Newsfax Turn: #4 ( 2115 - 2111 BC )
August 18, 2015

ANNOUNCEMENTS: New or changed from previous turn will be in red.
My Stats program only accepts whole gp for University investment, and only stores whole nfp leftover at end of turn.
An area's progress in metallurgy & literacy will be in green and is the situation at the start of the turn.
Second positions available!
Players in Italy, Aegean, Nile or Levant could have another in Indus, Ganges or Irrawaddy.
Players in Mesopotamia or Oxus could have another in Italy, Aegean or Irrawaddy.
Players in Indus, Ganges or Southern India could have another in Italy, Aegean or Nile.
1. Nations with "50% cultivated" homelands now have those regions considered "half-cultivated" terrain type which will make the position more playable. See Rule Changes.
2. New turnsheet template effective next turn! I've added a place to enter Slave NFP, and also dealt with the different agro-to-gp and agro-to-nfp conversion rates depending on a nation's income. There are Comments on the template explaining both.

QUICK SCROLL if you know where you want to go:
Italy Centered
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Greater Nile Valley
Greater Levant
Greater Mesopotamia
Oxus Valley
Indus Valley
Ganges Valley
Southern India
Irrawaddy Valley


(Corsica, Sardinia, Italian penninsula, Sicily & Malta)
Nuragic field fort with distinctive
stone Nuraghe towers

Literacy has not yet reached this area.

Nuragic Civilization Barbarian Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Alessandru, Lord of Albucci, de facto leader of Nuragic Civilization
    advanced in time; OPEN FOR A PLAYER

Italics Barbarian Bronzeworking Tribal
    advanced in time; not yet active (unless provoked)

(Proto-)Etruscans Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy
Arnza Ulthese, King of Etruscans
    At the king's command all surplus population as well as demobilized skirmishers were put to work for five backbreaking years of labor to upgrade their half-cultivated homeland to fully cultivated. Additional funds were spent trying to establish a messenger service as well as hire scholars to invent a way to record the Estruscan language.
    Arnza then headed south to Latium where he proposed a treaty, offering himself in marriage to a local noblewoman. He had almost godlike skill at persuasion and after years of talking, hunting expeditions and feasting, he convinced Latium's lord to become a full ally, and married the lord's sister to seal the deal. He and his new bride then went to Campania where he negotiated with its lord while his wife pouted ("this is a honeymoon?!"). Despite a brief visit he obtained an oath of fealty.
    Meanwhile his younger sister Stenia whose beauty had inspired many a bard's song (bawdy or otherwise) took ship to Malta to offer herself in marriage in exchange for an alliance. Docking at Borg in-Nadur (and noting with interest a Minoan war galley in the harbor) she traveled inland to use her seducutive wiles upon the local tribal chiefs. After years of "negotiating" she obtained an agreement of tribute from Thresu, the most powerful (and virile) chieftan.

Apennine Culture Barbarian Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Marco, Lord of Scoglio, de facto leader of Apennine Culture
    Marco ordered eight hundred more warriors recruited and trained as infantry. He then met with merchants and convinced them to initiate trade with both Estruscans and nations far to the east.
    Desiring to expand the area of Apinnine Culture ruled from Scoglio, in the summer of 2115 the king (with his cousin Brutus serving as 2nd in command) led fourteen hundred infantry over the border into Spoleto. The defenders actually outnumbered the invaders, but were poorly led and equipped. Despite this they inflicted several hundred casualties on Marco's army but lost over twice that many men, finally giving up the fight in the late fall.
    After wintering in Spoleto while the wounded healed, in spring 2114 the cousins' force moved north into Romagna. Again the invaders were outnumbered, and this time the defenders not so poorly led, resulting in an almost even match. It took the whole campaigning season of desperate fighting before the region was pacified. King Marco took a javelin wound in June that festered, leaving him dead in a week. His cousin took command and brought the campaign to a successful conclusion in October with the death of the Romagnan lord.
    After wintering in Romagna, Brutus prudently decided to cut short further conquest and return to Scoglio, in 2112 marrying a local noble-woman and ruling as king. In 2111 his wife birthed a son, but he was jaundiced and sickly.


(Balkans, Aegean Sea & Western Anatolia)
Minoan capital of Knossos

Literacy has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.

Thracians Barbarian Bronzeworking Tribal
    off map in northeast Balkans - not yet active

Illyrians Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy
Cadmus, King of Illyrians
    Expecting the Achaean Greeks to renew their onslaught, Cadmus ordered additional defenses built for the homeland and more investments in military training. Leaving his cousin Pleurias to defend the border with Dalmatia, Cadmus set about to rule his kingdom and spend time with his Dalmatian (the region, not the dog) wife Sulet. She urged Cadmus to liberate her homeland, but Cadmus was enough of a realist to know Illyria didn't have the offensive strength.
    In late 2115 the queen miscarried, but the following year she produced another son. A few days later the king left to review the warriors serving under Pleurias, but heavy autumn rains had swollen streams. As the royal party attempted to cross one a churning creek the wooden footbridge collapsed, its supports undermined, with the group being swept into foaming rapids and drowned.

Achaean Greeks Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Basileios, King of Achaeans
    King Basileios ordered marginal land put into service in Attica to increase crop yield and sent a messenger to his warlike brother Artemon (encamped in Dalmatia with most of the army) that due to the high cost of his recent campaigning there were no funds for additional warriors. Basileios then ruled and enjoyed time with his young sons by his late wife.
    Meanwhile Artemon, frustrated trying to conquer Illyria the previous year, seethed at the king's message. Never the most loyal of siblings, he began feeling out his officers for support to take the throne. The conspiracy proved unnecessary when word came in early 2113 that Basileios and his retainers had been lost when a sudden storm brewed up during a fishing trip in the Aegean.
    "The gods favor us!" he declared to his officers, and he led the army back south to the capital of Mycennae, ruling as the new king. His nights with his wife Xanthe did not produce a child, and near the end of 2113 he put out the word he'd audition mistresses. A few days later he was found dead in the royal bath, Xanthe swearing the king must've slipped, hit his head on the edge of the huge stone tub and fallen into the water unconscious. The queen became Regent for her young nephews - Edward III anyone?

Minoans Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (Linear A glyphs)
Labrys, First of the Council
    Labrys ordered additional retention basins built to catch as much rainfall as possible for agriculture. The island's defenses were further increased; he later told the rest of the Council that Crete was the most heavily protected island in the known world, which gladdened their hearts. Having put them in a receptive mood, he obtained agreement the purple-dye-producing sea snails offshore Kythera would not be harvested without Council approval. There was gold to be made, if dye production were properly handled.
    Labrys then boarded ship and with seven pentaconter war galleys headed to Tyre with intention to impress its leaders with Minoan naval power and obtain an alliance. The small settlement of Tyre was awed by the arriving fleet, especially the fine condition of the ships and crew, and the elders gawked at the decorative purple on Labrys's robes. Some years of discussions persuaded the Tyrians to accept tributory status.
    Meanwhile, Labrys's uncle Diskliakos boarded his personal pentaconter and left Knossos for parts unknown.

Luvians Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Kyran, King of the Luvians
    Kyran returned to Ephesus upon hearing of the death of his brother, noting the large crowds of unemployed and working class Luvians listening to anti-monarchy orators - especially one Alasehir, and his charismatic woman Manisa (nicknamed "the passion flower" for the emotion of her speeches) - instead of laboring. At night there was vandalism of statues and monuments honoring past kings. The very air of the city was charged with an impending feeling of violence, like the air before a thunderstorm.
    Ignoring such events as had his brother before him, he ordered marginal land put to the plow to increase food production. Yet more funding was spent on improving the Luvians' nautical ability as well as recording of words and numbers; still no breakthroughs happened in either effort. When Kyran demanded explanations, it was blamed it on the increasing mob rule of parts of the city and countryside - scholars and engineers couldn't concentrate when they feared for their lives.

City-State of Troy Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Luwian hieroglyphics)
Imroz, King of Troy IV
    Imroz commanded more men be recruited and trained as infantry, then (making use of scribes having the newly understood "writing" skill) ordered a census of everything in the kingdom. Satisfied his instructions were being carried out, the king then took ship across the Mare Negri to the shore of Moldavia, determined to try again to entice the nomads into a treaty with Troy. Alas, while traveling from one tribal camp to another during the summer of 2113, he and his party drank tainted water, becoming violently ill and all dying of dehydration except a few hardy guards who survived to bring the bodies home.
    His charasmatic younger brother Ezine was again not seen for years until he returned to the palace late in 2111 to discover he was now king. A few days later a small delegation of army officers and metalworkers asked to meet with him in private.

Hitties Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Luwian hieroglyphics)
Labarna, King of the Hittites
    Labarna returned to Hatti and commanded levees and ditches be constructed to capture snowmelt from the mountains and divert it to croplands. He then ruled his kingdom and enjoyed his wife Pudukhepa who was of local nobility. They mourned a stillbirth in 2114 but celebrated a second set of twins (boy, girl) in 2112.
    Meanwhile the king's younger brother Hattusili returned briefly to the capital to visit his Cappdocian wife Silili, then was back to Galatia. But this time he was just passing through and continued to Pontus, where he negotiated for years with the tribal chiefs. He was a middling diplomat facing the challenges of different language and religion, but was persistant, and eventually the council of elders pledged fealty.


(including Horn of Africa)
Pyramids at Giza

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
The Egyptians (hieroglyphics) and Nubians (Old Nubian pictographs) are literate.

Egyptian Priesthood Civilized Metalworking Theocracy
Menkaure, High Priest of Osiris
    Menkaure decided it was time to expand the worship of his gods into areas not previously served. He traveled through the desert heat to oversee the building of temple shrines in Ghebel Garib and its Red Sea port of Mersa Gawasis. High Priestess Hatshepsut traveled by trade galley along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean to Byblos, and supervised the building of a temple shrine to serve the growing Egyptian community. The group of mid-level priests that had previously converted nearly half the nomadic herders of the Sinai continued their missionary work, bringing enlightenment to the remainder (map icon changed).
    It was noted by Nile boatmen that after each harvest river galleys carrying dried food or grain traveled from Thebes to Abydos, returning empty. Apparently, the priesthood never went hungry.
    currently NPN

Old Kingdom of Egypt (capital Memphis) Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Wadjkare, 1st King of the VIII Dynasty, favored of Ptah
    Wadjkare ordered swamp land along the Nile in Lower Egypt and Mansura to be filled and farmed to increase food production. A marketplace plaza bordered with statues of the gods was built to beautify Memphis and nearly a thousand more infantry trained for the city garrison. Large quantities of surplus grain were stockpiled in case of future poor harvests.
    He then ruled his kingdom and spent much time with his Mansuran wife Henutwati, siring a son in 2114 and a series of daughters in 2113, 2112 and 2111. His exhausted spouse begged for no more children.
    His cousin Bakenrenef remained in the stifling hot desert of the Sinai, meeting for years with tribal chiefs and accepting the smell and sound of goat as the base of existance. During his time there he noted missionary priests from Abydos persuading increasing numbers of nomads to accept the Egyptian pantheon as the True Gods. He offered betrothal of Wadjkare's eldest daughter Ipu (currently 8 years old) to a young chief, with marriage to follow when she came of age. Eventually Bakenrenef talked the nomads into joining fully with the Old Kingdom. The priestly efforts certainly helped negotiations.

City-State of Herakleopolis Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Akhtoy I, 1st King of the IX-X Dynasty, favored of Heryshef
    Akhtoy, concerned that the forces of Thebes would invade again, raised another six hundred infantry. Much gold was invested in improving the army as well as experiments to produce a copper alloy stronger than pure copper. His cousin Nekhbet was ordered to remain in the field to guard the borders.
    In late spring 2115 came word Mentuhotep of Thebes and an army had (again!) crossed the border into the croplands of Fai-Yum. The king hastened to join forces with Nekhbet and sent skirmishers to scout the approaching invaders. They reported nearly 4,000 Thebean infantry accompanied by a thousand mixed Nubian warriors; the invaders significantly outnumbered the army of Herakleopolis. The prospect of another kingdom aligned against them made the cousins hesitate to order an attack. But the representatives of Thebes and Nubia were there to parley, not fight.
    "Praise to Heryshef!" muttered Anktoy, resolving to make sacrifice in the temple of his city's patron diety. He and Nekhbet entered into negotiations with Mentuhotep, his lieutenant Tetmoses and the Nubian lieutenant Sefertiti. The Nubian picked up Egyptian quickly and soon was active in the discussions. Mehtuhotep offered royal marriage between his new heir Ramses [see Thebes] and a noblewoman of Herakleopolis in exchange for an alliance. After a few years initial hostility faded to mutual respect but Anktoy still appeared willing to agree to no more than economic alliance.
last piece of Akhtoy I
goes down the gullet     During an excursion on the Nile to escape the heat (and with the fate of the previous Thebean heir in mind, taking care to avoid any hippopotami) the kings' lavish (and quite overloaded) diplomatic/feasting/party barge ran aground on an unexpected sandbar, tilted and began sinking. From the tall reeds along either bank came the splashing of crocodiles. All the pricipals made it safely to an accompanying galley except for Anktoy who despite Nekhbet's efforts went over the side and joined a number of oarsmen, servants and courtesans in a red foaming froth of frenzied feasting reptiles. Apparently the king hadn't gotten around to properly sacrificing to Heryshef, who was god of rivers and waters. Or maybe he was pushed.
    Mentuhotep and Sefertiti were shaken and no little frustrated believing the diplomacy of years had been undone. Then they were approached by Nekhbet who suggested if talks continued a bit longer Herakleopolis would become a full ally of Thebes - with himself as that allied leader - and his sister would be the noblewoman who married Ramses. The Thebean king and Nubian lieutenant professed shock at the obvious self-serving disloyalty exhibited by Nekhbet and immediately agreed to the deal.

City-State of Thebes Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Mentuhotep I, 1st King of the XI Dynasty, favored of Amun
    Although the Thebean economy was suffering after the unexpected death of the heir a few years ago, Mentuhotep commanded what wealth was available be spent hiring metalworkers and scholars to create a metal more useful than copper, perhaps (as rumors from the East suggested) blending it with something else...? Hundreds of skirmishers were demobilized to serve as laborers. He knew other kingdoms along the Nile were attempting such alchemy and wanted Thebes to be the first.
    Wishing to avoid chaos in the event of his own death, Mentuhotep proclaimed his ally Ramses, a powerful chieftan from the Eastern Desert, as his heir; as a benefit the desert nomads fully joined with Thebes. The king also named his nephew Titus (13) to be elevated to Prince upon coming of age. Finally, realizing the city of Mersa Gawasis gave Thebes a port on the Red Sea, he ordered trade begun with the half-mythical Land of Punt.
    Mentuhotep waited in Upper Egypt for the arrival of his lieutenant Tetmoses (bringing more troops) and the Nubian lieutenant Sefertiti (also bringing troops) who took until the autumn to arrive after a lot of marching. Together they crossed north into Fai-Yum. [see Herakleopolis]

Kingdom of Nubia Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Seb, King of Nubia
    King Seb ordered much gold paid to philosophers, scholars and metalworkers to experiment making an alloy of copper more useful than copper itself. More forts were built at strategic locations and a major public works program of irrigation ditches bringing water from the Nile to fields was implemented. Seb proclaimed his nephews Shasesi (13) and Maraqa (12) to be Heir and Prince respecitvely when of age. The king then settled back to rule his lands.
    Lieutenant Sefertiti, who was a master swordsman, a skilled orator and popular with court ladies (trifecta!) collected a thousand warriors and headed north into Upper Egypt (the Thebean border guards having been told to let him pass) where he joined with King Mentuhotep I and his army. Together they crossed into Fai-Yum. [see Herakleopolis]
    Meanwhile back in Nubia young Shasesi formally became heir at the end of 2114 in a court ceremony followed by a night of feasting and drinking. At some point King Seb slipped away, having told his retainers he was meeting someone (perhaps the wife of a local noble?) for a riverside tryst. Apparently he met something else in the darkness - his body was found by the Nile the next morning swollen from multiple snake bites.
    Toward the end of 2111 a delegation of scholars and metalworkers sought an audience with Shasesi.

City-State of Meroe Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Rufasa, Chief of Meroe
    Rufasa commanded that irrigation ditches be dug to bring water from the Nile to fields in the homeland. With an eye to further increasing crop yield he sent surplus urban population along with tools to clear more land in Sennar.
    Once again leaving his brother Shendi to keep an eye on the kingdom, Rufasa set out to conduct diplomacy among the hill tribes of Atbara. He was at best a middling diplomat, and it took many years of travel from camp to camp talking and drinking, finishing during the particularly rainy autumn of 2111, to obtain oaths of fealty. By then he was well over 40, an old man by the standards of the time, and repeated soakings and spending days shivering in wet clothing weakened him. A bad cold worsened to pneumonia, fevers, chills and death.
    Shendi ruled Meroe and enjoyed time with Jebelein, his wife from Sennar. After a miscarriage in 2115, she produced a boy in 2114, twins (boy, girl) in 2113 and another girl in 2112. Surely I am blessed by the gods, he thought. In late 2111 came word of his brother's death; he was now king.

Land of Punt Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Makale, Lord of Punt
    Makele ordered bastions to be built astride key paths, and marginal land put to the plow to increase crop yield. Gold was spent on attempting to create a relay system of swift runners to carry news; more was spent paying philosophers, scholars and artists to devise a method to permanently record information.
    The king then held court - at one point welcoming merchants from Thebes - and ruled his nation wisely.


(Western Arabia north to Levant then west to Subartu)
City of Hazor as a storm
approaches from the north

Literacy exists throughout Greater Levant as shown below.

Sabaeans Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Zabar script glyphs)
Hajr I, King of Sa'na
    Having achieved literacy (at least for a small number of court scribes) Hajr ordered a census of all people, animals and belongings, to better raise taxes. He spent much gold trying to set up a messenger service. A network of sewer was dug in the capital of Sa'na to reduce the chance of disease. All that in progress, Hajr settled back to rule the Sabaean realm.
    Hajr's diplomatic younger brother Kainan headed north along the Salt & Resin road to Asir, meeting for years with one hill chief after another. He was very persuasive and they ultimately agreed to join the kingdom.

City-State of Hazor Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Sisera, King of Hazor
    Sisera, uncomfortable being king instead of a general, invested a bit of gold in everything, especially trying to design a way to relay news quickly. He ordered merchants to assemble caravans to trade with Ugarit, an easy route through coastal farmland. More land in Jordan was tilled, in part by the labor of prisoners of war from Petra.
    All that in progress, Sisera considered the sucession. He had no children and any sired now wouldn't come of age for many years, so his death would lead to chaos. He decided to adopt Jabin, a boy from a local aristocratic family (as the Romans would often do when childless) who was turning 15. At the court proclamation of Jabin as Heir, the boy was also betrothed to the late king's young daughter Pigat (only 4) to be married when she came of age.
    While Jabin settled into the palace and flirted with the servant girls, Sisera was back in the field (where he felt truly alive) by early summer 2115 leading his veteran army into the grasslands of Syria. Pacification was a repeat of that action in Petra, except there were more shrieking nomads who survived the Hazor archer fire to reach the disciplined ranks of city-state swordsmen and skirmishers and be slain up close and personal. Sisera's army took several hundred dead and wounded, but killed over twelve hundred nomads and took even more prisoner, most of them wounded (the nomads were ineffective, but certainly brave). The ivory trade was secured and a long line of forlorn prisoners marched in chains back to Hazor along with victorious army.
    Returning to a delirious welcoming mob lining the main streets of the city, Sisera settled back to rule and teach Jabin how to run a growing kingdom.

City-State of Ugarit Civilized Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Niqmaddu, First of the Council
    Niqmaddu focused on the homeland, spending much gold to squeeze as many new wells, retention basins, irrigation ditches, grist-mills, barns and enclosed pastures as possible into the Aleppo countryside. More gold was spent trying to initiate a messenger system, this time with someone competent in charge, and by the end of 2111 a network of relay stations with living quarters for runners was in operation. Satisfied all was properly set in motion, the First ruled the land.
    Amurabi, Second of the Council, journeyed to Palmyra to spend many years badgering the local lord to ally with Ugarit. Eventually the exasperated noble agreed to pay tribute just to be left alone.

Kingdom of Subartu Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Anu, King of Subartu
    King Anu and his Edessan wife Anthousa spent a few months in Cappadocia trying to sway the tribes of that rugged region to a treaty with Subartu. Alas, between a rushed approach (considered insulting by the touchy locals) and language differences the mood quickly became hostile and only the presence of Subartun warriors let the royal couple leave unmolested.
    Once back in the homeland Anu oversaw improvements in the farm lands then ruled and (finally!) enjoyed his wife, siring a boy in 2114 and a girl in 2112. Both were healthy children but the court astrologer kept insisting the boy was born under an "inauspicious alignment" until Anu banned him from the castle.


(Mesopotamia, Persian Gulf, Iranian Plateau)
City of Ur including the
Temple Complex of Nanna-Sin,
God of the Moon

Literacy (cuneiform) exists throughout Greater Mesopotamia.

+++++ Random Event 00060: Storms at Sea - Rare storms in the Persian Gulf reduce all shipping by 10% +++++

Mesopotamian Priesthood Civilized Bronzeworking Theocracy
Shuruppak, High Priest of Innana (Ishtar) at Uruk
    Shuruppak ordered trade with all nations within range of either temple complex in Uruk or Ur. He then traveled first to distant Arbiliq, then back southward to Selucia, in both overseeing the dedication of a temple shrine, thus bringing the word of the true gods to new worshippers.
    High Priestess Salabikh, already in Abadan, entered Lagash where in concert with the local priests of Bau the temple enclosure in the city was greatly expanded to a temple complex complete with libraries, living quarters and teaching rooms for novice priests, herb gardens and more. A group of mid-level priests from the temple in Kish crossed the Euphrates into Circis but had no success in converting the Levant Pagans to belief in the true gods.

City-State of Assur Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ashur-Uballit, favored of Ashur
    At Ashur-Uballit's word the defenses of Mosul were further strengthened while marginal land was put to the plow. More food was stored for lean years. He then ruled his kingdom and spent his nights with royal concubines since Nammu, his bride from Diyala, was still awaiting proper escort to Assur.
    His younger brother Sinjar, already in Diyala (with the impatient Nammu) entered Eshnunna and met with the city lord Baqqanum for many years, urging him to join with Assur. Despite an awkward moment when Sinjar's gift was declined ("I consider what is best for my city, not what is best for my treasury!") ultimately Baqqanum agreed to become a full ally.

City-State of Kish Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Jushur, First King of the VI Dynasty, favored of Zababa
    King Jushur ordered yet more gold spent on rural works: barns, pens and fenced pastures for each villiage and better pathways for wagons traveling between them. He also commanded a fortress with thick walls of baked mud brick be built where the Silk Road crossed the river to Eshnunna to control that strategic ford. He then ruled and spent time with Amadala, his bride from Circis. Late 2115 birthed a girl but the next year had a stillborn son, plunging her into a deep depression.
    In the spring of 2113 during a river excursion she threw herself from the royal barge into the turbulent Euphrates. King Jushur and several servants were quick to attempt rescue; they were able to save her, but exhausted and weighed down by royal clothing and robes Jushur was lost to the current, his body later found miles downstream. Grief-stricken once again (added to suffering serious guilt) she was more than a bit mad, but per the late king's standing orders she became Regent until young Jushur II came of age. She was still smokin' hot in her later 30s; men naturally wanted to please her and she played them well.
    Meanwhile Lyssa of Mari, widow of the previous king Nannia (and who still suspected Amadala of pushing her down a staircase some years ago to get her to miscarry) had been sent on a diplomatic mission (Jushur wanting to keep her away from Amadala) to her family who ruled in Mari. She was persuasive and knew what arguments to use to convince them to join with Kish and its king Jushur, and finally they agreed.
    Lyssa returned to Kish in the fall of 2111 quite pleased until she found Amadala ruling as Regent. Nevertheless she reported to her enemy the results of her mission; Amadala was charming and ordered a great feast to be held in Lyssa's honor. At that gathering the Regent toasted "her dear friend Lyssa" and all drank. At least she won't try to poison me in front of the entire court thought Lyssa, but she was wrong.

City-State of Uruk Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ur-Nigina, 1st King of the IV Dynasty, favored of Inanna
    The king finally pulled himself out of his palace-secluded life of drunken pleasure (which after 5 years would probably get boring if it hadn't killed you) and started giving orders: gold was invested in designs for bigger galleys and trying to start a messenger service to relay news quickly. Another thousand men were recruited and trained with long spear and shield. That all in progress, he set about to rule his kingdom and restore it to normalcy.
    His nephew Ur-Gigir, having shamelessly ignored his wife Aga from Lagash for five years, came to his senses, groveled (much new jewelry was involved) and reconciled with her, resulting in a son in late 2115. Ur-Gigir then traveled to Lagash to meet with its king Ur-Babba, hoping he had cooled down in the years since expelling Ur-Gigir from his court. [see Lagash]

City-State of Ur Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ur-Nammu, 1st King of the III Dynasty, favored of Nanna
    At Ur-Nammu's instructions gold was invested in the quality of the army. Another six hundred archers were trained as well as infantry. In Ur a wide marketplace plaza was constructed near the temple complex of Nanna-Sin. The king then spent time with his Babylonian wife Kishar, but alas no child resulted. So it was in a bad mood that early in 2113 Ur-Nammu took his army south to Dharan looking for strong bodies to take for slavses.
    It was an army of over 6,000 that swept through the dry steppe and scrub, but the pastoral nomads were thinly spread and only a few hundred of those caught were worth taking back to Ur. Ur-Nammu returned in an even worse mood, but this was lessened when a retainer pointed out at least the troops got some badly needed field exercise.
    While the king was having sport, his twin brother ruled, tablets and stylus in use (he was an educated man) doing the necessary claywork of a ruler, or at least one who isn't wholly dependent on scribes.

City-State of Lagash Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ur-Babba, King of Lagash, favored of Bau
    King Ur-Babba, ever mindful of the growing power of both Uruk and Ur, ordered six hundred recruits trained with the long spear and shield. Gold was spent to irrigate marginal land to make it fit for crops. The army, led by his cousin (and general) Ur-Ningirsu was deployed to protect both the croplands as well as the city itself.
    It was to Ur-Babba's surprise in the spring of 2112 that the arrival of Ur-Gigir from Uruk was announced. The Lagash king was (sort of) brother-in-law of the Uruk king - all noble families were to some extent interconnected - therefore Ur-Gigir's (sort of) uncle by marriage. He still felt hostile toward Uruk for their previous extraction of tribute from Lagash, and surprised his (sort of) nephew had dared to return, but was grudgingly willing to listen.
    Ur-Gigir again proposed closer ties between the two city-states, and - since the King of Uruk had become a widower in the years since Ur-Gigir's previous visit - suggested marriage between his king and a noblewoman of Lagash. Negotiations continued for years with the King of Lagash eventually accepting on behalf of his neice and agreeing to act as feudal ally to Uruk.

Traders of Dilmun Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Abdullah, First of the Council
    Abdullah led the Council discussions until agreement was reached to spend some gold experimenting with new ship designs, and a lot on civic improvements for Dilmun itself: public wells, sewers and gardens. That underway, Abdullah traveled by pentaconter to Magan and thence overland to Oman for negotiations with the chieftan known as "One Eye", and finally obtained a promise of tribute, part to be paid in copper ore.
    Meanwhile Rasheed, Second of the Council, oversaw day to day administration of the island nation.

Kingdom of Elam Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ukku-Tanhish, King of Elam
    Ukku-Tanhish, who had become king upon the accidental death of his uncle Kitik-Inshushinak, continued the late king's policy of improving the rural lands to increase crop yield and make life better for farmers. Public wells were dug, barns built, common pastures fenced and bridges strong enough to hold a wagon's weight constructed over creeks and streams. Ukku then ruled Elam while his widowed aunt Zakutu of Mand spent most of her time with her daughters, the younger one of whom was sickly and rarely left her mother's side.
    In late 2114 the palace healers suggested the sea air may invigorate her increasingly stunted and often barely responsive second child. Zakutu and her girls moved to the seashore, often using the royal galley to cruise offshore, until one afternoon an unexpected storm brewed up high waves - rare in an enclosed sea like Persian Gulf - swamping the galley and drowning almost everyone except for a few crew and the elder royal daughter who clung to debris.
    The king was devastated by this new tragedy and began drinking heavily. Which may be why in late 2112 he was found drowned in the royal bath (clearly the most dangerous place in a palace) apparently having passed out drunk (numerous empty bottles were near the great tub) after irritably dismissing his attendants.
    Simashki, commander of the King's Guard, was proclaimed king by his men, and there was no other armed force in the land to challenge this. A few days later he announced his betrothal to the surviving royal daughter Hita (9) with marriage to follow when she comes of age. The region of Mand did not revolt since Hita's mother was Mand nobility.

Kingdom of Gutia Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Erridupizir, King of Gutium
    Erridupizier continued improvements to the capital with the construction of a central plaza that included several fountains and room for vendors' stalls. More surplus food was dried and stored for times of poor harvest. That underway, he headed east along the Silk Road to Persia, taking his half-Persian daugher Azar (8) with him, to meet with his feudal ally Naser. The king was a middling diplomat but had much to offer. In a year or so a deal was struck: Naser would become the new Heir and betrothed to Azar, with marriage to follow when proper, and Persian status improved to fully allied.
    Erridupizier next met with the leaders of the Tepe Sialk settlement which provided water and food to Silk Road travelers. They were flattered to receive the attention of the king and pleased with the lavish gifts he brought, and agreed to become feudal allies. The king returned to Borashi quite pleased with the results of his efforts.


Birdman with Snakes artifact 
(amulet?) found in excavation

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.

City-State of Namazgadepe Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Jamaspa, King of Namazgadepe
    King Jamaspa again lavishly funded anyone - philosophers, merchants, artists, scholars - with ideas about recording language using marks or impressions. Dried food was stored for lean years. The king, his gout acting up a bit worse each year, gave up further travel and attended to ruling.
    In a change of pace from his usual Ruling, the king's twin (fraternal) brother Frasaostra drilled and exercised the army which had grown rather lazy and complacent over the years. Returning to the capital, he spent time with his wife. She birthed a daughter in 2112 but after a high fever and chills miscarried the following year.
    It was almost the end of 2111 when an excited group of scholars sought audience with Jamaspa; they had devised a system to record language with a pictographic symbol for each word! [see below]

City-State of Gonur Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Oir Karnesh, King of Gonur
    Having no further luck with diplomacy in Tadzik, Oir Karnesh returned to Gonur with his new bride. At his command low-lying lands near the Oxus were filled in so they could be planted, and ditches dug to catch snowmelt from the mountains for watering fields. He also continued to fund his assembled scholars, philosophers, Silk Road traders and far-travelers to invent a way to record knowledge. Spending yet more gold he laid the groundwork for regularly spaced stations where runners carrying messages could rest.
    All that having been set in motion, he considered his lack of an heir of age, and in the summer of 2115 proclaimed Sadhanah, a local nobleman from a wealthy family to be his heir. Oir then set about to rule his kingdom, frequently visiting Sadhanah on his family's lavish river barge for discussions, naturally enlivened by feasting and drinking. During one such feast in late 2114 the king choked to death on a piece of fish not properly deboned; Sadhanah ordered the cook put to death immediately. Sadhanah ascended the throne in a lavish ceremony several days later after the king's funeral, his first decree putting Oir's widow from Tadzik and Oir's young daughter Lilyah under his protection.
    Towards the end of 2111 a delegation from the "recording knowledge" group came to see Sadhanah, reporting success using pictographic symbols, a unique one for each word!

Note: there is scant (and disputed) evidence of Oxus Civilization literacy; what little exists - the stone "Anau seal" - most closly eresembles Chinese pictographs. For the sake of convenience it will be assumed there was contact between the two groups working on the problem for the past 10 years and the successful die rolls for both on the same turn is a result of that. The set of pictographs are the same for both Oxus civilizations (or close enough) to be considered a single written language.


City of Harappa

Literacy (glyphs) exists throughout the Indus Valley civilization.

City-State of Harappa Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Yashodharman, King of Harappa
    Yashodharman directed that another 1,600 infantry be trained as replacements for the Harappan army's losses in its string of conquests. Given the size of the Harappan territory, more gold was spent trying to organize some kind of messenger service to carry news swiftly. Like many kings over the past few years, Yashodharman found himself without a current heir and his children very young. After discussions with his advisors he appointed Dharmsala as Heir, a young nobleman from a family with a long tradition of service to the crown.
    Leaving Dharmsala to rule (hopefully listening to royal advisors) the king and his newly-raised troops crossed both the Indus and mountains into Ghazni, no easy march. Collecting the large army encamped there since Asoka died several years before, King Yashodharam followed the trade route south to Bauluch and wintered there with almost six thousand infantry and a thousand skirmishers. He and his fellow monarch Rupawalla of Rupar had agreed upon a joint campaign against Ganweriwala, and his force was half of that assault.
    In the spring of 2114 Yashodharam sent raiders across the Indus into Edrosia, the first phase of the Harrapan "raid then invade" strategy that had defeated Mohenjo-Daro. The men of Rupar would be attacking in the north by now and Ganweriwala would be defending its homeland and have no warriors to spare for Edrosia. [see Ganweriwala]

City-State of Rupar Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Rupawalla, King of Rupar
    Rupawalla ordered a thousand infantry raised and added to his army. Low-lying land along the river was filled to provide additional agricultural land. A huge amount of gold was invested in attempting new designs for river galleys, but the merchant given responsibility was a terrible administrator and wasted the funds on whatever exotic (however impractical) ideas were suggested. Finally Rupawalla gave thought to his lack of an adult heir - his only son was an infant - and so elevated the nobleman Mianwali to that post.
    Leaving a surprised Mianwali to rule, the king gathered his army and marching south into Sukkur, gathering garrisons along the way until his army numbered five thousand infantry and nearly two thousand skirmishers. He and Yashodharman of Harappa had agreed upon a joint campaign against Ganweriwala, and his force was half of that assault. Continuing to the border, in early summer he began raideding deep into Sind for gold and to guage the strength of the defenders. [see Ganweriwala]

City-State of Ganweriwala Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Chandra the Magnificent, King of Ganweriwala
    Chandra addressed his subjects from his palace balcony, promising a new dawn of prosperity. He ordered marginal land put to the plow, public wells dug and gristmills built. Gold was invested in a variety of military improvements and the university was able to hire additional scholars. Once his his initiatives were underway, he ruled his kingdom. His adult son Kosavari spent time with his own wife Archana from Chanhu-Daro, enjoying the palace gardens and pleasure pavilion. It was all good.
    Which came to an abrupt end in early summer when frantic word came from the farmlands: thousands of warriors of Rupar were raiding, stealing anything they could and destroying what they couldn't.

    Leaving Ganweriwala itself well garrisoned, Chandra and Kosavari marched forth with a thousand heavy infantry, three thousand regular infantry and nearly a thousand skirmishers. Two months' of raids had casused extensive damage throughout the region: wells fouled, mills set on fire, villages stripped of anything useful and any protesting inhabitants beaten or worse. The labor of decades had been undone.
    With the Ganweriwalan army now present the following two months' of raids were turned back with increasing losses to the men of Rupar, with over a thousand killed or wounded. Chandra believed the following year that since Rupar was allied to Harappa it would be influenced by the Harrapan strategy of "raid then invade" used against Mohenjo-Daro. The Ganweriwalan army thus encamped where the forts could screen them and prepared to defend the region.
    In the spring of 2114 the army of Rupar attacked, still larger than the defending army despite its losses. However Chandra had all the other advantages: he was the better general, had better trained infantry and had intimate knowledge of his homeland's terrain. He expertly took the invading force by surprise. Whilst most of the Ganweriwalans kept the Rupar army engaged, the thousand Ganweriwalan heavy infantry crested a low rise and charged in phalanx formation into the Rupar flank, breaking through and rolling up the Rupar line. King Rupawalla barely held his army together as it desperately disengaged and retreated with over three thousand wounded, leaving over two thousand dead on the battlefield. The Ganweriwalans followed, collecting piles of discarded armor and weapons and stopping to loot the Rupar camp, including the lavish, carpet-floored tent of Rupawalla himself, having taken less than 600 casualties in total. By the time Chandra got his warriors moving again the men of Rupar had enough of a lead to escape.

    Later that same year word reached the king of events in Edrosia. The Harappans had raided repeatedly throughout the summer and autumn. The first raid encountered no resistance; thereafter native militia mobilized but the raiders were far more numerous and well led, pillaging and vandalizing at will. Refugees streamed north into Sukkur bearing tales of woe. Chandra felt certain after winter the Harappans would invade Edrosia, but he dare not leave his homeland unguarded. Worse yet, his younger daughter, sickly since birth, died at age 7.
    Spring of 2113 came and went without invasion. Finally from rumors he pieced together what happened: Yashodharam of Harappa had accompanied the final autumn raid, most likely to judge for himsnelf the local defenses before invading. On his way back across the Indus the boat he was using ran onto a submerged rock and capsized. The king and several others were swept into the rain-swollen river. Weighed down by armor and robes, he drowned long before anyone could reach him. For the moment, Ganweriwala had a respite.

Traders of Dholavira Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Harshal, First of the Council
    Harshal met with the Council and it was decided to continue funding experimentation into better (and larger) ship designs, probably the most important investment for an island power. Some marginal land was put into cultivation to increase food yield. Tanish, Sword of the Council, continued patrolling the waters around Kutch with his squadron of pentaconters.
    Harshal then oversaw the day to day activities of Dholavira and enjoyed his wife, the sister of a wealthy Council member, siring another daughter in 2114 and another son in 2112. Toward the end of 2111 an excited group of naval architects and ship builders asked to see him.

City-State of Lothal Seafaring Bronzeworking Monarchy
Baroda, King of Lothal
    Baroda, formerly the Lothal garrison commander and now king, set about learning the job. He spent little gold, preferring to wait until he understood the city-state's needs. He did however order ten unused naval transports put to use by fishermen to increase the food supply. Mindful of the need for an heir and not having any children of his own, he proclaimed Champa, a local nobleman and longtime friend to be the new Heir.
    All that settled, Baroda ruled his new realm and spent time with his wife, who had a girl in late 2115. She became pregnant again the following year, but died in childbirth along with the baby.


Ganges Valley city

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.

City-State of Hastinapura Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Lakhimpur, King of Hastinapura
    Lakhimpur sent surplus population with tools and farming equipment to cultivate the last areas of wilderness in Uttar Predesh, also increasing its fixed defenses. Devastated when his queen Kheri died in childbirth in 2115 he still managed to rule his lands.
    His younger brother Rampur, already in the river port of Banawali, resumed negotiations with its lord. He stayed many years, easily coping with its language and religious differences due to his previous diplomacy there and in Tarain. Eventually its lord agreed to be a full ally of Hastinapura.
    In early 2111 Rampur received word that his brother the king and his retainers had sickened after eating stew that included spoiled fish, and all died writhing in pain shortly thereafter. Rampur hastened back to the capital to maintain order in the kingdom. Towards the end of the year the late Lakhimpur's eldest son came of age and Rampur proclaimed him to be heir.

City-State of Atranjikhera Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Kali-Ra, King of Atranjikhera
    While work continued cultivating the remaining wilderness in Vasta wilderness, Kali-Ra decreed that the capital be improved by paving over the rutted dirt and gravel of the its main streets. He next addressed the problem of no adult heir, and after discussions with his advisors announced that a distant cousin and noted orator, Batashwari, would be elevated to that post.
    After spending time with his wife (who later bore a daughter) Kali-Ra left a nervous Batashwari to rule and headed west to the grasslands of Chitor. For years he traveled from one camp of pastoral nomads to another, trying to make sense of their unknown language. He was an awful diplomat and made no progress but at least didn't make them hostile either.
    Kali-Ra headed back to Atranjikhera discouraged and in poor health from his travels. Passing through the unfamiliar scrub in eastern Chitor the column took a break to relieve themselves, rest or fill water bags at a monsoon season pond. Alas, the undergrowth where the king and his retainers had ventured for privacy sheltered numerous vipers who reacted aggressively to being disturbed. All the men were bitten as were the first half-dozen of the soldiers who'd crashed through the scrub to help. The victims blistered, then complained of dizziness and weakness, and died within a few days with raging fevers.
    The escorting soldiers reached Antranjikhera in several weeks with the ashes from the king's pyre. His widow Purna secluded herself with her children in grief and a stunned Batashwari became king.

City-State of Kaushambi Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Kusa, King of Kaushambi
    Kusa ordered more preserved food to be stored for times of famine, then traveled with three thousand warriors through Nadavaria to the port settlement of Tamralipti for some diplomacy-in-force. To the astonished (and rather intimidated) settlement leaders he proposed a marrige between himself and an eligible noblewoman. After a few years of talks they signed a treaty of economic alliance. Returning to Kaushambi (where his bride was overwhelmed by the size of a true city) he sired a girl in 2111.
    The king's older cousin Jagdish had ruled in his absence and spent time with his wife Laxmi. She continued to suffer frequent ill health that affected her pregnancies: a deformed child in 2115 who died after a few months, a healthy girl in 2113, another sickly girl in 2112 but a healthy son in 2111. Priests and healers were mystified their efforts proved unable to help.


(Indian subcontinent south of Vindhya Mountain range, plus Ceylon)
rural snake worship shrine

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.

Kingdom of Chera Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Kumatturk, King of Chera
    Kumatturk commanded gold be invested in all areas of military improvement, and trained another six hundred infantry for his personal guard. He started planning for a network of rest stations to allow fleet runners to relay information - orally, since there was no way to record knowledge. To address that lack, he funded the program that the previous king had begun to devise a method to do exactly that.
    Next he realized he needed an heir since life was very uncertain. After some thought he proclaimed Indara Chuzwel Akapane, a nobleman with a reputation for wisdom for that position. Indara vowed by the gods should Kumatturk die he would serve as Regent until a royal son came of age rather than keep the throne for himself.
    The king then governed his realm and enjoyed the company of his wife Madhavi, who delivered a son in 2115 but miscarried the following year. After grieving for months she rejoined court life and produced another son with the king in 2112. Overjoyed, the king and retainers set out by royal galley for a day of fishing with the intent the "royal catch" would be served at a banquet honoring the event. But around mid-day heavy seas developed along with high winds - a very bad combination for a galley - and the vessel never returned to Muciri.

Kingdom of Chola Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Ellalan Chola, King of Chola
    With his kingdom nearly bankrupt due to no one governing it, King Ellalan, his wife Sembiyan Madadevi and his retainers booked passage from Vengi southward on a small trading galley that hugged the coast and brought them back to the capital of Arikamedu. (He'd been away so long it took some time to prove to the harbor guards who he was.) Ellalan invested what little gold was available in the same areas as neighboring Chera: setting up a message-relay system and devising a written language. He then ruled the nation and finally got romantic time with his wife who consequently had a girl, another girl, a boy and yet another girl. The fertility aspect of the Naga was clearly at work.
    The King's cousin Ilametcenni, his wife Alli Velir and his retainers returned from Sri Lanka to Arikamedu. (He too was un-recognized and had to prove his identity.) His wife, seeing a true city for the first time, was awe-struck and became friends with the queen who felt the same way.
    Ilametcenni collected warriors from various garrisons, assembling an army of over three thousand and marched north into the Madurai grasslands for some diplomacy-in-force. He was a middling diplomat, his gifts didn't impress the nomad chiefs, there were language and religious differences and he only stayed a relatively short time. No progress was made but at least he didn't get anyone angry either.
    Frustrated, he continued north through Vengi - stopping for a feast with his in-laws - and crossed the border with Kalinga in the spring of 2112. He swiftly pacified the scattered neolithic hill tribes who'd never imagined an enemy so numerous and well trained and thought them devils. Leaving a garrison he returned to Vengi for brief talks with his wife's family and got nowhere, but at least he got to feast again.


(populated by migration from north down the Irrawaddy Valley - advanced in time)
Pyu civilization 
Irrawaddy Valley city

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.

City-State of Halin Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Eventually became leading Pyu city-state. Wilderness homeland half-cultivated.
    advanced in time; OPEN FOR A PLAYER

City-States of Binnaka & Maingmaw Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Twin Pyu cities considered one position. Wilderness homeland half-cultivated.
    advanced in time; OPEN FOR A PLAYER

City-State of Beikthano Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Oldest Pyu city-state. Jungle/rain forest homeland half-cultivated.
    advanced in time; OPEN FOR A PLAYER

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