presence would help his diplomatic efforts. He was a middling diplomat but with her help and the promise of his sister Arinna in marriage, in 2103 the local lord pledged fealty to the Hittites.
    Annitas saw Silili safely back to Hattusas then headed for Pontus, this time taking his Pontic wife Hurik with him for behind-the-scenes assistance. He had no marriage to offer and faced language differences and a hostile religion, but astonishingly persuaded the locals to sign an economic treaty. While attending the post-signing banquet in late 2101 he received news his father the king had died in his sleep, and he was urgently needed to return home to rule.


Maykop Culture Barbarian Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Many villages combined to equal a city. Wilderness homeland half-cultivated.
    currently NPN

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GREATER NILE VALLEY
(including Horn of Africa)
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Pyramids at Giza near Memphis in Lower Egypt


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area except as noted below.
Literacy has not yet reached beyond the Egyptians (hieroglyphics) unless otherwise stated below.


Egyptian Priesthood Civilized Metalworking Theocracy
Menkaure, High Priest of Osiris
    High Priest Menkaure traveled to Mansura to oversee the expansion of the existing temple enclosure into a full temple complex, exchanging pleasantries with Baufra of the Old Kingdom at a banquet hosted by the local lord. Determined lesser priests in service of Menkaure were finally able to establish a temple shrine to serve the nomads of the Sinai.
    High Priestess Hatshepsut took ship to Byblos to oversee the additional work to improve its temple shrine to a temple enclosure.
    AVAILABLE TURN 8


Old Kingdom of Egypt Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Baufra, 2nd King of the VIII Dynasty, favored of Ptah
    Baufra continued his father's emphasis on rural improvements in both Lower Egypt and Mansura, funding a new round of digging irrigation ditches and building mills and silos. In Heliopolis the central market square was paved and monuments to the city's patron god Ra raised in each corner. Concerned with growing Thebean power, six hundred more infantry were recruited and trained. The surplus of a good harvest was stored in case of famine, and a scattering of gold invested in various research efforts.
    After ruling for several years, in 2103 the king made a brief diplomatic visit to Mansura, offering himself in marriage to a daughter of the local lord. The old lord and young Baufra became friends and negotiations progressed nicely with the lord agreeing to merge his lands with the rest of the kingdom and retire.
    Baufra returned to Memphis with his bride and resumed ruling. Life was good, and became even better when his jealous cousin Bakenrenef (who it was rumored was scheming for the throne) died of a high fever a few days after being clawed while petting a "tame" cheetah.
    This pleasant state of affairs was interrupted in early 2012 by an invasion over the southern border by the armies of Thebes and Herakleopolis. [see Thebes]


City-State of Herakleopolis Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Nekhbet, 2nd King of the IX-X Dynasty, favored of Heryshef
    Nekhbet ordered land along the Nile reclaimed for farming. Gold was invested into military improvements and attempting to establish a messenger system to relay news quickly. The University was funded and grain stored for the future. Leaving the ruling of the kingdom to his heir Sekhimib, the king spent years in diplomatic talks with Thebean envoys Tutmoses II and Titus. At the end of 2013 a treaty was signed binding Herakleopolis and Thebes as equals acting together but each sovereign in its own lands.
    The following year Titus invaded Lower Egypt with his accompanying army with Nekhbet leading the army of Herakleopolis alongside him. [see Thebes]
    FREE STATE TO THEBES


City-State of Thebes Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Ramses, 2nd King of the XI Dynasty, favored of Amun
    Ramses proclaimed Prince Titus to be his heir, followed by much feasting and drinking. The king also lavishly funded the kingdom's metalworkers with orders to develop an alloy of copper stronger and better than pure copper. Unemployed city folk were rounded up and sent to the farms of Aswan to dig irrigation ditches and bring new land into use. Remembering the lean times in the recent past, large quantities of grain and dried vegetables were put in storehouses. Ramses then settled back to rule.
    Titus however was on the march. With two thousand infantry he crossed the Nile into Upper Egypt and collected the men from there, nearly doubling his army. The whole force moved to Fai-Yum where it encamped while lieutenant Tutmoses II, assisted by Titus, met with Nekhbet, king of the City-State of Herakleopolis. After years of talks a treaty was signed binding Herakleopolis and Thebes as equals acting together but each sovereign in its own lands.

Titus deploys allied forces against the Old Kingdom army.
    No sooner was the ink dry on the treaty scrolls than in early 2012 Titus invaded Lower Egypt, the army of Herakleopolis marching alongside. The border was guarded by approximately two thousand Old Kingdom infantry and skirmishers with fortifications guarding the main crossings. The 8,000 warriors of the invaders simply overwhelmed the defenders, killing or capturing nearly all of them. The Thebeans took less than 500 casualties and the men of Herakleopolis slightly more than 600.
    Word reached Memphis and the palace of King Baufra causing a wave of anger to sweep through the city at the unprovoked attack. Since the capital had no defensive walls Baufra resolved to meet the invaders outside the city to hopefully avoid its destruction.1

    For all his good intentions Baufra was a middling general especially compared to Titus who had a gift for warfare. However the Old Kingdom monarch led over five thousand warriors out of Memphis - more than either of the invading armies but less than their combined strength - and knew well his homeland's terrain. The two sides came together in a primal grappling of war cries, cracks of stone- or copper-bladed axe or mace on shield, screams of those cut down and shouts of triumph of those responsible. The invaders were better trained and many were veterans of past battles and by day's end that settled the issue. The smaller Old Kingdom army had taken 3,000 casualties compared to a thousand for Thebes and 1,300 for Herkleopolis. Baufra disengaged his army and withdrew to the capital in good order, unaware that Titus lay dying from a chance thrown javelin.
    Tutmoses II took over command of a stunned Thebean army. His area of expertise was diplomacy and the troops had little confidence in him. However Nekhbet of Herakleopolis was a skilled commander and his presence did much to rebuild Thebean morale. The allies paused to let their wounded heal, then in early 2101 their armies stormed Memphis. Rather than a seige it was a field battle fought among barricaded streets and buildings. The combat was close-quarter and brutal, often hand-to-hand. The first wave was driven off with over several thousand casualties to either side, many hundreds of civilians dead and more than a few buildings burned.
    Judging that a second attack would not be stopped, King Baufra ordered his family to escape to Heliopolis by light galley. Having no children and no brothers yet of age, he decreed upon his death (he vowed he would defend Memphis to the end) his oldest sister Ipu (already married to a Sinai chieftan) would be queen.
    The allied armies regrouped and attacked again, this time breaking through to the city center and palace with both attackers and defenders suffering further losses. In the final moments of furious frenzied fighting both Nekhbet and Baufra were cut down by axe strokes not far from each other, leaving a shaken and astonished Tutmoses II as the last leader standing.

1 barring orders to the contrary, if a city has no wall points the leader of that city will fight at least one field battle outside it to minimize damage to his city. If it has wall points the leader will defend within the city and the battle(s) will be resolved as a seige.


Kingdom of Nubia Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Shasesi, King of Nubia
    King Shasesi again ordered significant investment into the nation's infantry training and seigecraft. A small dormatory was added to the University. Lowlands along the Nile were reclaimed and put to the plow, while stone embankments were constructed to prevent erosion. Surplus population was shipped to El-Kawa where they built homes and increased the river settlement to a true city. Four hundred men were trained with sword and shield for the king's guard.
    Next Shasesi proclaimed Saraqa, son of the previous king Shabaqa, to be a prince; the announcement was followed by much feasting and drinking. Shasesi then settled back to rule his kingdom and enjoy his kingly pleasures.
    The heir Maraqa returned from El-Kawa and married a local noblewoman of Kerma; the wedding included much feasting and drinking. Maraqa then settled back to administer his eventual kingdom and enjoy his young bride. She birthed a sickly, stunted girl in 2103 who died a year later, followed by a strong, healthy girl in 2101.


City-State of Meroe Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Jebelein, Regent of Meroe
    Jebelein funded continuing attempts by metalworkers to produce useful alloy of copper. However most of the kingdom's wealth and the unemployed were sent along with tools to finish clearing the wilderness in neighboring Sennar resulting in the kingdom's second cultivated region.
    Those efforts underway, Jebelein hosted a gathering of the royal and noble families, and as her late husband had done the year before, commanded each family head take an oath to support whomever she designated as Regent should she before a son comes of age to be king. Virtually all assembled were those who'd taken the vow previously and so it was done without incident, the high shaman of Meroe annointing their foreheads with paint once again.
    Jebelein then ruled Meroe and spent time with her children. Towards the end of 2101 a group of scholars requested an audience. Although their effort to permanently record knowledge had not been funded for years, they had been curious and persisted, and have learned the Old Nubian pictographs used by their neighbors to "write" their common Nilo-Saharan language!


Land of Punt Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Makale, Lord of Punt
    2015 began badly when during an excursion into the wilderness a bull elephant fleeing ivory hunters stampeded through the royal party, trampling Queen Derra and several retainers and injuring a dozen other servants and soldiers. King Makale saw to her funeral then returned to his thone.
    Gold was again divided between multiple efforts and this time was successful in establishing a relay system of swift runners to carry news throughout the kingdom. In the homeland wells and irrigation ditches were dug to help agriculture. The king then held court and ruled his nation wisely while his son (and heir) Fazi administered alongside him to learn the workings of government.

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GREATER LEVANT
(Western Arabia north to Levant then west to Subartu)
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City of Hazor in Jordan


Literacy exists throughout Greater Levant as shown below.

Sabaeans Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Zabar script glyphs)
Kainan, King of Sa'na
    The king directed investments into designing larger ships (now that the kingdom had a port) and setting up a method to relay news quickly throughout the Sabaean lands. Most of the nation's wealth however was spent on the capital of Sa'Na: a central plaza was cleared and paved, with the paving extended down the main avenues; the sewer and water systems expanded, and public fountains installed. Sea trade was initiated with all nations within safe travel distance, bringing back exotic items and news of the world. He then proceeded to rule his kingdom, putting to use the education he'd received from the previous king.
    Meanwhile his older son Athtar made his way to Sheba to for diplomatic talks with its sheik, offering himself in marriage to a suitable royal daughter. Although a middling diplomat there were no religious or language problems and his offer was attractive. The shiek accepted, agreeing to pay tribute, and hinted at the possibility of further agreements - but in the autumn of 2103 came word that King Kainan, his wife Haubas and dozen others had sickened and died after eating improperly prepared shellfish at a palace banquet. Athtar was now king, and hastened home with Sin, his Sheban bride.
    Upon their return he proclaimed his younger brother Almakah to be his heir. Almakah, having also been educated in leadership, had already ordered the responsible palace kitchen staff beheaded.


City-State of Hazor Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Sisera, King of Hazor
    Sisera again distributed gold investments in pretty much everything. More land in Jordan as well as acreage in nearby Caanan was put to the plough. Sisera then ruled the kingdom and often enjoyed satisfying his hungers, thirsts and lusts, often simultaneously.
It's good to be king, he thought.
    Jabin, the king's young heir returned from Caanan escorting his future in-laws (his betrothed was the daughter of the previous king of Hazor and a Caananite noblewoman) to the city for the upcoming wedding. In 2104 his fiance turned 15; their marriage and the following celebrations were the social event of the year. They spent much time thereafter in the palace's pleasure pavillion, producing a son in 2103, twins (boy & girl) in 2102 and another girl in 2101. Not long afterward King Sisera died, fat, drunk and happy, and Jabin ascended the throne.


City-State of Ugarit Civilized Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Amurabi, First of the Council
    Amurabi obtained Council approval to build a port area in Palmyra where the Euphrates River became deep enough to handle trade galleys. Council members fairly salivated at the thought of opening up Mesopotamian river trade. Additional resources were devoted to putting the last potential agricultral land in Aleppo into production: hillsides were terraced, olive trees and vineyards planted, and grazing pasture for sheep and goats fenced. Gold was allocated to improving the quality of Ugarit's infantry and providing more scrolls, ink and furniture for the university.
    Second of the Council Niqmaddu II then made a motion that Amurabi be sent on a diplomatic mission to the city of Ebla in Palmyra. To his astonishment given his record of diplomatic non-accomplishment, a majority of Council memebers agreed. Feeling he'd been set up to fail but loyal to Ugarit, Amurabi traveled to Ebla with lieutenant Dariladu tasked to assist him. Negotiations were underway when Dariladu was fatally stabbed in a brothel dispute by another customer. Amurabi continued alone and the leaders of Ebla, impressed by his determination, ultimately signed a treaty giving Ugarit merchants trading rights and use of the city's resources to maintain the new port area nearby downriver. Amurabi was rightly elated at his results.


Kingdom of Subartu Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Anthousa, Regent for Boran, son of the late King Anu
    Anthousa commanded most of the kingdom's wealth and labor be expended building the city of Samonite in Edessa by the head-waters of the Euphrates, where it would never lack for fresh water. Next she appointed Ercan to be her heir should tragedy strike her before Boran came of age. Ercan was a nobleman from a family that was an early supporter of her role as Regent, and a skilled warrior and diplomat.
    The problem of succession settled, Anthousa ruled the kingdom and spent time with her children. Until late summer 2105 when two thousand warriors of Assur invaded from the south. [see Assur]
    In mid-2104 a severe cold spread through the capital sickening royals and commoners alike. While his sisters recovered, Boran's illness persisted along with a fever and a steadily worsening cough. Through the autumn his cough persisted and eventually included blood, and his difficulty breathing increased. He died a few days after his 9th birthday.

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GREATER MESOPOTAMIA
(Mesopotamia, Persian Gulf, Iranian Plateau)
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City of Ur including the Temple Complex of Nanna-Sin, God of the Moon


Literacy (cuneiform) exists throughout Greater Mesopotamia.
Switched the order below of Uruk and Ur.

Mesopotamian Priesthood Civilized Bronzeworking Theocracy
Shuruppak, High Priest of Innana (Ishtar) at Uruk
    Shuruppak moved to Hahmar where he directed construction of new buildings and a surrounding wall, thus expanding a temple shrine into a temple enclosure. Meanwhile High Priestess Salabikh journeyed to Eushunna in Diyala where in concert with the local priests of Tishpak the temple enclosure in the city was greatly expanded to a full temple complex.
    A group of mid-level priests from the temple in Kish again traveled throughout Circis speaking of the true gods, and managed to convert more population. Two-thirds of the inhabitants now followed the Mesopotamian religion.1
    AVAILABLE TURN 8

1 Circis map icon changed to ME. City of Mari retains LP icon.


City-State of Assur Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ashur-Uballit, favored of Ashur
    The year 2015 started off badly when the king's Diyalan wife Nammu and a number of her retainers and servants drowned when her pleasure barge sank in the Tigris. (The king appeared less than grief-stricken; palace rumor had it they hadn't spent much time together in recent months.) Once the funeral ceremony was done Ashur-Uballit addressed kingly concerns. He spent gold hoping to improve infantry tactics and seigecraft, and a thousand men were recruited and trained as skirmishers or swordsmen. He then ruled his kingdom and savored his concubines.
    Lieutenant Namtar escorted Ashur-Uballit's older daughter Kammani to the grasslands of Carhae and delivered her to the strongest nomad chief to seal the deal of previous dipolomacy. Having grown up in royal luxury she found living in a tent surrounded by reeking nomads and goats to be her private hell.
    Meanwhile the king's younger brother Sinjar collected a thousand infantry and an equal number of skirmishers and invaded Subartu late summer of 2105. It was only a fraction of Assur's army and the men thought Sinjar a fool but obeyed out of loyalty. The Subartun border guard had a smaller force of mixed skirmishers and infantry but several stone forts guarding vital points. The men of Assur received a bloody setback with nearly all killed or wounded compared to less than 500 casualties for Subartu. However the new Subartun commander Ercan was injured by a skirmisher's thrown javelin while leading the defense. Sinjar, retreating with his many wounded, took this as a sign from his gods to try again despite the odds.
    After resting back in Mosul to let his wounded heal, Sinjar led his men back into Subartu despite only having somewhat more than half his original numbers. The defenders were ready for him and he had no solution how to reduce their forts; his entire force was killed or captured for minor Subartun losses. Rather than be taken prisoner - or worse, face the contempt of the Assur court - Sinjar (henceforth called "the Mad") fought until he was slain, his motives for the attack remaining a mystery.


City-State of Kish Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Amadala, Regent for Joshur II of the VI Dynasty, favored of Zababa
    Amadala ordered surplus harvest stored for lean years. At the urging of the army another eight hundred men were recruited and trained as skirmishers, infantry or archers. Most of the city-state's resources however were spent on homeland improvements: digging irrigation ditches, fencing common grazing lands and constructing hostels for travelers along the Silk Road. She then ruled while planning her son Jushur II's coming of age in 2103 and taking the throne.
    Such pleasantries were interrupted in the early summer by reports the army of Ur had invaded Circis from their Selucian territory. Amadala bestowed command of the army upon her husband Manishtusu and despite her Circisian ancestry she gave strict orders for him to remain in Mesopotamia and defend the homeland. Circis was on its own. [see Ur]


City-State of Ur Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ur-Nammu, 1st King of the III Dynasty, favored of Nanna
    At Ur-Nammu's command more gold was invested in the quality of the military and extensive fortifications built in Kuwait. The king had ruled for many years while building a magnificent army. The time had come for him and his twin brother Elulu to put their military skills to use. At Ur-Nammu's command battle carts headed for Selucia followed by six thousand warriors: skirmishers, infantry and archers. Elulu and lieutenant Bakshishum joined the king for the adventure.
    Ur-Nammu's army marched north through Selucia, in early summer crossing the border into Circis thus putting Ur at war with Kish. An isolated fort watched over the border; it put up only brief resistance. The men of Ur continued north as the people of Circis - friendly to Kish - watched resentfully. Turning northwest along the trade road, in midsummer the invaders reached their destination: the river port of Mari.
    Mari had walls and a garrison so the local Circis commander rejected a surrender demand, confident the army of Kish would soon arrive. Ur-Nammu ordered the city stormed while ranks of archers released volleys against the defenders atop the walls. Despite the protective crenelations over two hundred men of Circis were killed or wounded. However as the men of Ur neared the walls and manhandled scaling ladders up against them, the defenders delivered a withering barrage of javelins and slung stones (plus anything else they could throw) down onto the climbing attackers, inflicting over 500 casualties.
    With Ur-Nammu's exhortations the warriors of Ur persisted and reached the walls in multiple places despite ferocious fighting, and the city's commander surrendered to prevent further slaughter. Nearly all the men of Circis were either dead or wounded, and the army of Kish nowhere in sight. Ur-Nammu had expected the seizure of Mari to take years; the fact it was over by the end of 2105 he regarded as a sign from Nanna-Sin of future success.
    Leaving a garrison in Mari, in early 2104 the army of Ur marched back southeast with the goal of crossing the Euphrates into Mesopotamia and storming Kish itself. Ur-Nammu believed the army of Kish to be much less effective than his own due to the Mesopotamians being led by a woman Regent. However she now appointed her husband Menishtusu to command and he was a warrior as skilled as Ur-Nammu. Manishtusu positioned his army along the river to contest the crossing.
    The army of Ur built bridges of boats over the Euphrates while archers exchanged volleys. More than three hundred men on either side were casualties; Ur had more archers but their warriors were easier targets exposed while crossing. Ur-Nammu and his brother Elulu shouted at the men to form ranks behind a screen of Ur battle carts. Opposite them was a larger screen of Kish battle carts making it difficult to guage the numbers of their Mesopotamian enemy.

    Manishtusu orders the army of Kish west to the Euphrates.
    Nevertheless Ur-Nammu was quite confident his men would brush those of Kish aside and so gave the order to attack. As the two sides rushed towards each other, the true size of the army of Kish was revealed. While Ur had hundreds of men with battle carts, Kish had thousands! Large formations of them, occupants hurling javelins, swept past the lines of Ur, moved out of range then doubled back for another pass. Kish skirmishers far outnumbered those of Ur, disrupting Ur's ranks with javelins, throwing axes and slung stones. The Kish armed with sword and shield alone outnumbered the whole Ur army! Overall the warriors of Kish were more than twice the warriors of Ur, and had the advantage of knowing the terrain of their homeland intimately. As the Ur lines began to crumble, Ur-Nammu realized he had badly underestimated his opponent's strength.
    Lieutenant Bakshishum cried out as he took a axe blow to his helmet. As he sprawled on the ground he was trampled by the mass of advancing Kish infantrymen.
    Ur-Nammu and Elulu bellowed over the tumult of screaming men and braying onagers for their men to withdraw to the boats and boat-bridges. Remarkably the army of Ur kept cohesion even as the greater numbers of Kish warriors were reaping a bloody harvest. Fortunately for Ur the size of the Kish army was beyond that of even Manishtusu to control efficiently and by the time he'd received word of the Ur withdrawal it was too late to cut the invaders off from the river.
    Perhaps a third of the original invading force escaped, leaving behind a carpet of dead and those too badly wounded to flee. Manishtusu's force took over a thousand casualties but returned to Kish to parade in triumph. Later Amadala gave Manishtusu the best night of his life.
    Ur-Nammu led the survivors back to the Ur vassal state of Selucia, encamping there to consider his next move and block any Kish advance on Ur itself. In early 2101 dysentery swept the camp and the brothers were among the afflicted. Ur-Nammu survived but Elulu was one of those who did not.


City-State of Uruk Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ur-Nigina, 1st King of the IV Dynasty, favored of Inanna
    Ur-Ninga decided to switch his investment strategy and funded naval architecture experiments at Uruk's arsenal on the Euphrates, which after several years produced prototypes of larger ships. He also ordered surplus wheat and barley be stored for lean times, then set out along with his
    The king, his grand-nephew Kuda and the diplomat Ikun-pi-Istar traveled to Lagash to meet with its king (and feudal ally of Uruk) Ur-Babba. Once again those of Uruk hoped to persuade the Lagash king into a closer relationship. This time Ikin-pi-Istar proposed a marriage between the warrior Kuda and Ur-Babba's daughter Gudea. Kuda was handsome and charming, and there was instant attraction between the heir to Uruk and the comely Lagash royal. Near the end of 2104 a treaty was signed binding Lagash and Uruk as equals acting together but each sovereign in its own lands. The ceremony was followed by the marriage and the traditional feasting and drinking. Life was good.
    Well, not for long. The king was in his mid-50s, an old man for his time, and near the end of 2104 died in his sleep. Kuda became King of Uruk with Gudea as his queen; Ur-Nigina's body was shipped back to Uruk for mortuary services at the temple of Inanna. Kuda stayed in Lagash. It had been the late king's plan to try diplomacy-in-force with nearby Ahvaz the following year and Kuda decided to continue with it. He'd hoped Ur-Babba would assist but the Lagash king - now in his late 40s - had been increasingly ill, plagued by chest pains and shortness of breath, and he chose to remain in his palace.
    In early 2103 Kuda, Ikun-pi-Istar and a host of seven thousand mixed warriors (including an impressive formation of three thousand spearmen) crossed the Tigris into Ahvaz. The gathered tribal chiefs were deeply impressed at the display of armed might, and readily agreed to pay tribute. A triumphant Kuda returned to Uruk. Impressed by the events of the past years and feeling Uruk was "the place to be" artisans, merchants and laborers alike headed for the city, increasing its population.


City-State of Lagash Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ur-Babba, King of Lagash, favored of Bau
    King Ur-Babba ordered again invested in creating a way to move messages quickly. More gold was spent to reclaim lowlands for farm use. The army led by his cousin Ur-Ningirsu was deployed to protect both the croplands as well as the city itself.
    In early 2015 King Ur-Nigina of Uruk, his grand-nephew Kuda and diplomat Ikun-pi-Istar arrived for another series of diplomatic talks. [see Uruk]
    In early 2013, not long after Kuda had departed, Ur-Babba groaned, clutched his chest and slumped off his throne; healers were unable to revive him. His cousin Ur-Ningirsu became king and dispatched a messenger to Gudea (accompanying husband Kuda in Ahvaz) with the news.
    FREE STATE TO URUK


Traders of Dilmun Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Abdullah, First of the Council
    Abdullah shook off his lethargy and got to work. The Council approved the expansion of Dilmun including subsidized housing for demobilized veterans. Simultaneously the city received additional sewers, water pipes and public fountains - it was a very noisy, muddy, dirty place for quite a few years - and finally the city wall was rebuilt for security. Abdullah then ruled while his second helped keep an eye on events.


Kingdom of Elam Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Simashki, King of Elam
    At Simashki's command the shipyards echoed with sawing and hammering as light trade galleys were built to enhance the kingdom's commerce. Much gold and labor was spent on agriculture: putting marginal land to the plow, terracing hillsides or digging additional irrigation ditches. Still more funding went to establish a service to move messages quickly throughout the kingdom; alas the minor noble leading that effort was incompetent and spent much of his time gambling or drinking. Surplus grain and dried vegetables were stockpiled for times of famine.
    The king settled back to rule and dispatched his adopted son (and heir) Kangan to Mand for diplomatic talks. Kagan was the son of the Anshan settlement's chief and knew the rulers of Mand quite well. After many years of discussions the lord of Mand agreed to merge his lands with that of Elam and retire. Kangan returned to Susa to report his success.
    While he was gone the king had married Hita, his betrothed from Mand, but was careful not to sire children and confuse the succession since Kangan was already heir.


Kingdom of Gutia Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Erridupizir, King of Gutium
    Erridupizier decided the capital of Borahshi needed to be the equal of any other Mesopotamian city. With much gold and labor it was expanded and the market square was ringed with statues to the Gutians' gods. Additional storehouses were constructed to hold surplus food. Finally the wall was rebuilt for continued safety.
    The king was in his later 40s (growing old for the time) and decided to enjoy what years he had remaining. He abdicated in spring 2105 in favor of his heir Naser, previously lord of Persia. With Erridupizir's blessing he married Elaheh, another royal daughter (the first having died after producing a son) and moved into the palace. Elaheh birthed a daughter at the end of 2105 and became preg-nant again in 2104. She and Naser were enjoying a celebratory meal when he clutched at his throat, choking on a piece of lamb and died before her horrified eyes despite the frantic efforts of his retainers.
    A stunned Erridupizir took the crown again and offered what comfort he could to his grief-stricken child. She birthed a second daughter in 2103 but the baby was jaundiced and sickly and died the following year. Her brother Gazsi automatically becoming the new heir upon coming of age only reminded her of losing Naser, plunging her into a deep depression. Rumors began to spread about a curse upon the family...

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OXUS VALLEY
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"Birdman with Snakes" artifact (amulet?) found in excavation


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy (pictographic symbols) exists throughout this area.


City-State of Namazgadepe Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Frasaostra, King of Namazgadepe
    King (and former general) Frasaostra funded attempts to create a courier service to move news quickly. Yet more food was preserved for future needs, and four hundred men familiar with the bow were recruited as archers. Those efforts begun, the king's thoughts turned to the settlement of Koi Krylgan downriver on the Oxus. They'd insulted the king's late brother when he'd attempted diplomacy, and his brother had let it go. Frasaostra was not so passive. "The festering boil, that hive of hive of hatred," he addressed his army officers, "will be tolerated no longer!"
    In late spring 2105 the king, his heir Piyama and an army of five thousand men left Namazgadepe and marched north along the Oxus until Koi Krylgan was in sight. The settlement had no walls and an initial assault was launched to get the measure of the defenders, who were completely surprised and properly aghast. Volleys of arrows began dropping onto the settlement making casualties of half its two hundred infantrymen within minutes. By then the rest of the Namazgadepe army was upon them, cutting them down. A few score wounded were taken prisoner; the rest of the defenders had died in battle. Piyama was pleased he'd outfought and killed one himself. Less than a dozen of Frasaostra's men were casualties.
    The settlement elders were put in chains to be taken back to Namazgadepe, and a groveling bureaucrat was put in charge in their place with orders to keep the civilians under control.


City-State of Gonur Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
HemÔvand, King of Gonur
    HemÔvand funded infantry improvements and (as most nations) attempts to set up a message relay system to spread news quickly. More surplus food were preserved and stored, and marginal acreage put to the plow. Eight hundred men were recruited and received combat engineering training.
    At the kingdom's university students turned from their studies to drink to excess (more than the usual) and lay about their quarters philosophizing about trivial matters. Few classes were attended and eventually even those had their supplies stolen and sold for more drink. The university effectively shut down due to apathy.
    The king's thoughts then turned to the lack of an heir, and he married Lilyah (who was already living in the palace, so quite convenient) whose ancenstry was of previous Gonur royalty, thus helping legitimize any children she bore HemÔvand. She birthed a daughter in 2104 but suffered a miscarriage a year later after a fall; the attending servants were executed, of course. In 2102 she produced twin boys - an heir and a spare, the king observed.
    Also living in the palace but more a prisoner than guest was the Tadzik widow of the previous king Sadhanah. Hemavand feared if she returned to Tadzik the region would renounce its loyalty, but hesitated executing her in case a Tadzik noble came to visit. Lilyah found her presence in the palace both tragic and dangerous.

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TIBETAN PLATEAU
See mixed-terrain and Tibetan Plateau additions on Map Changes page!
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Tibetan capital of Lhasa


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.


Kingdom of Zhang Zhung Pastoral-Nomadic Metalworking Monarchy
See rewritten 2.2.1.3 Nomad info on Rule Changes page!
    advanced in time; OPEN FOR A PLAYER


Kingdom of Tibet Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
    advanced in time; OPEN FOR A PLAYER

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INDUS VALLEY
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City of Harappa in Punjab


Literacy (Indus glyphs) exists throughout the Indus Valley civilization.

City-State of Harappa Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Dharmsala, King of Harappa
    Dharmsala's raiding rather than ruling had left Harappan finances in poor condition; tax revenue was down at a time when the army's campaigning had increased expenses. Fortunately the kingdom had a good harvest and he ordered surplus grain sold to silk road traders to raise cash to pay his men.
    Leaving his heir Kalabagh behind to rule, Dharmsala patrolled the borders until it was evident no one was going to invade. Deciding to try his hand at diplomacy, he headed north through the Karakoram Pass into the sparsely-populasted wilderness of Kashmir and met with the tribal chiefs. He offered himself for marriage in exchange for a treaty but the hillmen were suspicious of strangers, and differences in religion and language didn't help. After several years of badly cooked goat and sour beer he returned to his kingdom without bride or agreement.
    Meanwhile Kalabagh had chosen a local noblewoman as wife and enjoyed her while ruling. She had a difficult time carrying a child to term, suffering miscarriages before and after giving him a daughter in 2103.


City-State of Rupar Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Mianwali, King of Rupar
    Mianwali decided to put a hold on the raiding of Ganweriwala in order to invest and rebuild. Gold was spent on military improve-ments including an academy of engineering, as well as multiple areas of government. Having taken heavy casualties recently, fourteen hundred men were hired and trained with sword and shield for homeland defense. More forts were built in Sukkur to serve the dual purpose of blunting invasion and providing garrison to keep the population pacified.
    With his son but a toddler, the king realized he needed an adult heir in case of his own death. After lengthy consideration he proclaimed the noted warrior-diplomat Bikampur his successor. Mianwali then waited with the army on alert in case of Ganweriwalan relatiation. His wait was very brief. [see Ganweriwala]

    In summer 2102 the king got into an argument with the widow of the previous king as they toured the city walls with their retainers, savoring the breeze off the Saraswati. The quarrel concerned the status of her son Ritupara who was soon coming of age: she requested her son replace Bikampur as heir. Mianwali laughed then told her the old king's line no longer mattered and he planned to send the boy (who admittedly was a nasty, demanding, difficult child) to a border fort to learn some manners. Furious she shouted her son would be king, and pushed a startled Mianwali off the wall. As he fell one flailing hand grabbed the widow's arm and pulled her after him. Both hit the rocky bottom of the dry moat with a bone-cracking crunch.
    After their very awkward royal funerals, Bikampur ascended to the throne. A year later when Ritupara came of age, Bikampur honorably (although with reservations) named him heir.
    FREE STATE TO HARAPPA


City-State of Ganweriwala Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Kosavari the Magnificent, King of Ganweriwala
    Like Dharmsala of Harappa, Kosavari also had a financial crisis on his hands due to the destruction of most of the kingdom's wealth by raiders while the army needed payment. Unlike Harappa, Ganweriwala had a bad harvest thus no excess food to sell. Grimly the king demobilized units he couldn't afford to pay while making what repairs he could to the countryside. Kosavari ruled and kept with him the spear-armed heavy infantry in case of trouble.
    Meanwhile as soon as the 2105 campaigning season began his younger brother and heir Vihana led five thousand infantry and skirmishers (able to move faster without spearmen) north in an invasion of Sukkur. Word quickly reached King Mianwali of Rupar who headed south with four thousand infantry and skirmishers to back up the border forts.
    The two armies reached the battlefield at the same time. Despite a lack of combat experience Vihana was a natural leader, plus Ganweriwala had more skirmishers to scout and better trained infantry. The king of Rupar was equally lacking in experience but the forts gave his army strongpoints around which to defend - an extremely valuable advantage.
    Skirmishers hurled javelins and slung stones as the ranks closed. The two armies met amid the crash of bronze swords on shields and the screams of the inept or unlucky. The conflict swirled around the forts which Vihana's men made determined attempts to scale against defenders equally determined to hold. By nightfall Ganweriwala had lost over 700 killed and several times that wounded and they'd made no progress. It appeared Rupar had taken slightly heavier losses but still held the forts and with them the ability to block the invasion.
    King Kosavari had stressed the necessity of taking Sukkur, so the next morning Vihana ordered his army to try again. The second day's battle went much the same except one fort was taken and burnt. However perhaps due to their relentless efforts to scale walls against rains of missiles this time it was Ganweriwala's infantry who suffered the heavier casualties. It was apparent to the heir and his officers that continuing would mean the grinding away of his command. With resignation Vihana ordered his force to withdraw back to Sind taking their wounded with them. Back in Sukkur, Mianwali ordered a victory celebration for his officers while his soldiers looted the battlefield.

    It was in the autumn of 2105 and the now-rested Ganweriwalan army was camped expecting a Rupar army to counter- invade at any time. King Kosavari and a dispirited Vihana were dining when word arrived their allied state Edrosia had been savaged by Lothal raiders crossing from Jats! What little the Edrosians had rebuilt was plundered, villages put to the torch and everything possible destroyed. "The fools!" cried Kosavari, "doesn't Lothal realize if we fall they are next?"

    Apparently broken under the strain, Kosavari died in early 2104 from an infected wound received during sword practice. A very shaken Vihana was now king. The following year his brother Aparajita came of age and Vihana appointed him heir and managed a small feast in his honor. No good deed goes unpunished: the widow of Kosavari drank to serious excess, passed out and never woke up, somewhat tarnishing memories of the event.


Traders of Dholavira Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Harshal, First of the Council
    In Harshal's absence Tanish, Sword of the Council, led the merchants in debating which areas of military and civil life were worthy of funding. Much gold was also spent to beautify the city of Dholavira with a paved central market square and fountain; the streets radiating from it were paved as well. Afterward, he returned to his squadron of war galleys to continue monitoring the waters around Kutch as he'd done for many, many years.
    Harshal had stayed in the port settlement of Qana in Hadramuht after his diplomatic discussions with the elders. He restarted them hoping for more progress and continued despite word from home that his wife Umai and her retainers had taken ill and died within days - spoiled food was blamed. After 5 years of talks and despite declining health, he managed to convince the elders to fully merge their settlement with Dholavira.
    Meanwhile back in Dholavira the loyal Tanish died in his sleep at 54 of old age, and Harshal's son Harshan (who'd just came of age and was obsessed with all things nautical) was chosen to take his place. Harshan watched the construction of Lothal's port city of Surkotada with concern; it put Lothal naval power disturbingly close to Dholavira.


City-State of Lothal Seafaring Bronzeworking Monarchy
Baroda, King of Lothal
    Baroda funded construction of a small dormatory at the university and storage facilities for surplus grain. His major accomplishment however was moving a huge number of surplus population along with tools and building materials across the arid grasslands of Jats to found the city of Surkotada. Once completed it provided the kingdom with a port on the Gulf of Oman, bringing cities further west within range of trading galleys.
    Leaving his heir Champa to rule, Baroda gathered over four thousand mixed infantry and skirmishers and trekked through Jats along with the settlers. Parting company at the Saraswati, he led his men in raiding Edrosia while its ally Ganweriwala was fighting desperately against Rupar. Baroda was a skilled general and confident of handling any Edrosian militia, but to his astonishment no defenses were encountered, only civilians rebuilding after Harappan raids of years past. What little the Edrosians had rebuilt was plundered, villages put to the torch and everything possible destroyed, leaving the land half-populated.
    Pleased with the results of his raiding, Baroda doubled back through his kingdom and in summer 2104 crossed into sparsely inhabited Anhivarta for peaceful diplomacy, offering himself in marriage to a tribal chief's daughter. (His heir Champa had obtained a savage bride the previous year and now Baroda wanted one too.) Despite language and religious differences the talks went well; the strongest hill chief became a feudal ally of Lothal and offered its king his pick of daughters. Baroda chose the huntress-type Deepika and returned with her to Lothal in early 2101, enjoying her reaction to civilization.
    Meanwhile Champa had handled the daily chore of ruling but as compensation enjoyed nights with Deeta, his bride from Jats, daughter of a nomad chieftan. He sired a girl in 2105, a boy in 2104 and another boy in 2101. Life is good thought Champa, gazing at his second son.
    The next day while engaging in a celebratory hunt with his retainers the group was surprised by a tiger. Two guards, a retainer and of course Champa were clawed fatally and a half-dozen other men wounded before the tiger was slain.

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GANGES VALLEY
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Atranjikhera on the Ganges


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.


City-State of Hastinapura Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Rampur, King of Hastinapura
    Since he was still in Rajput having completed a diplomatic mission, Rampur sent a retainer to voice his orders to fund construction at the university and hire scholars to teach. Surplus fruits and vegetables were to be dried and stored for future needs.
    That underway, the king, heir Lakhimpur II and almost 4,500 mixed infantry and skirmishers crossed the Ganges from Rajput and invaded Chandela, homeland of the city-state of Kaushambi. Both men were middling military leaders and the crossing took longer than expected. King Jagdish of Kaushambi was average too but without having to cross a river he had time to add his army to the regional garrison giving him four thousand men. Meanwhile his feudal ally Mani of Juanpor, a highly skilled warrior had reacted quickly crossing downstream and bringing another thousand troops to join his liege lord. Jagdish now had the advantage of numbers plus the benefits of knowing his homeland's terrain and having a fort upon which to anchor his defense.
    Unaware how much the odds were against him, King Rampur gave the order to attack. Skirmishers of both sides sent javelins and stones towards the enemy in an attempt to disrupt their ranks. Then the charging infantry met, stone-bladed axes and maces slamming against wooden shields. Men screamed and died just as surely as if wielding bronze.
    The attack was held, then slowly the combined forces of Kaushambi and Juanpor began pushing the invaders back until the Hastinapuran formation began crumbling. Rampur was inexperienced but no fool; he ordered withdrawal back to the river with the able-bodied helping the many wounded. The efforts of a rear guard and the defenders' own exhaustion let the majority of the attackers cross back to Rajput in surprisingly good order.
    Hastinapura had lost over a thousand killed and twice that wounded, most of whom were helped to safety. Kaushambi suffered less than eight hundred total casualties and their Juanpor allies about two hundred. There was much feasting and drinking in nearby Kaushambi that night.


City-State of Atranjikhera Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Purna, Regent of Atranjikhera for Ila, daughter of Kali-Ra
    Purna once more directed most of the kingdom's wealth and labor into the continuing cultivation of the remaining wilderness in Vasta. It was nearly completed which inspired the workers since the end was in sight. Funds were also invested in creating a way to relay news quickly throughout the kingdom.
    Since Ila was now of age, Purna stepped down as Regent. Ila took the throne amid week-long celebrations. The Elamo-Dravidian religion centered on the Earth-Mother helped the great majority of the populace accept a female monarch. Ila was determined to continue the city-state's growth and within a few days had left for the nearby wilderness of Jihjhoti for negotiations. The hill tribes were notoriously suspicious of all outsiders, but she was a born diplomat whose skills had been further improved accompanying the previous king Batashwari during his own diplomacy sessions. It was said she could talk a tiger out of his stripes.
    Meeting with the hill chieftans she offered herself in marriage in exchange for their fealty. Completely enchanted with her they agreed Nabhiga, brother of their strongest chief would marry her and they would pay tribute to Atranjikhera as well. In early 2102 Ila and Nabhiga returned home, her husband atonished at the wonders of the city. Ali became pregnant and miscarried but a second pregnancy resulted in a daughter in 2101.
    In the meantime Purna traveled to meet with elders of the Malwah settlement in Avanti. They were honored to be visited - living in the middle of nowhere - and flattered by her attention. Although impoverished they agreed to pay what tribute they could.
    On her way home she stopped at the court of the lord of Avanti, an ally of Atranjikhera. He was an old man for the time and after long discussions over cups of spiced tea he agreed to retire and fully merge his lands with that of the city-state. Purna returned home feeling quite pleased with her missions to find Ila married and a mother. Life was good.


City-State of Kaushambi Barbarian Metalworking Monarch
Jagdish, King of Kaushambi
    Jagdish again ordered surplus grain to be stored for times of famine, but most of the kingdom's resources remained unspent, saved for future use. The king then decreed that his young son Jagadambika would be his heir upon coming of age.
    He set about to run the day to day affairs of his kingdom but in a few months there came news of a Hastinapuran army invading across the Ganges from their territory of Rajput. The army was ordered to ready itself and word was sent to his feudal ally Mani of Juanpor to join him. [see Hastinapura]
    In mid-2014 after growing steadily weaker the king's young son Jagadamba died in his sleep at age 10. In late 2014 a message arrived from Jaunpor that Mani had died after being snakebitten by a common krait whose venom was far stronger than the famed cobra. His warrior cousin became lord in his place.
   

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SOUTHERN INDIA
(Indian subcontinent south of Vindhya Mountain range, plus Ceylon)
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rural village snake worship shrine


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.


Kingdom of Chera Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Indara Chuzwel Akapane, King of Chera
    Indara allocated gold to a pair of efforts: organizing a network of relay runners to move messages quickly, and creating a method to record the Tamil tongue. He also directed resources to the continuing cultivation of the remaining wilderness in Chera and sent several minions to check on contradictory reports of progress, eventually finding lax recordkeeping but no corruption. All those initiatives underway he ruled the kingdom.
    Heir Palyane Chel Kezhu - known for his persuasive ability - had a more active agenda planned beginning with crossing the mountains to Gangas, taking with him several thousand soldiers and various royal relatives who'd been enjoying the soft palace life. In Gangas he met with Adu Kottu Pattu, strongest chieftan of the Neolithic hill tribes, hoping to improve relations beyond ivory trade by offering in marriage the comely Pattini Deva, daughter of the previous king. Despite differences in religion and language, after a few months of talks the smitten Adu led the chiefs in agreeing to a complete joining with Chera.
    After the wedding and feasting (mmm! roast elephant!) in late 2104 Palyane left familiar territory and continued north deeper into the Deccan plateau to Belur, again seeking out the Neolithic chiefs. To initiate relations he offered his equally comely sister Kottavi in marrige to a chief. The locals being more isolated were more suspicious and with the additional religious and language differences he made no progress. Kottavi was more relieved than insulted.
    Hoping for better luck in known land, in 2103 Palyane headed west over more mountains into the tributary state of Malabar, once again hoping to improve relations. Here he offered himself in marriage to a local noblewoman. The local lord, in poor health, offered his daughter Bhabavahi as a bride and retired to his seaside estates, Malabar becoming part of the kingdom.
    Palyane and Bhabavahi wed in the local snake-adorned naga temple and returned to Muciri where he introduced her to the royal court. It was then he learned his older sister Meenakshi (diplomatic marriage to feudal ally Kappuiyarruk of Pandya) had died several years earlier in childbirth.


Kingdom of Chola Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Ellalan Chola, King of Chola
    Mindful of the lack of an adult heir, King Ellalan announced that Nedunkilli Chola from a noble family of Arikamedu would assume that role. Ellalan continued to save revenue was available for future use and ruled his kingdom to ensure continued solvency.
    Lieutenant Thirumavalavan was dispatched from the capital to meet with Bindusara, lord of Vengi. Bindusara was a full ally of Chola, but due to his own diplomatic efforts he held the fealty of the tribal chiefs of Chela. Thirumavalavan's mission was to bring this sub-nation back into the kingdom. He was a middling diplomat and cultural differences complicated his efforts, but for years he persisted. Finally Bindusara yielded to escape the lieutenant's endless nagging, and agreed to abdicate, planning on spending his time with family hunting or fishing.
    Meanwhile back at the palace in 2102 Ellalan caught a severe flu that was circulating. An old man of 53, he couldn't fight it off and died of dehydration and fever. Nedunkilli became king.

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IRRAWADDY VALLEY
(Tibeto-Burman migration from north down the Irrawaddy Valley displaced original Mon-Khmer peoples)
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Beikthano, oldest Irrawaddy Valley city


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.


City-State of Halin Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Abhiraja, King of Halin
    Abhiraja funded the construction of an additional government building and personnel to staff it. Most of the kingdom's wealth was saved for future use. Fighting down his instinct to be in the field leading an army, he bade himself endure the tedium of ruling.
    Meanwhile the king's younger brother Abhiran was told to help administer the kingdom. Restless and ill-tempered, he still showed no aptitude or interest in administration and he bullied his subordinates. In early 2104 he was killed in a drunken tavern brawl and the palace staff felt a sense of relief.


City-States of Binnaka & Maingmaw Barbarian Metalworking Monarchies
Sawyun, King of Binnaka & Thadominbya, King of Maingmaw
    Sawyun in consultation with his brother king, funded attempts to create a courier service and break ground for a university. More funding went to a continuing effort to devise a method to permanently record their language.
    Sawyun spent time with his wife Taraminia, daughter of the king of neighboring Beikthano, producing a son in late 2105. He then crossed the river to Ava to meet with its lord Kalewa and negotiate ties between their realms. After lengthy discussions Kalewa took an oath as a feudal ally of Binnaka and Maingmaw.
    In Sawyun's absence Thadominbya administered the land and continued to enjoy his wife Arinassa, increasing his family with a boy in 2105 and another in 2103.
    Late in 2101 an excited group of scholars sought audience with the him. Once in his presence, they demonstrated a way to "write" the Tibeto-Burmese language (or at least the Pyu dialect of the Irrawaddy) henceforth known as Pyu script.


City-State of Beikthano Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Dawnak, King of Beikthano
    Dawnak had little wealth due to the huge dowry he'd sent with his daughter Taraminia to the neighboring King of Binnaka; at least it had been a one-time payment. For now he funded supplies for the university and additional work to convert the remaining wilder-ness areas to productive farmland. Once those efforts were ongoing, he settled back to rule and spend time with his family. His wife Martaban bore him a girl in late 2105 and after a difficult pregnancy a small, sickly boy in 2103. Already worried about the boy they took another blow in early 2102 when their teen son Shastak's boating party with friends ended with the skiff run aground on a river sandbank and quickly sinking.
    His younger brother Mahabaja administered the kingdom but his jealousy of Dawnak prevented him offering sympathy.

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