Newsfax Turn: #5 ( 2110 - 2106 BC )
September 10, 2015

ANNOUNCEMENTS: New or changed from previous turn will be in red.
My Stats program only accepts whole gp for University investment, and only stores whole nfp leftover at end of turn.
An area's progress in metallurgy & literacy will be in green and is the situation at the start of the turn.

Want a second position?
Players in Italy, Aegean, Nile or Levant could have another in Indus, Ganges or Irrawaddy.
Players in Mesopotamia or Oxus could have another in Italy, Aegean or Irrawaddy.
Players in Indus, Ganges or Southern India could have another in Italy, Aegean or Nile.
1. New turnsheet template was effective this turn! I've accepted some old ones but won't next turn. Please download and use!
2. Henceforth when a FA is diplomacized to T or EA status, the F leader will remain on the stat sheet to track his stats in case he becomes an A leader or ages out.

QUICK SCROLL if you know where you want to go:
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(Corsica, Sardinia, Italian penninsula, Sicily & Malta)
Nuragic field fort with distinctive
stone Nuraghe towers

Literacy has not yet reached this area.

Nuragic Civilization Barbarian Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Alessandru, Lord of Albucci, de facto leader of Nuragic Civilization
    Alessandru dispatched laborers with tools to further the cultivation of the island of Sardinia, and invested gold in various military improvements. He then set to rule the many Nuragic villages, much like herding cats.
    His top diplomat, the golden-tongued Rafiele, traveled to Corsica and spent years negotiating with the local chiefs and despite language differenced reached an economic agreement.
    advanced in time; OPEN FOR A PLAYER

(Proto-)Etruscans Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Arnza Ulthese, King of Etruscans
    Arnza returned to Tuscany, ordered all gold saved for future spending, then spent time with Pevtha, his bride from Latium, who gave birth to a boy in 2109. Meanwhile Arnza was on his way by galley to Sardinia to speak of alliance with the Nuragic civilization, spending many years there. He was an exceptional diplomat but faced with religious hostility and a language unlike any he'd ever heard* Arnza simply couldn't make any progress.
    Adding to his frustration were reports of a cholera outbreak in Luni, apparently beginning in the slums where drinking water was frequently foul due to lack of sewers. By the end of 2106 over five thousand people had died mostly from extreme dehydration, including several hundred of the city garrison.
    His younger sister Stenia, already in rural Malta, returned to its port settlement of Borg in-Nadur with intent to work her wiles upon its ruler Dori. To her great frustration, he'd already put to sea aboard his personal light trade galley. Frustrated, she awaited his return. When he did return after many months at sea, Stenia got his attention quickly - with him being a teenaged male that was very easy - but a few days later a large Minoan fleet arrived. Events then overtook Stenia's diplomatic efforts.
    *Nuragic has never been deciphered but linguists agree it is unrelated to any other Indo- European language.

Apennine Culture Barbarian Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Brutus, Lord of Scoglio, de facto leader of Apennine Culture
    Brutus ordered much gold spent hiring artists, scholars, philosophers and traders to explore a way to permanently record knowledge, rumored to be possible further east. More university buildings were built to house the additional researchers and their servants. Brutus then settled back to direct the actions of the Apennine culture and enjoy his wife Julia from an noble Apulian family. She miscarried early 2109 after a long sickness, but bore a healthy son in 2108. Unfortunately her following pregnancy ended with her dying in childbirth, plunging the king into grief.
    Near the end of 2106 an excited group of scholars begged an audience. They reported success in devising a method of "writing" based on unique symbols for consonants and vowels, henceforth known as the Etruscan alphabet. Historically the Etruscan (and similar Italian penninsular) scripts appear to be derived from the Euboean Greek alphabet. Apparently in this timeline the Etruscan-speaking Apennine Culture devised the alphabet first.

Italics Barbarian Bronzeworking Tribal
    advanced in time; not yet active (unless provoked)


(Balkans, Aegean Sea & Western Anatolia)
Achaean capital of Mycenae

Literacy has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.

Thracians Barbarian Bronzeworking Tribal
    off map in northeast Balkans - not yet active

Illyrians Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy
Pleurias, King of Illyrians
    Pleurias ordered additional defenses built for the homeland but felt secure enough to resume work on converting more wilderness to farmland. He then headed north into Slovenia where he spoke at length with its lord Gorizia, eventually persuading him to become a feudal ally of Illyria.
    When Pleurias returned home he was met by excited scholars who'd continued researching how to record Illyrian despite little recent funding. They were successful and presented their work. Historically Illyrian was never written; what few words are known were preserved in Greek and Roman texts. So a variant of the "alphabet" concept based on contact (and therefore flow of ideas) between Illyria and the Apennine Culture seems reasonable.

Achaean Greeks Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Xanthe, Regent for Akakios, older son of the late King Basileios
    With the kingdom suffering financial difficulties, Xanthe focused what income it had into hiring away any unemployed scribes from Anatolia, the Levant or Nile with instructions to create a "written" version of the Greek language. Then a counting of people could be done to increase revenue.
    Realizing her nephew Akakios wouldn't come of age for many years, she chose a Ellas of Attica as heir. He was skilled in both swordcraft and oratory, and came from a noble family with a long history of service to the crown. This selection did much to placate those who were uncomfortable with a woman on the throne.
    The diplomat Clitus was sent to Macedon to secure the cooperation of the local lord. Negotiations went well since he had a common tongue and gods with the Macedonians, and they agreed to an economic pact.

Minoans Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (Linear A glyphs)
Labrys, First of the Council

pentaconter with
Minoan bull's head 
sail insignia
    Labrys ordered no less than nine trade galleys built at the municipal shipyards and hundreds
of men recruited and trained as infantry. Surplus urban population was rounded up and issued tools and supplies, then were loaded aboard over a dozen trading galleys of various sizes along with nearly 2,500 infantry and skirmishers. Crowds on the docks gathered as a priest sacrificed a bull to ensure calm seas. The trading galleys - impressed into use as transports - set out from Knossos escorted and flanked by pentaconter war galleys with Labrys, his son Tavrys and his uncle Diskliakos aboard the flagship.
    It was late summer of 2110 when to the jaw-dropping surprise of the local fishermen several dozen Minoan ships approached the harbor of Borg in-Nadur, the port settlement on Malta. The port's ruler Dori ordered his light trade galley rowed out to meet the flagship, at which point he learned that Labrys had suffered terrible chest pains and died a few days earlier. Diskliakos was grimly trying to comfort young Tavrys.

    It had been the plan of Labrys to pacify rural Malta and then colonize it. Diskliakos, now ranking Council member vowed to continue. Dori, himself only in his teens, and more than a little distracted by the seductive Estruscan diplomat Stenia, nevertheless as feudal ally felt honor-bound to assist. The Minoan warriors disembarked and formed up in Borg in-Nadur, then together with Dori's several hundred infantry moved out to engage the rural Maltan militia.
    The locals were paying tribute to the Estruscans and unlikely to fight to continue doing so. However the most powerful of their chieftans was Thresu, whom Stenia had taken as husband, and Stenia goaded him to fight. He and Diskliakos were a nearly even match in skill. The locals knew their island well; however so did Dori's guardsmen, and the Minoans outnumbered the island militia better than 2-to-1. After hard fighting and several hundred Minoan dead the islands were secured. The rural militia had been almost entirely killed, wounded or captured, but neither Thresu or Stenia were found.
    After the fighting died out Diskliakos bade the Minoan colonists get to work building homes and planting crops. More than one Maltan family was driven off their farm or had their livestock taken by colonists looking to save time and effort, and the Maltans became an underclass.
    Meanwhile in Borg in-Nadur as reward for his help Dori was gifted with a robe made by Gonimotia, wife of Labrys, decorated with a small 7-armed octopus in purple embroidery. Purple dye being very costly, it was a garment worthy of a king.
    Afterward, their work being done the Minoan warriors and ships returned to Crete in 2108. It was then Diskliakos heard that feudal ally Spathi "the Cruel" of Cyprus had died under mysterious (but not investigated) circumstances and had been replaced by his saner younger brother.

Luvians Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Kyran, King of the Luvians
    In the capital of Ephesus orators denounced the monarchy during the day while the city belonged to the mob at night. Nobles were afraid to venture forth from the palace quarter lest they be murdered in the streets. King Kyran remained secluded in the palace and gave no orders to arrest the leaders of the movement, Alasehir (a former metalworker) and Manisa (a former temple servant) although at this point it likely would have been impossible to enforce.
    The atmosphere in the capital was highly charged: think Paris, early July 1789.
    At this point, the situation not being bad enough already, news arrived that a Trojan army of many thousands had crossed the frontier and was headed for the capital. [see Troy]

City-State of Troy Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Luwian hieroglyphics)
Ezine, King of Troy IV
    Ezine directed a thousand men be recruited and trained to fight with spear and shield. Next he proclaimed Ucalegon, his bastard son by a serving wench, to be his heir. Ucalegon's two older half-brothers by a different serving wench held court in various taverns venting their anger at being bypassed.
    The king (bringing Ucalegon with him) gathered up the city and rural garrisons and in the summer of 2110 crossed the border into Lydia with over six thousand men, heading for Ephesus. The invasion apparently brought Kyran of the Luvians out of his self-imposed palace seclusion and he marched to intercept the Trojans with around 3,500 warriors. The villagers along the way were surly, some openly urging the soldiers to desert; clearly the anti-monarchy republican sentiment had spread from the radicalized Luvian capital far into the countryside.
    The armies met in cultivated land with the Luvians anchoring their lines on a field fort and a steep-sided creek. But the Luvian infantry proved unable to resist the mass of Trojan heavy infantry using a shield wall with spears (kind of a proto-phalanx) giving them a longer reach than swords. Regular Trojan infantry followed the spearmen into the breach and the Luvian center collapsed despite Kyran leading a counterattack. Their morale undermined by years of republican agitation and now broken by the defeat, the surviving Luvian warriors - most of whom were wounded - began surrendering in droves. Some 1,500 men of Troy were also casualties but they had taken
Trojan spearmen engage
Luvian infantry
hundreds of prisoners, recovered arms and armor from the battlefield and looted the Luvian camp. Kyran and a small number of loyal warriors apparently escaped in the chaos.

    The advancing Trojans were hailed as friends in most villages rather than conquerors, their way prepared by a network of contacts and agents recruited over many years. At King Ezine's orders cartloads of food were distributed, helping to win over those civilians who were skeptical. This effort and the securing of strategic locations in the region occupied most of 2019.
    Upon reaching Ephesus the following year Ezine had anticipated a bloody scaling of the city walls. Instead the men of Troy found the gates open to them and a grim tale: radical republicans had taken advantage of the lack of a city garrison and stormed the palace quarter. For a year the mob - led by self-proclaimed leaders Alasehir and Manisa - had beheaded any royal or noble found (including the entire royal family) then any known friends of the nobility, then anyone even suspected of being sympathetic towards the nobility. The Terror grew steadily more intense, only ending when the Trojan army neared Ephesus and the radicals fled.
    The Trojans' network of contacts and agents now worked to convince the tramatized city residents that Ezine was a liberator. Given what had been endured for over a year the majority of the populace was ready to believe that. Warriors of Troy easily secured government buildings intact but found the treasury and granaries thoroughly pillaged and empty.
    In the absence of Luvian garrisons, Isauria and Miletos had each declared any Luvian treaties null and void. Luvian merchants had their shops looted and fled with the clothes on their backs. Towards the end of 2106 came word the bodies of Kyran and his few retainers had been found in southern Lydia, apparently robbed and murdered by bandits.

Hitties Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Luwian hieroglyphics)
Labarna, King of the Hittites
    Labarna decided enough resources had been spent on agriculture, and so invested heavily in military improvements and building a library (yay, literacy!) at the University. He also founded an academy to train priests of the many Hittite gods. Finally, he ordered a census of all Hittite peoples, livestock and dwellings. He then ruled his kingdom and enjoyed his wife Pudukhepa, siring a boy after many months but no children afterward since she was now past 40 and old for the times.
    The king's younger brother Hattusili remained in Pontus, continuing negotiations for years with the tribal chiefs. He was still a middling diplomat dealing with different language and mutually hostile religions, but offered the king's son Annitas in betrothal to a chieftan's daughter. In 2108 he obtained a promise of tribute from the tribal elders which was honored despite Hattusili choking to death at a banquet a few hours later. Annitas by then was of age and became the new heir.
    In mid-2107 news from Galacia told of the death of its lord Piyamaradu in an incident involving Kaska tribesmen; his younger brother succeeded him as ruler and feudal ally of the Hittites.


(including Horn of Africa)
Pyramids at Giza

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area except as noted below.
Literacy has not yet reached beyond the Egyptians (hieroglyphics) unless otherwise stated below.

Egyptian Priesthood Civilized Metalworking Theocracy
Menkaure, High Priest of Osiris
    High Priest Menkaure traveled to Faiyum to oversee the expansion of the existing temple enclosure into a full temple complex complete with libraries, living quarters and teaching rooms for novice priests, herb gardens and more. High Priestess Hatshepsut supervised the same upgrade in Lower Egypt. However the mid-level priests who had successfully converted the nomadic herders of the Sinai failed in their attempt to establish a temple shrine near the turquoise mines.
    currently NPN

Old Kingdom of Egypt Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Wadjkare, 1st King of the VIII Dynasty, favored of Ptah
    Wadjkare continued his rural improvements in both Lower Egypt and Mansura to increase food production. In the capital of Memphis a library was built to provide a place for scholars to browse the ever-increasing quantity of scrolls. Mindfull of growing Thebean power, eight hundred more men were recruited and trained with sword and shield. Surplus grain and dried fruits and vegetables were stockpiled in case of famine.
    In 2109 his son Baufra came of age and Wadjkare proclaimed him to be heir, dismissing his cousin Bakenrenef from that spot. Having spent the past decade in the roasting hot Sinai performing diplomacy on behalf of the kingdom, Bakenrenef was under-standably furious and called loudly upon the city's patron god Ptah to punish such royal ingratitude. The former heir then stormed out of the palace, leaving a shocked royal court behind him. "That went well," muttered Wadjakre to his retainers.
    In the following months Bakenrenef sulked and refused to serve as royal envoy. He remained secluded in his own (smaller) palace hosting frequent banquets for the priests of Ptah and the senior officers of the army.
    Meanwhile Wadjkare ruled his kingdom and enjoyed his wife Henutwat. She miscarried in 2109 after a slave stumbled and her litter fell, spilling her into the street. (Having been crushed by the weight of the litter, the slave was spared a lengthy painful execution.) Fortunately Henutwat was able to bear a girl in 2108 and a boy in mid-2107.
    A few weeks after that the palace awoke to screams from the royal bedchamber. Wadjkare had died overnight in his sleep, the queen waking next to a corpse, fortunately not animated. His body was taken away by priests for mummification and Baufra became the king. Bakenrenef pointedly did not attend Baufra's coronation.

City-State of Herakleopolis Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Nekhbet, 2nd King of the IX-X Dynasty, favored of Heryshef
    Nekhbet, now a king in his own right (albeit as an ally of more powerful Thebes) built walls around Herakleopolis, expressing distrust of the resurgent Old Kingdom remnant to the north. Gold was invested into military improvements, expanding the University and storing grain in case of bad harvest.
    His thoughts then turned to continuing the IX Dynasty. He took as wife Nithotep, oldest daughter of his cousin the late king and appointed Sekhemib, a longtime confidant as heir. All this done, he ruled his kingdom and savored Nithotep who birthed twin girls in 2109 but thereafter had several miscarriages and became increasingly depressed and withdrawn.

City-State of Thebes Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Mentuhotep I, 1st King of the XI Dynasty, favored of Amun
    Mentuhotep invested heavily in his military: improving the quality of his infantry and building field forts at strategic locations in Aswan and Upper Egypt. Both of those regions also had marginal land put to the plow to increase agricultural yield, and existing surplus harvest was stored for lean times.
    Leaving Prince Titus to administer the realm, both the king and his heir Ramses left for diplomacy-in-force missions. Mentuhotep was joined by his lieutenant Tetmoses in Upper Egypt (already tributary to Thebes) for further talks with its lord. Negotiations progressed smoothly (other than Tetmoses being fatally stabbed in a drunken brawl during a break in the talks) and by late 2108 the ruler of Upper Egypt had agreed to merge his lands with Thebes and retire to his estates. A few months later in early 2107 the king - by now an old man in his late 40s - complained of a terrible headache and then collapsed, dying shortly thereafter. A mid-level officer took command of the accompanying infantry and had them encamp awaiting orders.
    Meanwhile Ramses had traveled across the Eastern Desert to the port settlement of Berenice. His discussions with the elders were successful and they signed a treaty giving Theban merchants exclusive trading rights. When Ramses returned to Thebes he learned of Mentuhotep's death and was hailed as the next king of the XI Dynasty.

Kingdom of Nubia Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Shasesi, King of Nubia
    King Shasesi commanded significant investment into the nation's infantry training and tactics, and the hiring of additional scholars for the University. Much gold and labor was spent on yet more rural improvements including wooden bridges built over creeks and streams enabling farm wagons to transport fresh produce to market faster. The homeland received additional forts and the capital was enclosed in stone walls (left) as the king explained to protect it from river pirates.
    All that in progress, in the social event of the year Shasesi wed a local noblewoman from Kerma. He ruled his kingdom and spent time with his wife. She miscarried once then many years passed without a pregnancy despite the sacrifices, prayers and chanting of shamen until in 2106 after a difficult labor she birthed a daughter.
Nubian capital
of Kerma
    Lieutenant Sefertiti, master swordsman and orator returned from Faiyum where he had in years past assisted Nubia's ally Mentuhotep of Thebes with diplomacy. The king's younger brother (and heir) Maraqa joined him and together they continued south to the river settlement of el-Kawa for discussions. Upon arrival they learned its chieftan Khafre had died the previous year. Khafre's young son was now leader and unsure of himself.
    Sefertiti and Maraqa spent years at court and managed to persuade the teen to join his settlement fully to Nubia and live a carefree life of hunting, fishing and pleasures of the flesh. Not long afterward Sefertiti was wounded in a duel with a skilled local fighter who'd accused him of tricking Khafre's son into giving up his throne; the wound oozed and bled despite poltices and potions of the local healers and the lieutenant died after days of raging fever.

City-State of Meroe Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Shendi, Chief of Meroe
    Shendi once again dispatched surplus urban population along with tools to clear more land in neighboring Sennar. Next he and his wife Jebelein hosted a gathering of the royal and noble families, and commanded each family head take an oath to support Jebelein as Regent should he (Shendi) die before a son comes of age to be king. The royal couple were popular and nearly all assembled vowed upon the spirits of the Nile, the trees, the earth, the cattle and the crocodile to so accept Jebelein as asked; the high shaman of Meroe annointing their foreheads with paint. Those few unmarked who refused to swear an oath were stripped of their titles and wealth and banished beyond the city walls.
    Shendi then ruled Meroe and with Jebelein produced daughters in 2108 and 2107; that same year he welcomed a delegation of Nubian metalworkers to the city. Towards the end of 2106 a particulary bad cold worsened to pneumonia and he perished at the ripe old age of 46. His precautions paid off as Jebelein was confirmed Regent by the kingdom's leading nobles.

Land of Punt Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Makale, Lord of Punt
    Makele decreed gold be spent improving army quality and funding three ideas that skeptics claimed a waste of money: creating an alloy of copper stronger than its pure form, establishing a relay system of swift runners to carry news, and devising a method to permanently record information. All these things had been accomplished elsewhere, insisted Makele.
    The king then held court and ruled his nation wisely. In 2108 amidst great celebration his son Fazi came of age and at court was proclaimed his heir.


(Western Arabia north to Levant then west to Subartu)
City of Hazor
in Jordan

Literacy exists throughout Greater Levant as shown below.

Sabaeans Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Zabar script glyphs)
Hajr I, King of Sa'na
    The king ordered more gold invested trying to set up a messenger service, and a warehouses built to store a large quantity of surplus food for times of famine. Additional pipes were emplaced in the capital of Sa'na to bring water to growing quarters of the city. However Hajr's greatest accomplishment was founding the port city of Aden on the southern coast of Abyan, finally giving the Sabaeans a window to the world.
    He then proceeded to rule his kingdom, educating his nephew Almakah in the arts of leadership. Meanwhile Hajr's younger brother Kainan educated Athtar (his son, brother of Almakah) in administration of a kingdom. Hajr and Kainan were in their later 40s and considered old for the time, and wanted to ensure their successors were ready for the throne.
    Trajedy struck in late 2109 when Hajr's wife Kawim was shopping in the marketplace with her retainers when a building wall and its scaffolding collasped, crushing them and a number of masons and carpenters as well. Almakah and Athtar mourned the death of their aunt, but after a period of grieving their educations resumed.
    Hajr never really recovered from his loss and took to drinking heavily while barely eating, ignoring the pleading of Kainan to stop. In mid-2108 to no one's surprise he fell down a palace staircase dead drunk and broke his neck. Kainan took the throne, and his older son Athtar (who'd turned 15 a month or two earlier) became heir.

City-State of Hazor Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Sisera, King of Hazor
    Sisera directed a bit of gold invested in pretty much everything, especially trying to set up some kind of messenger service. Poor land in Jordan was brought into agricultural use mostly by the efforts of hundreds of enslaved Syrian prisoners of war. Sisera then ruled the kingdom and motivated the lackadasical clerks and scribes to better administration.
    Jabin, the king's young heir traveled to Caanan to try his hand at diplomacy with his future in-laws (his betrothed was the daughter of the previous king of Hazor and a Caananite noblewoman). He was successful in persuading the local lord to merge his lands with Hazor and retire to tend to his vineyards.
    Towards the end of 2106 an unexpected message arrived from the port settlement of Aqaba: a light galley had arrived from distant (almost mythical) Dholavira to initiate sea trade!

City-State of Ugarit Civilized Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Niqmaddu, First of the Council
    Niqmaddu again persuaded the Council to devote treasure and labor to the homeland including clearing paths for wagons, terracing of hillsides, filling in lowland areas and planting large groves of olive trees and grape vines. Gold was also spent on improvements to shipbuilding and engineering, and constructing several new buildings for the University. Capitalizing on the acquistion of Palmyra, trade caravans began heading west to Kish and across the upper Euphrates to Assur. Satisfied all was properly set in motion, the First ruled the land and made deals to get his son a seat on the Council. (His daughter Aleaya, previously betrothed to Limilku of Lebanon was apparently forgotten about by all parties which left her deeply depressed.)
    Second of the Council Amurabi, journeyed from Palmyra to Cilicia and spent many years at the court of the local ruler. Being a middling diplomat and facing a hostile religion and different language, Amurabi had no luck in obtaining a treaty. In late 2107 a messenger brought word that Niqmaddu had died in his sleep of old age - 52! - and due to seniority (and apparent lack of talent as a negotiator) the Council had elected him the new First.
    Meanwhile lieutenant Dariladu headed in the opposite direction to the port of Byblos in Lebanon. Due to longtime Egyptian influence the city had a recently dedicated temple shrine to Ba'alat Gebal the patron goddess of Byblos. Dariladu too was a middling diplomat dealing with a different language but at least the religions tolerated each other and he could join the city's leader at the shrine without cringing. The leader agreed to become a feudal ally of Ugarit.
    In the autumn of 2106 another feudal ally, Limilku of Lebanon drowned when his fishing boat sank in a squall off the Lebanese coast. His youngest brother took over as new ruler.

Kingdom of Subartu Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Anu, King of Subartu
    King Anu directed gold spent on military improvements, a new University building and the continuing attempt to set up a relay system to move news faster. In rural Subartu more communal wells were dug and livestock barns built to help farmers.
    Anu then ruled the kingdom and spent time with his wife Anthousa resulting in a daughter in 2109. All seemed well until during a bear hunt the next year the cornered ursine turned on its tormentors, savagely clawing Anu and the first retainer rushing to help. Both men lingered a few days in feverish foul festering while healers applied poltices and chanted to the gods.
    Anthousa used those days to gain the support of the Subartun nobles to rule as Regent once Anu died. Since none of the noblemen wished to see a rival on the throne, they eventually agreed to a Regency until the very young royal son came of age. Anthousa ruled the kingdom in his name and did her best to keep him safe, remembering years past when the court astrologer kept insisting the boy was born under an "inauspicious alignment" until Anu had him banned from the castle.


(Mesopotamia, Persian Gulf, Iranian Plateau)
City of Ur including the
Temple Complex of Nanna-Sin,
God of the Moon

Literacy (cuneiform) exists throughout Greater Mesopotamia.

Mesopotamian Priesthood Civilized Bronzeworking Theocracy
Shuruppak, High Priest of Innana (Ishtar) at Uruk
    Shuruppak moved to Kuwait where he directed construction of new buildings and a surrounding wall, thus expanding a temple shrine into a temple enclosure. Meanwhile High Priestess Salabikh journeyed to Kish where in concert with the local priests of Zababa the temple enclosure in the city was greatly expanded to a full temple complex. The new facilities began training additional priests along with the complexes in other major cities, and all sites were willing to accept prisoners from local jails as part of the Priesthood's "second chance" program.
    A group of mid-level priests from the temple in Kish again traveled throughout Circis speaking of the true gods, and this time were successful in converting nearly half the population.

City-State of Assur Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ashur-Uballit, favored of Ashur
    Ashur-Uballit's decreed all aspects of the military to be enhanced. Additional irrigation ditches were dug to expand farmland in Mosul. He then ruled his kingdom and once his Diyalan bride Nammu had been properly escorted upriver to Assur he enjoyed her but was careful not to sire children. He did not wish to jeopardize the succession of his heirs by his first wife.
    Once his younger brother Sinjar had safely deivered Nammu, in 2109 he headed for the grasslands of Carhae to entreat with the nomadic chiefs. To the strongest chief Kur he offered the hand of Kammani, older daughter of Ashur-Uballit by his first wife; Kur accepted and became a feudal ally.
    In the summer of 2107 word arrived that Baqqanum of Eshnunna had died but after due consideration his brother Tizqar would continue the alliance with Assur.

City-State of Kish Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Amadala, Regent for Joshur II of the VI Dynasty, favored of Zababa
    Amadala continued the late king's improvements to farmland. At the urging of the army - concerned about the military power of other city-states - most of the treasury was spent on the recruitment and training of almost two thousand warriors divided between battle carts or fighting on foot with sword and shield.
    The nobility carefully pointed out she wasn't trained at warfare and this put her son at risk should the kingdom be attacked. They urged her to marry a high-ranking officer who could lead the army in that circumstance. She was more than a little crazy but loved her son and agreed. After "acquainting herself" (her words) with the eligible generals she chose Manishtusu, a longtime veteran. They were wed in the local temple of Zababa, patron god of Kish.

City-State of Uruk Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ur-Nigina, 1st King of the IV Dynasty, favored of Inanna
    Ur-Ninga directed that additional gold be spent on infantry improvement and further attempts to start a messenger service to relay news quickly. Much labor was used to fill in lowlands by both rivers to be used for agriculture. Men with mining experience were recruited into the army.
    The king and his nephew Ur-Gigir then returned to Lagash to meet with its king Ur-Babba (a feudal ally of Uruk) hoping to persuade him into a closer relationship, but events did not go as planned. [see Lagash]

City-State of Ur Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ur-Nammu, 1st King of the III Dynasty, favored of Nanna
    Ur-Nammu's ordered gold was invested in the quality of the army and another two hundred archers were trained. Marginal land in Kuwait was put to the plow to increase cropland and surplus food preserved and stored for times of famine.
    The king then spent his time educating his nephew Ninazu in defensive military matters. The king's twin brother Elulu ruled and educated his daughter (Ninazu's sister) in the administration of a kingdom. In 2106 Elulu was able to spend more time with his Selucian wife Kullaa, siring a girl born late in that year.

City-State of Lagash Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ur-Babba, King of Lagash, favored of Bau
    King Ur-Babba, ever mindful of the growing power of other city-states ordered another six hundred recruits trained with the long spear and shield. Gold was spent to build public wells to help water crops in the dry season. The army, led by his cousin (and general) Ur-Ningirsu was deployed to protect both the croplands as well as the city itself.
    In the summer of 2110 both King Ur-Nigina and his nephew Ur-Gigir from Uruk arrived for further diplomatic talks. The Lagash king was an in-law of the Uruk king and greeted him favorably and what promised to be lengthy discussions began. But early the next year as the royal party was leaving the temple of Bau a team of spooked onagers dragging a driverless battle cart galloped into the crowd. The royal party and bystanders went down under hooves and wheels; Ur-Gigir was killed along with several servants and guards while both kings and a multitude of others suffered broken bones and/or bloody gashes. The cart's driver escaped punishment by dying from the cracked skull he received when flung out the back of the vehicle.
    Shaken, the kings later resumed negotiations but Ur-Nigina was a middling diplomat and failed to persuade Ur-Babba to be more than a feudal ally. The King of Uruk left for home in 2106 taking his nephew's body with him in a sealed golden casket provided by the King of Lagash.

Traders of Dilmun Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Abdullah, First of the Council
    Quiet prosperity for the Traders.

Kingdom of Elam Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Simashki, King of Elam
    Simashki spent some gold on military improvements but poured the bulk of the nation's wealth into rural improvements: fencing communal pastures, building livestock barns, bridging creeks and streams to facilitate crops getting to market faster. Once those initiatives were begun he traveled south to Anshan in Mand to meet with the settlement elders, who were astonished to be visited by the new king and even more by his many gifts. In exchange for an alliance he offered to adopt as his heir Kangan, the 16 year old son of the settlement's chief; the chief agreed and the elders signed an economic treaty.
    Simashki brought Kangan back with him to the palace in Susa to meet the royal court; the settlement teen's eyes getting wider and wider at the sights and sounds of a true city.

Kingdom of Gutia Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Erridupizir, King of Gutium
    Deciding he really liked making improvements to Borahshi, King Erridupizier continued with additional sewers and water lines plus paved the main avenues in the temple and market quarters. That begun, he followed the Silk Road east to meet with his Persian allies. Due to misunderstood orders the wagon bearing gifts was left unattended and thieves stole its treasures. However Erripdupizar managed after years of discussions to convince (or wear down) the Persians to join fully with Gutia.
    Meanwhile Naser, the previous lord of Persia and newly appointed Heir of Gutia followed the Silk Road east (stopping for a feast when he met the king headed the other way) to Borahshi to meet the Gutian court. Since the queen Farideh was Persian he was welcomed. In 2109 Naser's betrothed Azar, the oldest royal daughter, came of age and the queen hosted a lavish wedding for the couple. Azer became pregnant quickly and birthed a son late that year, but the birth was difficult and she died feverish a few days afterward, plunging the previously joyous royal household into agonizing grief.


Birdman with Snakes artifact 
(amulet?) found in excavation

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy (pictographic symbols) exists throughout this area.

City-State of Namazgadepe Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Jamaspa, King of Namazgadepe
    Jamaspa funded another building for the University and warehouses for storing dried foods. More irrigation ditches were dug to bring water from the Oxus to farmland. The king then tended to the day-to-day ruling of the city-state and enjoying his family while his twin (fraternal) brother Frasaostra continued to drill and exercise the army. Life was good.
    At least until late summer 2109 when the king, increasingly immobile due to gout and having gained quite a bit of excess weight cried out in pain during a banquet, staggered partly to his feet, clutched his chest and face-planted dead across the table. It quite spoiled everyone's meal, and Frasaostra was recalled from the field to take the throne. His own son was of age, but Frasaostra was an honorable man and chose the son of his late brother the king to be Heir.

City-State of Gonur Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Sadhanah, King of Gonur
    Sadhanah may have only been on the throne a short time but he acted decisively, funding improvements in the military and investing yet more gold building regularly spaced stations where runners carrying messages could rest. Enormous quantities of surplus food were preserved and stored in newly built warehouses for lean times. The fortifications of the homeland were more than doubled and it was well garrisoned.
    His thoughts then turned to the lack of an heir of age, and in the summer of 2110 proclaimed HemÔvand, a local nobleman of Transoxania as the new Heir. Sadhanah then headed for Tadzik and offered himself for marriage to a hill chieftan's daughter in exchange for alliance. By late 2107 the pleased tribal elders had agreed to fully merge Tadzik with Gonur.
    Returning home along the Silk Road with his bride the party paused to hunt for fresh game. In the forest Sadhanah fell into a concealed pit trap - one of a number dug by forest clans to stop wayfarers from overhunting their forest, as later investigation concluded. Impaled on the spikes at the bottom, he died painfully but quickly as did a retainer, servant and several soldiers as other traps were discovered with equally fatal results.
    The dead were recovered and brought back to Gonur, as was the late king's bride since the escorting soldiers didn't know what else to do with her. HemÔvand became king and his first duty of course would be to choose an Heir...


City of Harappa

Literacy (Indus glyphs) exists throughout the Indus Valley civilization.

City-State of Harappa Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Dharmsala, King of Harappa
    Dharmsala ordered gold invested in military improvements and, again, spent trying to organize some kind of messenger service to carry news swiftly. Requiring more warriors to conquer Ganweriwala over two thousand men were recruited and armed with javelin and sling as skirmishers, which required less expense and training than sword and shield.
    Like the late Yashodharman before him, Dharmsala found himself without an adult heir and Yashodharman's sons were still very young. After talking with his retainers he chose Kalabagh as Heir, a nobleman with large estates in Punjab.
    The king then hastened to Bauluch (as much as one can hasten through very rough terrain) to reach the Harappan army which was encamped awaiting him since the death of Yashodharman. When he arrived he rewarded the loyal mid-level officer who'd taken command with a cushy posting back in the capital. Dharmsala marched the army along the trade road through that same rough terrain, returning to the Punjab in autumn 2109, pleased to then learn his brother king Rupawalla of Rupar had been keeping their mutual enemy Ganweriwala occupied.
    He remained in the homeland for a year, integrating army veterans and recruits and remaining watchful should the military situation change. In 2108 came news of the death of Rupawalla and the withdrawal of his depleted army back to Sahis; for the moment Rupar was out of the war. The Harappan king decided to get his own taste of fighting.
    In early 2107 he crossed into Sukkur with his army of over nine thousand and headed for the border with Sind, his skirmishers scouting ahead in case raiders from Ganweriwala were again active. [see Ganweriwala]

City-State of Rupar Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Rupawalla, King of Rupar
    Having taken heavy casualties previously in an attempt to invade Ganweriwala, Rupawalla realized his military urgently needed more bodies. Over a thousand men were hired and trained with sword and shield, while additional field fortifications were built to defend Sukkur against Ganweriwalan retaliation. More gold was invested in prototypes of larger river galleys, and the new lead shipwright of that effort seemed efficient, unlike the previous incompetent one he'd had beheaded.
    As soon as the new warriors were ready the heir Mianwali brought them south to Sukkur, adding them to those already with the king, increasing it to over four thousand. Rupawalla had by this time rallied his badly shaken army and prepared to react to any retaliatory incursion into Sukkur. He did not have long to wait.
    [see Ganweriwala]
    Meanwhile the Heir had produced a son early 2109 but his wife of local nobility had died while giving birth. He heard rumors the officer now commanding the army was known for his ambition. It was a bleak time to become king.

City-State of Ganweriwala Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Chandra the Magnificent, King of Ganweriwala
    Chandra spent heavily on increasing his army to defend against the combined onslaught from Harappa and Rupar. Four hundred more men were trained with spear and shield, and hundreds more skirmishers recruited. The defenses of the homeland were substantially improved. Giving thought to the fighting that lay ahead, Chandra declared his young son Vihana next in line to be Heir should either himself or his existing heir Kosavari fall.
    Expanding his army to over six thousand by acquiring both garrison units and those newly trained, Chandra raided across the border into Sukkur. It was a pacified region long held by Rupar, not the homeland itself, but he still hoped to obtain some booty and hurt the enemy's economy. But Rupar fortifications at the border crossings, the slower marching pace of the raiders' heavy infantry and the quick reaction of Rupawalla's rebuilt army limited how much damage the men of Ganweriwala could cause. Having obtained some revenge, Chandra went over to the defensive but the remainder of 2110 was quiet.

    In the spring of 2109 Rupawalla sent his army over the border to raid the Ganweriwalan homeland of Sind, hoping for a repeat of previous success. His senior officers had argued against it since from the recent fighting it was clear the Ganweriwalan army was larger and now had the benefit of their field fortifications; however the king was insistant. The first raid was very successful but the second cost four hundred men killed or captured. Perhaps because of that one of the senior officers mutinied and refused to return to Sukkur along with 800 of the infantry he led. Some loyal men of Rupar who did return swore to have seen a handsome Ganweriwalan stranger often speaking with the officer who'd led the mutiny.
    Despite these setbacks the king resolved to continue. Throughout the summer and autumn he ordered five more raids resulting in alternating failure and success. Hundreds of additional raiders burdened with plunder were intercepted by Ganwariwalan units and lost, but much of the remaining wealth of Sind had been stolen and most of its villages put to the torch. Rupawalla planned slave raids for 2108 believing the wandering masses of refugees in Sind would be easy pickings.
    But in the spring an unexpectedly violent windstorm ravaged the Rupar encampment. Despite being well tethered the king's tent collapsed, one of the heavy tent poles shattering his skull as it fell. One of the officers took temporary command of the army and marched the men back home.

    King Chandra kept watch along the border with Sukkur should the warriors of Rupar return, not relaxing even after hearing of Rupawalla's death. During the summer of 2107 the stress finally took its toll (or his heavy drinking in an attempt to cope with it) and he died old (in his mid-fifties!) and exhausted. His son Kosavari became king and Vihana - having just come of age - became Heir. At least thought Kosavari the worst is over.
    Well, no. In 2106 the army of Harappa burst over the border from Sukkur intent on their own raiding. The defenders led by Kosavari were alert however this time badly outnumbered. Dharmsala ordered four waves of raids with results evenly split between success and failure. The items remaining to be stolen were of negligible value but at his orders wells were fouled, irrigation ditches blocked, millstones smashed and crops trampled, at a cost of six hundred Harappans. As he led his army back home to Punjab he considered it a fair price to pay.

Traders of Dholavira Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Harshal, First of the Council
    Under Harshal's guidance the Council determined the last usable land on Kutch was put to the plow. In Dholavira itself a large stone plaza was constructed with nautical-themed fountains and statuary. Trade was initiated were with Hastinapura by way of the Saraswati River port of Banawali. A far more perilous voyage was necessary to begin trade with Hazor by way of the port settlement of Aqaba at the top of the Red Sea.
    Leaving Tanish, Sword of the Council, to continue patrolling the waters around Kutch, Harshal traveled to the port settlement of Qana in Hadramuht on the southern coast of the Arabian penninsula. The settlement elders were honored to be visited by Harshal. Well, visited by anyone actually. Discussions lasted for years and despite language differences and mutually hostile religions the elders finally signed an economic treaty.

City-State of Lothal Seafaring Bronzeworking Monarchy
Baroda, King of Lothal
    Baroda was again frugal and utilized little of the city-state's resources. It was fortunate he had recently ordered unused naval galleys put to use as fishing boats; the past harvest had been poor and the boats' catch had prevented famine. With that in mind he did agree to fund the digging of wells and irrigation ditches and the building of mills to assist agriculture. The king then gathered merchant captains to discuss reallocation of shipping to improve trade revenue.
    Since his previous wife had died in childbirth, he chose a new one from the nobility of Surashtra, then ruled the kingdom. His bride birthed a son in 2109 and life was good.
    Naturally, tragedy struck the following year when his young wife was bitten by a krait while tending to her orchids in the palace gardens. Knowing the venom of a common krait was 15x as powerful as that of the common cobra, the palace healers knew they could only keep her comfortable. Experiencing increasing difficulty remaining awake or even breathing she died within hours causing the king to curse the gods for their cruelty.
    Meanwhile the heir Champa had traveled to the harsh semi-desert/grassland of Jats, which had been part of the kingdom until the dynastic failure of five years ago. He offered himself as husband to a tribal chief's daughter. Despite the nomads being notoriously suspicious and resistant to civilization, he wore them down after years of talks and they agreed to pay tribute. He returned to Lothal with his excitingly savage bride.


Ganges Valley city

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.

City-State of Hastinapura Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Rampur, King of Hastinapura
    Rampur ordered surplus food for future lean times, and spent great sums trying to set up a system to quickly relay messages across the kingdom. Alas, the friend he'd put in charge of the effort wasn't up to the task.
    The king then brought the army under his personal command and set out for diplomacy-in-force with Rajput. To the astonished local lord he offered betrothal to Isaphiena, eldest daughter of the previous king of Hastinapura in exchange for a treaty. Rampur was a skilled negotiator but the Rajputs were proud and stubborn. Fortunately the heir Lakhimpur II had accompanied him and while talks were in progress he circulated among the Rajput nobility and managed to corrupt, cajole and/or seduce just about everyone he encountered during the long years of diplomacy. They all wanted to be him or have him. Ultimately the flustered Rajput lord agreed to become a full ally.
    In late 2106 a light galley from Dholavira arrived at the port of Banawali on the Saraswati River and initiated trade.

City-State of Atranjikhera Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Batashwari, King of Atranjikhera
    Batashwari directed most of the kingdom's wealth and labor into the ongoing cultivation of the remaining wilderness in Vasta. Having no heir after much consideration he decided against selecting an adult and instead proclaimed young Ila, daughter of the previous king Kali-Ra to be his heir upon coming of age. There was some unease among the nobles about a woman someday on the throne but the traditions of their Earth-Mother centered religion forestalled outrage or threats of rebellion.
    Batashwari then headed south to meet with the chiefs of the Avanti hill tribes, taking Ila along to educate her to the fine art of diplomacy. He proposed himself as husband for a local noblewoman in exchange for them drawing closer to Atranjikhera. The king was a skilled orator and diplomat (which Ila observed intently) and within a year or so the strongest chieftan agreed to be a full ally, and supplied his comely sister Sita as a bride.
    In 2108 the group returned to Atranjikhera, where Sita gaped in awe of a real city and a river as broad as the Ganges. The newlyweds secluded themselves in the pleasure suite and a daughter resulted near the end of that year. Within a few months Sita was pregnant again and Batashwari told his wife that life was good.
    Which of course jinxed everything. After a very difficult labor a boy was born but Sita soon became feverish and died within a few days. Batashwari was devastated. One night having dismissed his retainers to walk the city in solitude he was lost in thought and not so observant of his surroundings. He was set upon by thieves who desired his rich clothing and purse and had no idea of his identity. A garotte quickly silenced any cries and strangled him while several other thugs held him immobile; his naked body was found nearly a week later having been thrown down a well.
    Since Ila was still too young her mother Purna, widow of the previous king Kali-Ra, was chosen to be Regent in the interim; her quick wit and charisma helped persuade the nobility to that decision. In addition to learning court protocol Ila - mindful of King Batashwari's fate - also spent time each day learning the sword. She finally came of age late 2106.

City-State of Kaushambi Barbarian Metalworking Monarch
Kusa, King of Kaushambi
    Kusa ordered surplus grain to be stored for times of famine and funded improvements in the scattered cultivated areas of the homeland. They were expensive due to transporting workers and supplies through wilderness to reach the sites where they dug wells and irrigation ditches.
    Next Kusa headed east to Nadavaria to negotiate an alliance with its ruler. Talks began well since Kusa wasn't known as "golden tongued" for no reason. Despite coughing spells that grew increasingly frequent a preliminary treaty was signed in 2109 for Nadavaria to pay tribute. A few months later the coughing included blood and a few months after that Kusa was dead. One of his military advisors took command of the suddenly leaderless accompanying Kaushambian troops.
    The king's older cousin Jagdish again ruled in his absence and spent time with his wife Laxmi. Following yet another miscarriage she gave birth to a girl in 2109 and shortly after that word came from Nadavaria that Kusa had died and Jagdish was now king, making it an eventful year. Twin girls were born in 2107 and a boy in 2106.


(Indian subcontinent south of Vindhya Mountain range, plus Ceylon)
rural snake worship shrine

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.

Kingdom of Chera Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Indara Chuzwel Akapane, King of Chera
    Indara funded the storage of surplus food in case of famine, and directed both gold and labor to the continuing cultivation of the remaining wilderness in Chera. Realizing he needed a successor since Cheran monarchs didn't seem to last very long, he proclaimed Palyane Chel Kezhu, son of the late (several deceased kings ago) Nedum would be his heir when he came of age.
    Indara then paid a quickie diplomatic visit to feudal ally Kappuiyarruk Kappiyanar in Pandya, offering Meenakshi, a daughter of the late King Nedum in marriage. Realizing she was the older sister of the future heir of Chera, the wily Kappuiyarruk quickly agreed to the match and signed a treaty of economic alliance.
    Returning to the capital of Muciri, Indara then ruled the kingdom. In 2107 Palyane came of age and was officially introduced to the royal court as Heir.

Kingdom of Chola Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Ellalan Chola, King of Chola
    With his kingdom still in financial trouble, Ellalan saved what revenue was available for future use. He ruled his kingdom to ensure continued solvency.
    Ilametcenni headed south from Vengi into the Madurai grasslands for yet another attempt at diplomacy. He was a middling diplomat and there were language and religious differences. Just as he thought he was making some progress, one night he got into an argument - fueled by copious amounts of fermented goat milk - with the son of a nomad chief. Ilametcenni was well over 50 years old, ancient for the time period, whilst his opponent was a strapping (and quick to take offense) man in his late teens. The Cholan was sucker-punched which shattered his jaw and hit with a cudgel to the side of his head that knocked him sprawling. He never did regain consciousness and died a few days afterward.
    Lieutenant Thirumavalavan traveled from the capital of Arikamedu to Seylan where he met with the elders of the Neolithic inhabitants. Like the ill-fated Ilametcenni he too was a middling diplomat but he moved from tribal camp to tribal camp for years until he'd convinced them to fully join with Chola.
    Meanwhile allied leader Bindusara of Vengi was sent to diplomacize the Neolithic tribesmen of Chela. Yet another middling diplomat he was persistant and after years convinced them to pledge fealty. However since he was representing himself the pledge was to him not the king of Chola, in effect creating a sub-nation* within the kingdom.

*see LOTE Basic Rules the last paragraph of 7.1.4 Full Allies. Regions shaded a bit lighter than Chola coloring to show this sub-nation.


(populated by migration from north down the Irrawaddy Valley - advanced in time)
Pyu civilization 
Irrawaddy Valley city

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.

City-State of Halin Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Abhiraja, King of Halin
    Abhiraja ordered the army's skirmishers to exchange their slings and javelins for picks and shovels. Augmented by every able-bodied man available, they finished cultivation of the remaining Burman wilderness by 2106. The king also directed merchants to initate trade overland with the nearby twin cities of Binnaka and Maingmaw and by river with Beikthano.
    Next he set about insuring the continuation of the royal line and married a local noblewoman. He ruled the kingdom and also enjoyed her, siring a son in 2110. The following year she bore a stillborn child, but after any curses were removed from the royal bedchamber by chanting shamen and clouds of incense, she successfully carried daughters in 2108 and 2106.
    Meanwhile the king's younger brother Abhiran was told to help administer the kingdom. While he was a master swordsman he exhibited no interest - or aptitude - for administration, causing endless problems and complaining constantly he was stuck in the palace rather than leading an army.

City-States of Binnaka & Maingmaw Barbarian Metalworking Monarchies
Sawyun, King of Binnaka & Thadominbya, King of Maingmaw
    Sawyun in consultation with his brother king, poured much gold into agricultural improvements in the cultivated sections of the Sagaing wilderness. These were costly due to hauling workers, tools and materials through dense forest to reach the farmland, but would benefit both cities. Sawyun also ordered gold invested in military quality. Philosophers, artists, scholars and traders were paid to devise a method to permanently record the Tibeto-Burmese language. Land trade was begun with Beikthano although the wilderness and jungle made the trip a difficult one.
    Leaving Thadominbya to administer the land, the more diplomatic Sawyun journeyed south into Prome to negotiate with the city-state of Beikthano, offering himself in marriage to a noblewoman. After years of discussions he was married to Taraminia, a daughter of Beikthano's king, and it was agreed a payment of tribute would accompany her.
    Meanwhile Thadominbya had taken as wife a local noblewoman to continue the ruling family of Maingmaw. After a heartbreaking early miscarriage she then produced a boy in 2109, a girl in 2108 and another boy in 2106.

City-State of Beikthano Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Dawnak, King of Beikthano
    Dawnak decreed work begun to convert the remaining wilderness lands in Prome to productive farmland, and much wealth and labor were invested in this. Gold was also spent on military improvement and attempting to produce an ally of copper more useful than the pure form. Several months into 2110 Sawyun of Binnaka arrived on a state visit representing himself and the King of Maingmaw. Diplomatic talks dragged on for years until Dawnak married his daughter Taraminia to Sawyun and agreed (grudgingly) to send a dowry of tribute back to Binnaka with her.
    His younger brother Mahabaja administered the kingdom while Dawnak was busy negotiating.

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