Newsfax Turn: #3 ( 2120 - 2116 BC )
July 25, 2015

ANNOUNCEMENTS: New or changed from previous turn will be in red.
My Stats program only accepts whole gp for University investment, and only stores whole nfp leftover at end of turn.
An area's progress in metallurgy & literacy will be in green and is the situation at the start of the turn.
1. Some nations have built more field forts in their homeland than the max allowed under LOTE Basic Rules and I missed it so the rules have been modified after-the-fact to allow a higher maximum at low QRs - see Rule Changes page.
2. My support cost entries were missing SP (Steppe Permanent) and WP (Wilderness Permanent) so nations with units in such terrain weren't paying gp and agro for them. It's fixed now so if your support costs went up a lot, that's why.

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(Corsica, Sardinia, Italian penninsula, Sicily & Malta)
Nuragic field fort with distinctive
stone Nuraghe towers

Literacy has not yet reached this area.

Nuragic Civilization Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
This culture evolved into the Sardinians. Wilderness homeland 50% cultivated.
    advanced in time; off map in Central Med - not yet active

(Proto-)Etruscans Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy
This culture evolved into the Etruscans. Wilderness homeland 50% cultivated.
    advanced in time; OPEN FOR A PLAYER

Apennine Culture Barbarian Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Apennine Culture existed all thru southern Italy; this position represents it. Wilderness homeland 50% cultivated.
    advanced in time; OPEN FOR A PLAYER


(Balkans, Aegean Sea & Western Anatolia)
Minoan capital of Knossos

Literacy has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.

Thracians Barbarian Bronzeworking Tribal
    off map in northeast Balkans - not yet active

Illyrians Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy
Cadmus, King of Illyrians
    Cadmus ordered additional defenses built for the homeland and investments in military training. Leaving his cousin Pleurias to rule in his place, Cadmus was about to depart on a diplomatic mission when word reached the palace that the Achaeans had invaded the Illyrians' tributary state of Dalmatia. Adding his personal forces to the garrison of Illyria, he prepared defenses near existing stone forts and watchtowers. [see Achaeans]
    With the Greeks repulsed, he returned briefly for a triumphal parade through the capital, then spent some time with his young wife Sulet whose Dalmatian homeland remained under Achaean rule. Cadmus returned to the field, and in early 2116 received news his wife had borne him a son.

Achaean Greeks Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Basileios, King of Achaeans
    In Mycenae, court bards sang of Harappan conquests in the distant East, and the King - perhaps stirred by the songs - thought the time had come for battle instead of diplomacy. He ordered additional infantry and skirmishers to be trained and equipped. They were put under the command of lieutenant Clitus, who headed north to Eprius, collecting garrison troops along the way.
    Meanwhile the king's hotheaded brother Artemon, frustrated trying diplomacy with the stubborn Serbian tribesmen, headed over the rugged peaks into Epirus for a rendezvous with Clitus. Responsibilites were traded: Artemon assumed command of the army and Clitus headed for Serbia for diplomacy.
    Artemon led almost five thousand warriors over the border into Dalmatia with intent to pacify it. The sparse inhabitants were already tributary to Illyria and saw no reason to fight simply to maintain that status. However when Artemon ordered his men to seize the local temples and impose the worship of the Achaeans' gods, the locals rebelled. It took a month to subdue all the angry bands roaming the wilderness. Sulking, the populace agreed to convert (map icon changed).

    Leaving a garrison behind, the Greeks invaded Illyria itself. The Illyrians defenders were only slightly less numerous than the invaders and had field forts built at stragetic passes, while the feared Achaean heavy infantry, armed with long spears, was at a disadvantage in the rugged wilderness terrain. Despite Artemon's inspired leadership his army was thrown back, taking more than double the losses of the Illyrians. Furious at the check but realizing the majority of his army was walking wounded, he had sense to retreat back to Dalmatia so his forces could lick their wounds and plan their next move.

Achaean spearmen engage
Illyrian infantry

    Meanwhile the easygoing Clitus spent many years sweet-talking the Serbians, and doing it quite well. Ultimately the tribes agree to pay tribute to the Acheans, including gold from their mines.
    During these years King Basileios ruled and enjoyed Zosime, his Thessalyian wife. She delivered sons in 2119 and 2117, but died in childbirth the following year. Basileios ordered a month of mourning and prayed to his gods for comfort.

Minoans Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (Linear A glyphs)
Labrys, First of the Council
    Labrys ordered the island's defenses increased, and - now having literate scribes - ordered a census taken of all persons and property within the Minoan lands. Trade was begun with the Apennine culture of southern Italy. Spending time with his wife Gonimotia, he sired a son in 2119.
    Meanwhile, Labrys's uncle Diskliakos rounded up surplus urban population and shuttled them to Kythera along with construction materials and tools, setting them to building the port city of Xantea. During that time some idle hands discovered that poking or prodding certain sea snails (why would anyone do this?) would provoke them into secreting mucous which could then be used to create a deep purple dye - something not previously existing. Despite the tiny amounts produced, as word spread merchants began considering possibilites.

Luvians Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ithacai, King of the Luvians
    Ithacai ordered hillsides terraced to facilitate the planting of additional crops. Work and experimentation continued on both improving the Luvians' nautical ability as well as recording of words and numbers; however no breakthroughs happened in either effort. When the king demanded to know why, those in charge blamed it on the distraction of anti-monarchy marches and speech making which happened frequently in the capital and now even in nearby villages. Ignoring the protesters (and the urging of his court to move against them) he settled down to rule his kingdom and enjoy his family.
    Ithacai's brother Kyran, still in the port settlement of Miletos with his Isaurian wife, continued his diplomatic pressure upon its leaders. After years of trying to overcome differences in religion and language, he persuaded the settlement leaders to agree to a treaty giving Luvian merchants exclusive trading rights.
    Near the end of 2116 as Kyran was celebrating his success, a messenger brought terrible news: his brother the king had been injured while teaching his eldest boy the sword. Embarassed, Ithacai had refused treatment by a healer. The wound had festered and a high fever took his life a few days later. Queen Qiana had gone into seclusion crazed with grief, and the court begged Kyran to return before chaos took the capital.

City-State of Troy Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Imroz, King of Troy IV
    Imroz ordered the regional defenses further improved even as more land was put to the plow. Trade was begun with the Apennine culture of southern Italy. The king then took ship across the Mare Negri to the shore of Moldavia, whence he traveled inland to meet with the steppe chieftans. Despite many years of negotiations the obstacles of hostile religions and different languages limited results to the nomads agreeing Troy had some claim to their loyalty.
    Returning to Troy discouraged, he sought comfort in the arms of his wife Clete. Her resulting pregnancy restored his spirits, but (alas) after a fall in the bath she miscarried. His charasmatic younger brother Ezine was not seen for years until returning to the palace late in 2116.
    Also in late 2116 a group of philosophers, scribes and artists (neglected for quite a few years but still laboring) came to the palace with good news: they understood the Luwian hieroglyphics the Hittites used to record knowledge, and could teach their use to the king's scribes!

Hitties Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Luwian hieroglyphics)
Labarna, King of the Hittites
    Labarna ordered even marginal land to be used for agriculture to boost production. He then left for a lengthy diplomatic tour starting with the sparsely-populated wilderness of Pamphyla. The king was an excellent general, but a terrible diplomat, and after several years had so infuriated the locals they would've killed him if he hasdn't brought a thousand warriors with him.
    He next tried his luck in the Phrygian farmlands already claimed by Troy. Difficult negotiations moved the inhabitants away from Troy and left them uncommitted to anyone.
    Meanwhile the king's younger brother Hattusili trekked to Galatia (where previous diplomacy by the undiplomatic Labarna had failed) and spent most of the next five years there talking to chiefs and drinking foul home-brewed beer (but not even allowed in brothels since he stank like a warthog) until the strongest chief, impressed with Hattusili's persistance, agreed to become a feudal ally of the Hittites.


(including Horn of Africa)
Pyramids at Giza

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
The Egyptians (hieroglyphics) and Nubians (Old Nubian pictographs) are literate.

Egyptian Priesthood Civilized Metalworking Theocracy
Menkaure, High Priest of Osiris
    Menkaure, continuing his intention to gain more income from the countryside oversaw the expansion of the shrine in Aswan to a temple enclosure. High Priestess Hatshepsut supervised the same upgrading of temple shrines to enclosures in both Lower Egypt and adjacent Mansura. A group of mid-level priests were sent to speak to the nomadic herders of the Sinai of the Egyptian gods, and finally made significant progress, converting almost half the population.
    currently NPN

Old Kingdom of Egypt (capital Memphis) Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Wadjkare, 1st King of the VIII Dynasty, favored of Ptah
    Wadjkare ordered marginal farmland in both Lower Egypt and Mansura to be tilled to increase food production. the Nile to croplands. A sewer system and a public bath were built in Memphis, and nearly a thousand more infantry recruited and trained. Gold was invested in pretty much everything worthy. He then ruled his kingdom and spent much time with his Mansuran wife Henutwati, who birthed a girl in 2119, a stillborn son the following year (after which she was bedridden for months with a fever) and finally another girl in 2116.
    His cousin Bakenrenef remained in the stifling hot desert of the Sinai, meeting for years with tribal chiefs to undo the earlier diplomacy by the king of Hazor. During his time there he noted missionary priests from Abydos who appeared to have audiences receptive to their preaching. Eventually despite religious and language differences Bakenrenef talked them into a treaty giving Old Kingdom merchants exclusive trading rights and access to the local turquoise mines.

City-State of Herakleopolis Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Akhtoy I, 1st King of the IX-X Dynasty, favored of Heryshef
    Akhtoy, concerned that the forces of Thebes would invade again, commanded yet more field forts to be built in Faiyum, to take advantage of L38's increased maximum fort limit, and investments were made in troop quality. His cousin Nekhbet was ordered to remain in the field to guard the borders.
    The king then ruled his lands and paid attention to his wife Jemad who still mourned the fall of her native city Mersa Gawasis to the Thebeans. She delivered twins (girl, boy) in 2119 and another girl in 2117.

City-State of Thebes Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Mentuhotep I, 1st King of the XI Dynasty, favored of Amun
    Mentuhotep, already in Upper Egypt in 2120 entered into negotiations with Sekhemkhet, lord of Abydos. The following year came grim news from Thebes: Ipoti, heir to the throne, had taken a break from administering (and the summer heat) to boat on the Nile. A startled hippopotamus had burst from the overgrown banks and overturned the royal barge dumping a score of family, servants, musicians and oarsmen into the water. Other hippos panicked at the thrashing humans and reacted in a frenzy of biting, killing Ipoti and a half-dozen others and injuring even more.
    Mourning his brother, but determined to secure a treaty, the king continued with diplomacy. Finally Sekhemkhet signed a treaty favoring Thebean merchants, but for now would promise no more.
    Meanwhile lieutenant Tetmoses and his men spent many grueling years in the sparsely-populated Eastern Desert as Tetmoses traveled from camp to camp sweet-talking the nomad chiefs. Many years of roast goat and fermented goat milk later, the most powerful chief agreed (contingent on a sister marrying Mentuhotep) to become a full Ally of Thebes.

Kingdom of Nubia Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Shabaqa, King of Nubia
    King Shabaqa ordered relay stations to be built such that a messanger service of swift runners could carry news from the capital to the outlying lands and vice versa. He also tasked his scribes to perform a census of the kingdom. The defenses of the homeland were strengthened and low-lying areas along the river drained and made ready for farming. Shabaqa then settled back to rule his lands and enjoy his family. However in late 2119 he sickened with a high fever and could keep down neither food nor drink, and despite the impassioned chanting of the attending shamans he died with his family at his side.
    Meanwhile the King's younger brother Seb had supervised the arrival of surplus population to expand the river settlement of Napata into a real port city. That underway, he travled downriver to Lower Nubia where he attempted to persuade Userkaf, strongest chieftan and feudal ally, to fully join with the Kingdom of Nubia.
    Word reached Seb the following year of his brother's death. He was now king, but continued the diplomatic mission with which he had been tasked. Amid feasts, river fishing and hunting trips, talks were progressing spendidly when during a lion hunt in mid-2117 an overconfident Userkaf (admittedly skilled with a bow) was surprised and mauled along with several of his courtiers. He had no heirs, and with his last words and much drama he told his surviving retainers to join his land with Nubia.

City-State of Meroe Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Rufasa, Chief of Meroe
    Rufasa ordered every unemployed, underemployed or otherwise surplus adult rounded up, given tools and sent to finish the transformation of Funj from wilderness to productive farmland. Even the kingdom's food reserves were used to hire laborers from unmapped lands further south. By the end of 2116 the job was done; agricultural production increased as did the standard of living, and the capital started looking less like a barbarian encampment and more like an outpost of civilization.
    Leaving his brother Shendi to rule in his place and keep an eye on the workers, Rufasa set out with a large force and over the following years marched through Axum and Kosti dodging native militia and seizing whatever luckless herders and forest farmers they encountered. However in Gezira the locals - apparently alerted by refugees - drove them off with losses.

Land of Punt Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Kama Agala, Lord of Punt
    Kama Agala ordered hillsides terraced to boost agriculture and rationed out what little gold remained on a variety of schemes. Kama then ruled his lands and enjoyed time with his family, and life was good. At least until late 2117 when he attended a feast on a Dholoviran trade galley in Adulis harbor. After drinking much wine he made his way to the side of the ship to relieve himself, stumbled and fell over the rail, drowning before his guards or retainers could find him in the darkness.
    Meanwhile ... the king's cousin Makale had traveled to Beja on a diplomatic mission. Or, he thought, Kama wanted me far away from him, as the cousins loathed each other. By 2117 he had made no progress with the pastoral nomads and was on his way back to Adulis when word reached him he was now king. Upon arrival in the capital he mourned in public, but his private celebrations with wife Odalla resulted in a daughter born late that year.


(Western Arabia north to Levant then west to Subartu)
City of Hazor as a storm
approaches from the north

Literacy (cuneiform) exists throughout Greater Levant except Western Arabia.

Sabaeans Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Hajr I, King of Sa'na
    Hajr continued to invest heavily in the efforts of scholars, artists and hired foreign scribes to create a method to record knowledge. In rural Yemen basins were dug to retain any rain runoff from the eastern mountains to increase the harvest. The capital of Sa'na was enhanced by public parks with groves of fig trees. All that in progress, Hajr settled back to rule his kingdom.
    Hajr's younger brother Kainan remained in Abyan for continuing diplomacy with his father-in-law, the local lord. After years of having Kainan hanging around his court, he finally agreed to merge his lands with the Sabaeans so he could retire to his estates for some peace and quiet.
    Late in 2116 an excited group of scholars sought audience with the king. Once in his presence, they demonstrated a way to "write" the Semetic language (or at least the Sabaean/South Arabian version) henceforth known as Zabur script.

City-State of Hazor Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Jabin I, King of Hazor
    Jabin I again invested a bit of gold in everything, and ordered merchants to assemble caravans to trade across the Sinai desert between Hazor and Old Kingdom Egypt. A thousand mixed archers and skirmishers were recruited, trained, and assigned to his cousin Sisera, who promptly headed south along the Salt & Resin Road with over 4,000 mixed archers, infantry and skirmishers. The tribal elders of Petra had spurned his previous diplomatic overtures (admittedly he was soldier, not an ambassador) and sent him away humiliated; now his revenge would be sweet.
    When the Petran nomads had massed they numbered less than 2,000; despite being outnumbered they sprinted towards Sisera's lines shrieking war cries. His archers released volleys, dropping hundreds of locals before they even reached the disciplined bronze ranks of Hazor swordsmen. At which point slaughter ensued, with over a thousand nomads killed and the dazed survivors - all wounded - taken prisoner. The elder who had previously mocked Sisera had his throat cut and a minor chief was assigned as satrap. The following year when the army of Hazor reached the port settlement of Aqaba its leaders quickly surrendered.
    While Sisera was in the field, back at the palace Jabin's chronic cough now included flecks of blood despite the efforts of court healers. He managed to spend time with his wife Donatiya on his good days. She birthed a daughter in late 2120 and another in late 2119, a few days after Jabin died. On his way back to Hazor with the army, Sisera learned he was now king.

City-State of Ugarit Civilized Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Niqmaddu, First of the Council
    Niqmaddu, returning from Paslmyra to rule, again focused on agriculture, putting marginal land into use for grazing, freeing up somewhat better land for crops. The university was funded to hire additional scholars to teach. Much gold was spent trying to initiate a relay messenger system, but alas, the friend of Niqmaddu leading that effort proved incompetent.
    Meanwhile Amurabi, newly sworn Second of the Council, traveled to Lebanon for very lengthy negotiations with its young lord. Although Amurabi was a middling diplomat who didn't speak Semetic, he was persistant, and offered gold as well as a marriage to Niamaddu's oldest daughter when she came of age. After much consideration the Lebanese nobleman took his vows as a feudal ally of Ugarit.

Kingdom of Subartu Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Anu, King of Subartu
    King Anu, taking his Edessan bride Anthousa along with him, crossed the mountains into Armenia. For many years he met with one hill chieftan after another until finally they pledged some fealty to Subartu. Leaving Armenia somewhat satisfied he traveled back through Edessa (his wife getting a quick visit with her family) and towards the end of 2116 crossed the forbidding high mountains into Cappadocia just before the early winter snows closed the passes.
    His uncle Argh oversaw the terracing of hillsides to provide more farmland, then saw to the defense of the realm. At least until the spring of 2118 when he went hunting for fresh game, and while crossing a snow-covered stream fell through the ice along with several retainers. Carried away by the numblingly cold water, weighed down by layers of heavy clothing and trapped under the ice, they had no chance.


(Mesopotamia, Persian Gulf, Iranian Plateau)
City of Ur including the
Temple Complex of Nanna-Sin,
God of the Moon

Literacy (cuneiform) exists throughout Greater Mesopotamia.

Mesopotamian Priesthood Civilized Bronzeworking Theocracy
Shuruppak, High Priest of Innana (Ishtar) at Uruk
    Shuruppak, already in Kish, supervised the construction of additional buildings at the rural Mesopotamian Temple Shrine plus an encircling wall, expanding it to a Temple Enclosure. High Priestess Salabikh was twice as effective, overseeing the same upgrades from shrines to enclosures in Hahmar and Abadan. A group of mid-level priests from the temple in Lagash crossed the Tigris into Ahvaz and had unexpected success in consecrating a shrine where a number of wilderness trails crossed.
    Besides bigger, better sites and the training of more priests, gold was spent on a novel "second chance" program taking prisoners from jails throughout the city-states, saving the greatful kings the cost of housing and feeding them.

City-State of Assur Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ashur-Uballit, favored of Ashur
    Ashur-Uballit ordered the defenses of Mosul strengthened with forts, and hundreds more skirmishers trained and outfitted in Assur. Gold was spent trying to improve all areas of the military, and much food stored for lean years. He then ruled his kingdom, missing his late wife but enjoying his children.
    His younger brother Sinjar traveled down the Tigris and debarked at Eshnunna, then moved inland to seek out Babum, lord of Diyala. He offered an alliance to be sealed by King Ashur-Uballit in a royal marriage with a Diyalan noblewoman. After many years of feasting and drinking (it's a dirty job but somebody's got to do it) Sinjar obtained an oath of feudal loyalty from Babum and the lord's sister as bride for the king.
    In the late fall of 2116 came word from Arbiliq that its brash young lord Ibnatum had died in a tavern brawl and his cousin Nergal was the new lord.

City-State of Kish Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Jushur, First King of the VI Dynasty, favored of Zababa
    King Jushur poured much gold into rural improvements: mills were built, wells dug, swampy riverbanks filled in for crop planting, village markets expanded. Additional archers were trained and the homeland's defenses improved. He then ruled whilst savoring Amadala, his bride from Circis. He sired a girl in 2120, a son in 2119 and another girl in 2118.
    Meanwhile Lyssa, pregnant widow of the previous king Nannia, had a miscarriage after a brusing fall down a flight of stairs in the palace. Lyssa claimed she'd been pushed from behind but had no proof. Once she recovered, Jushur sent her on a diplomatic mission to Amadala's family in Circis to persuade them to closer ties with Kish.
    However it came about, Lyssa crossed the Euphrates into Circis and met with its lord, presenting him with a gift, a box carved from Lebanese cedar and inlaid with Syrian ivory. Negotiations nevertheless began in a tense atmosphere (which mystified Lyssa) but as time passed her charisma charmed the lord, until he agreed to fully unite Circis with Kish. As Lyssa was leaving he gave the cedar box to her and asked her to return it to Queen Amadala (which again mystified Lyssa, but she just went with it).

City-State of Uruk Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ur-Nigina, 1st King of the IV Dynasty, favored of Inanna
    The king never shook off his grief at the death in childbirth of his wife Adea years ago. His nephew Ur-Gigir, returning home after failed diplomacy, also fell into a deep depression. The pair now spent their years enjoying the pleasures of the flesh and the amphora, much to the disgust of Ur-Gigir's ignored wife Aga ("for this I left Lagash?!").

City-State of Ur Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ur-Nammu, 1st King of the III Dynasty, favored of Nanna
    Ur-Nammu commanded that both Ur and Babylon receive public wells and fountains. Given that Babylon was just a river settlement, its residents felt particularly honored. A unit of archers was trained and gold invested in improving the quality of the army. The king then spent much time in the field drilling that army, but returned to the capital enough times that his Babylonian wife Kishar birthed a daughter in 2118.
    The king was worried about the rival city-state of Uruk, and considered the old expression "the enemy of my enemy is my friend" worth trying, sending his brother Elulu on a diplomatic mission to Lagash. [see Lagash]
    Upon Elulu's empty-handed return he sought comfort from his Selucian wife Kullaa, resulting in a son in 2116.

City-State of Lagash Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ur-Babba, King of Lagash, favored of Bau
    King Ur-Babba invested heavily in improving the quality of his army as well as adding more archers and field fortifications. The army, led by his cousin (and general) Ur-Ningirsu was deployed to protect both the croplands as well as the city itself. Only by staying strong, he reasoned, would Lagash be safe.
    In the late spring of 2120 there arrived Elulu of Ur to discuss an alliance. Elulu suggested a double-betrothal: his king's boy and girl children to Ur-Babba's girl and boy children, thus bonding Ur and Lagash. Although Elulu stayed at court for several years, Ur-Babba ultimately declined the offer explaining Lagash wished to continue independent of entangling alliances.

Traders of Dilmun Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Abdullah, First of the Council
    Abdullah, new First of the Council, ordered all unused space on Bahrain to be used for farming, with new retention basins built to hold rainwater for irrigation. Newly built trade galleys as well as the existing fleet were assigned tor fishing in the Persian Gulf to improve the food situation. That underway, Abdullah traveled to Dharan to rescue the surviving skirmishers from the late Jafar's ill-fated diplomatic mission, Jafar's body and Jafar's widow, returning them to Dilmun. After Jafar's burial service, he settled back to rule the trading nation.
    Mansour, Sword of the Council left his skirmishers behind in Magan and returned to the scorched semi-desert of Oman, once again engaging the nomad chiefs. A brutal swordsman, Mansour was a poor negotiator and was having no luck - in fact was being counterproductive. When at a tribal parley in late 2119 he choked to death on a chunk of lamb his body was just dragged away from the campfire and the feast continued in a lighter mood.

Kingdom of Elam Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Kutik-Inshushinak, King of Elam
    The king continued to focus on agriculture, ordering the foothills of the mountains to be terraced, and mountain streams diverted to water the new fields. Kitik-Inshushinak then ruled his kingdom and spent his nights with Zakutu, his bride from Mand. She had a girl late 2120 and after a very difficult labor another girl in 2119 who proved stunted and sickly.
    A month later during a royal hunt in the mountains the king - deep in thought rather than paying attention - lost his footing on a narrow trail and went down the side. It took several days for his retainers to work their way down to his body to return it to Susa. His nephew Ukku-Tanhish, after an official mourning period, took the throne.

Kingdom of Gutia Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Erridupizir, King of Gutium
    Erridupizier turned his urge to build to the capital Borahshi, ordering public wells dug and a sewer system installed. Large quantities of surplus food was dried and stored for times of poor harvest, and additional spearmen were trained for the king's personal guard. That ongoing, he ruled and spent more time with his wife Farideh, who birthed a boy in 2119 and a girl in 2118, but after miscarrying the next year did not get pregnant again.
    Meanwhile his malformed brother Kaveh was rousted from the taverns, bathed and sobered up, and sent to drill the army in the Median countryside. Kaveh did the job although kept himself well supplied with barrels of local wines - old habits die hard. In 2116 his skin began turning yellowish and he grew sickly as his liver failed, and he died late that year, mourned only by vineyard owners, wine merchants and brothel keepers.


Birdman with Snakes artifact 
(amulet?) found in excavation

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.

City-State of Namazgadepe Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Jamaspa, King of Namazgadepe
    King Jamaspa commanded more forts be added in key locations, and he lavishly funded anyone with ideas about recording language using marks or impressions, including the masters of caravans bringing goods from the Indus Valley kingdoms, where rumor said such magic was done.
    Jamaspa then returned to Bactria for another attempt at diplomacy, again offering himself for a royal marriage, acting especially charming to the lovely cousins of his late wife, who had previously pouted jealously when he'd chosen her. They each worked the seduction skill set (it's good to be king) and he chose the best, Namira, and her uncle agreed (she was his favorite) to an alliance with Namazgadepe. Jamaspa brought his bride back to the palace and in 2116 she bore a daughter - and unlike his previous wives, didn't die in the process. Perhaps he was back in the gods' favor!
    The king's twin (fraternal) brother Frasaostra ruled the kingdom in Jamaspa's absence while enjoying his wife, siring a son in 2118.

City-State of Gonur Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Oir Karnesh, King of Gonur
    King Karnesh ordered irrigation ditches dug from the Oxus River to enable more land to be brought under cultivation. He too began spending heavily to attract scholars, philosophers, traders, far-travelers; anyone with an inkling how to record knowledge. Leaving his brother Uxra to rule in his absence, he traveled along the trade route to Tadzik, offering himself in marriage to a daughter of the local lord. Years of negotiations followed (as is often the story) until after much feasting, drinking and manly activity the lord agreed to pay tribute to Gonur, and gave Karnesh the pick of his daughters as a bride.
    The king's brother Uxra ruled wisely although spent little time with his wife Humay‚, much to her increasing anger. In early 2116 Uxra died in his sleep after having left a banquet rather unsteadily complaining of a terrible headache.


City of Harappa

Literacy (glyphs) exists throughout the Indus Valley civilization.

City-State of Harappa Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Yashodharman, King of Harappa
    Yashodharman, satisfied with the progress of both diplomacy and conquest, turned his attention to domestic affairs, especially since his courtiers and scribes were unable to manage running the kingdom by themselves. Gold was spent on all areas of military quality and planning a messenger service to move news and decrees faster throughout the increasingly larger state. Yashodharman then involved himself in the ruling of his kingdom and getting to know his new wife from Rupar. They made up for lost time, having a girl in 2120, a son in 2118 and another son in 2116.
    As this was in progress, Asoka "the Feared" left a large garrison in Bauluch to maintain order, then led his still-substantial army back over the mountains into Ghazni. The chieftan he'd appointed as satrap nervously welcomed the conqueror and provided food and guides through the rugged wilderness to Mehrgarh, oldest city in the Indus region. Asoka met with its understandably fearful leaders, suggesting they join with Harappa.
    A middling diplomat, he was making progress when during the winter of 2119-2118 a severe cold made its rounds through the army's snowbound encampment, worsening in his case to pneumonia. Perhaps the strain of campaigning had exhausted him (at 33 he was at least middle-aged for the time period) or the dubious "remedies" of healers weakened him further; he died in the early spring. A subordinate officer assumed command and when the moutain passes were clear sent a message to the king.

City-State of Rupar Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Rupawalla, King of Rupar
    Rupawalla ordered more work done in rural areas to help boost food production. Much gold was invested in a riverside arsenal for trying new galley designs. That done, the king settled back to rule and await word of Sahiwalla's mission.
    Meanwhile Sahiwalla, conqueror of Sukkur, passed through there (visiting the garrison to keep up morale) on his way to the river port of Kalibangan. There, he met with its lord to discuss and alliance, suggesting a marriage between a Kalibangan noblewoman and King Rupawalla. Although a poor diplomat, the offer was well received; Sahiwalla and the city's lord became friends over feasts, archery competitions and fishing excursions on the river. It was there near the end of 2118 when heavy rains had swollen the Saraswati (and neither one wanted to suggest it was too dangerous to venture out) that the lord's galley was caught by unexpected currents and shattered against rocks, everyone aboard drowning.
    When the king received the news, he grieved, but had responsibilites. He traveled to Kalibangan and set the city in order: the lord's younger brother became new master of the city, agreeing to pay tribute to Rupar, and his younger sister became Rupawalla's new bride. He comforted her for the death of her brother, and she birthed a son late 2116.

City-State of Ganweriwala Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Chandra the Magnificent, King of Ganweriwala
    Chandra ordered wetlands along the Saraswati to be filled in and used for agriculture. Worried about the apparent alliance between Harappa and Rupar, a thousand spearmen were trained and equipped. Once confident his initiatives were underway, he ruled his kingdom and spent time with his Edrosian wife. She birthed a daughter prematurely in 2120, who proved sickly, but a healthy son in 2119. After a stillborn child the next year, she had a son in 2117, and begged Chandra for no more children.
    Meanwhile his son Kosavari returned to Edrosia for further talks and convinced the local lord - already an economic ally - to become a full ally of Ganweriwala. Kosavari traveled home to spend time with his wife, but no child resulted.

City-State of Mohenjo-Daro Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Akbar Karzai, King of Mohenjo-Daro
    With their kingdom occupied by the Harappans, Akbar and his cousin Hakin lived in exile in Carmania with their remaining warriors, dependent on the charity of their feudal ally Sarbaz, a nomad chieftan. Lacking the resources to maintain the galleys that had carried them downriver to safety, Akbar ordered his men to salvage whatever they could from the rotting hulks to build an encamp-ment for themselves and the royal family. It was better than living in old nomad tents that reeked of livestock.
    By the winter of 2117-2116, Akbar grew steadily more depressed at what he felt was his failure to preserve his kingdom, despite the efforts of his family to cheer him. One night after drinking heavily he was found apparently having hung himself from a rafter. Hakin became the de facto leader of the exiles, but while a honey-tongued diplomat was no warrior and lacked the charisma to keep the refugees inspired. Gradually the warriors melted away and Sarbaz (apparently with genuine regret) recinded his oath of fealty. When the news of the death of Asoka "the Feared" finally arrived, it was too late to matter.

Traders of Dholavira Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Harshal, First of the Council
    Harshal ordered two more pentaconter war galleys built at the city's shipyards and put under the command of Tanish who patroled the ocean around the island of Kutch. More retention basis were dug to store rainwater for crop irrigation. The Council resolved to add some trade galleys to more profitable routes, and sent a galley to initiate commerce with distant Thebes.
    Harshal, a widower with a young child, then married the sister of a wealthy Council member, and sired a son in 2119 and a daughter in 2118. Even better, this time his wife didn't die.

City-State of Lothal Seafaring Bronzeworking Monarchy
Abar ap Zed, King of Lothal
    Abar ap Zed ordered the nation's wealth spent to build another ten trade galleys at the municipal arsenal, but this time they were anchored at the military docks rather than added to trade routes. Abar then ruled and spent time with his wife Abeena from Jats resulting in another son. Meanwhile Ben ap Yed, cousin of the King and skilled general, added skirmishers from the regional garrison to his already substantial force of infantry and had them training together.
    Clearly something was planned, but all speculation proved moot when in summer 2119 a fire broke out before dawn in the palace kitchens. The cooks fled in panic, allowing it to spread unchecked to barrels of cooking oil, which fueled an explosion that engulfed the structure in flames. The royal family, retainers and servants were trapped upstairs; hopefully they were overcome by smoke before it collapsed into the ground floor inferno. A few servants and guards lucky enough to be near exits escaped with burns but everyone else died.
    In the power vacuum that followed Baroda, charasmatic commander of the city garrison, declared himself king with its backing, and won over the nearby warriors and navy. For a few weeks it seemed the regional garrison would hail their own general as king, but seeing how outnumbered they were he convinced them otherwise, thus avoiding civil war. However the tribes of Jats renounced paying tribute, and Annivarta declared itself free of any claim upon it.


Ganges Valley city

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.

City-State of Hastinapura Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Lakhimpur, King of Hastinapura
    Lakhimpur spent more gold and manpower to advance cultivation of the surrounding wilderness and improve the defenses of Tarain. He also funded a group of metalworkers to experiment making a more durable metal than pure copper. He then ruled his kingdom and sired a boy in 2120 and a girl in 2118 with his queen Kheri.
    His younger brother Rampjur spent time with his own wife Dasuya, also siring a boy in 2120, then traveled to the river port of Banawali to discuss closer ties with Hastinapura. He stayed many years, easily coping with its language and religious differences due to his diplomacy in Tarain. Eventually its lord agreed to be a feudal ally.

City-State of Atranjikhera Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Kali-Ra, King of Atranjikhera
    At Kali-Ra's command, work continued cultivating the Vasta wilderness, and public wells built (tastefully surrounded by stone plazas) in Atranjikhera itself. He then traveled with his cousin Nadi-Sim (after a few torrid nights with their wives) to Jihjhoti to persuade its lord to ally with Atranjikhera. Late in 2120 both wives had daughters within days of each other, and much bonding ensued. Runners were sent to tell the cousins the good news.
    The diplomacy in Jihjhoti was going as well as could be expected with two poor-to-middling diplomats. Then in late 2119 at the solstice celebration many sickened due to improperly prepared fish, and some who had eaten excessively died, such as Nadi-Sim, who approached every meal as if it were his last, which this time it was. Shaken, the king continued on his own until a messenger from Atranjikhera in early 2116 arrived with the news his young daughter had died after a fall out a window to the courtyard below. After that shock he ended negotiations and returned to Atranjikhera to comfort his distraught wife Purna, who at least had gotten the satisfaction of having the negligent nanny flayed.

City-State of Kaushambi Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Kusa, King of Kaushambi
    Kusa crossed the Vidhya mountains from Pandya and returned to Kaushambi. He ordered baskets of dried fruits and vegetables, as well as many bushels of grain to be stored for times of famine, then settled back to rule.
    The king's older cousin Jagdish spent time with Laxmi, his wife from the river settlement of Varanasi, trying to produce royal children since the king wasn't yet married. Laxmi miscarried in 2119 after suffering a prolonged sickness, but birthed a girl in 2118 and another in 2116.


(Indian subcontinent south of Vindhya Mountain range, plus Ceylon)
rural snake worship shrine

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.

Kingdom of Chera Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Nedum Cheralathan, King of Chera
    Nedum decided to ignore outside concerns and enjoy wine, feasting and his Pandyan wife Kannagi ("It's good to be king!") while ruling his kingdom. They had a daughter late 2120, but the following year Kannagi bore a stillborn son and secluded herself in grief. Fate was not done with her: in early 2118 Nedum, who had taken to frequenting brothels in lieu of his queen's attentions, was fatally stabbed by a drunken harlot after an argument.
    The king's brother Kumatturk meanwhile was stuck in Annivarta with his bodyguard of skirmishers, unable to return home peacefully, his path blocked permanently-vengeful (he'd accidentally insulted one of their primitive gods) warriors of Nasik. In mid-2118 he received word of his brother's death and realized the kingdom needed leadership. So he boldy marched Anabasis-style through Nasik taking the locals by surprise and fending off ferocious but poorly coordinated native assaults, reaching the safety of Malabar and thence returned to Chera to rule before chaos descended.

Kingdom of Chola Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Ellalan Chola, King of Chola
    Still in Vengi (does anyone in Chola remember him?) King Ellalan continued to talk to the pastoral nomads there, his native wife helping to overcome differences in language and religion. After many years of badgering the chiefs (and Ellalan growing to loathe the nomadic life) he convinced the most powerful chief to become an ally of Chola.
    Meanwhile, the King's cousin Ilametcenni (does anyone remember him either?) and his Seylanese wife negotiated endlessly with the Neolithic hill tribes of Sri Lanka. After still more years of endless banquets of questionable cuisine ("mmm, charred goat again!") they convinced the tribal elders to fully unite with Chola.


Pyu civilization 
Irrawaddy Valley city

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.

City-State of Halin Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Eventually became leading Pyu city-state. Wilderness homeland 50% cultivated.
    advanced in time; not yet active

Binnaka & Maingmaw Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Twin Pyu cities considered one position. Wilderness homeland 50% cultivated.
    advanced in time; not yet active

Beikthano Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Oldest Pyu city-state. Jungle/rain forest homeland 50% cultivated.
    advanced in time; not yet active

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