Newsfax Turn: #2 ( 2125 - 2121 BC )
May xx, 2015

New or changed from previous turn will be in red.

If an action spans more than one year, please spread the APs out over those years, not all together.
My Stats program only accepts whole gp for University investment, and only stores whole nfp left at end of turn.
An area's progress in metallurgy & literacy will be in green.
My homemade HC program was producing too many live births, especially twins. I've tweaked it to better match the GM Guide, so it now includes miscarriages, stillbirths and infant mortality, and the chance of twins is less.

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Aegean Sea Centered
Nile Valley
Greater Levant
Greater Mesopotamia
Oxus Valley
Indus Valley
Ganges Valley
Southern India


(Corsica, Sardinia, Italian penninsula, Sicily & Malta)
Nuragic fortress with distinctive
stone Nuraghe towers

Literacy has not yet reached this area.

Nuragic Civilization Barbarian Bronzeworking Oligarchy
unique polytheistic "Earth Mother" religion. Wilderness homeland 50% cultivated.
    advanced in time; currently NPN

(Proto-)Etruscans Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy
This culture evolved into the Etruscans. Wilderness homeland 50% cultivated.
    advanced in time; currently NPN

Apennine Culture Barbarian Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Apennine Culture existed all thru southern Italy; this position represents it. Wilderness homeland 50% cultivated.
    advanced in time; currently NPN


(Balkans, Aegean Sea & Western Anatolia)
Minoan capital of Knossos

Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted in narratives.

Thracians Barbarian Bronzeworking Tribal
    off map in northeast Balkans - not yet active

Illyrians Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy
Cadmus, King of Illyrians
    Cadmus ordered additional defenses built for the homeland, more land cleared for farming, and investments in military training. Leaving his cousin Pleurias to rule in his place, Cadmus paid a diplomatic visit to the tribal elders of Dalmatia, seeking a source of copper as well as alliance. Cadmus being extremely charming (although in his 40s) the young sister of a powerful chief was completely smitten and agreed to be his bride. The elders were swayed by his words and agreed to pay tribute.

Achaeans (Greeks) Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Basileios, King of Achaeans
    Basileios hired swift runners to relay messages from Mycenae to/from the rest of the kingdom to better maintain his control of it. Determined to bring Thessaly fully into the kingdom, he next returned there and visited for many years. After a particularly intense night of feasting and drinking, its lord stood unsteadily, surprised his court by calling Basilieios "my brother" and joining his realm to that of the Achaeans. He retired to his vineyards to devote his remaining years to wine making.
    The King's brother Artemon, already in Serbia with his Epriot wife again tried to persuade the locals into closer ties. The suspicious tribesmen - never much for talking - were unwilling to listen further and in anger revoked their previous acceptance of the Greeks having a claim upon their allegiance. Only Artemon's reputation with a sword prevented worse.
    Taking his new wife with him, he traveled to Epirus, where he met a far more cordial welcome from her hill chieftan father. Further talks resulted in an economic alliance giving access to Epriot copper mines.

Minoans Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Labrys, First of the Council
    Labrys, noting with interest Luvian initiatives, spent heavily to hire away scribes, artists and philosophers from Egypt, the Levant and even further east (the half-mythical Mesopotamia) not already in Luvian employ, requesting of them creation of a Minoan method of recording knowledge. Next, he ordered workers in Knossos's arsenal to build a trading galley plus four more biremes, and soon the harbor echoed with the sounds of sawing and hammering. In addition, whole hillsides were terraced into additional farmland to boost the harvest.
    Leaving his pouting wife Gonimotia in Knossos, he journeyed to the gods' forsaken sparsely inhabited island of Kythera. There Labrys again sought out the leaders of local clans ("what? you're back?") and again spoke (for years) of the advantages of joining Crete and the power of the Minoan navy to protect them. Finally the council of elders agreed to an economic alliance. Labrys returned to Knossos in triumph.
    Meanwhile, Labrys's uncle Diskliakos also left his new wife Estia in Knossos and returned to the wilderness of Cyprus, finding its lord deceased and his son now ruling. Fortified by many amphoras of wine, Diskliakos met for years with the young, somewhat unbalanced (think Jeoffrey from Game of Thrones) leader of that island, until the teen pledged (with a calculating look) to become a feudal ally.
    Late in 2121 the scribes, artists and philosphers reported to Labrys they had created a uniquely Minoan pictographic writing they oddly named Linear A. "Trust me," assured the project leader, "this will become the language of the world."

Luvians Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ithacai, King of the Luvians
    Ithacai ordered his hired shipwrights and carpenters to continue work on improving the Luvians' nautical ability; same for those hired with ideas about recording of words and numbers - could they produce a way to do that? Alas, by of the end of 2121, apparently not.
    More irrigation ditches were dug in rural areas to increase the harvest. All this in progress, he settled down to the day to day ruling of the kingdom, while continuing to add to his family. His by now exhausted wife only carried to term once, producing twins (boy & girl) in 2123.
    Ithacai's brother Kyran, already in the port settlement of Miletos with his Isaurian wife, continued his diplomatic pressure upon its leaders. He spoke more of the proximity of the Luvians - just outside the settlement's borders - versus the distance from Crete. With the passage of time, and Kyran's relentless persuasion, the elders had an epiphany and realized it was the Luvians to whom they were loyal all this time.
    Near the end of 2121 a radical philosopher began addressing crowds in taverns or at markets, saying there was no need for hereditary rulers and instead the people should rule themselves, like in days of old before kings and kingdoms. Over the past few months the numbers listening to him - and shouting in agreement - have grown from a handful to hundreds.

City-State of Troy Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Imroz, King of Troy IV
    At Imroz's command additional defenses were built and additional infantry trained. Several large plazas with fountains were constructed to beautify the city. Trade between Troy and Hattusas was initiated over their common mountain border, but it abruptly ended when some of the route passed from Hittite control. [see Hittites]
    After leading the Trojan army through manuvers, Imroz made a brief visit to Phyrgia, meeting with its rulers and convincing them Troy had claim to their allegiance. He then traveled in the opposite direction to Thrace, also to make a quick diplomatic stop. Differences in language and relgions led to insults and the increasingly hostile inhabitants demanded he leave at once.
    His charasmatic younger brother Ezine disappeared from his usual taverns and brothels for several years, eventually returning tanned and lean from travel. Apparently sober and with new purpose, he led other units of the Trojan army on manuvers.

Hitties Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Labarna, King of the Hittites
    Inspired by rumors of the Luvians attempting to create a way to record information, the king hired a small number of unemployed scribes to do this for his kingdom cheaply. With that underway, Labarna ordered extensive agricultural improvements including irrigation ditches, retention basins, public mills and silos. He then ruled his kingdom by day and enjoyed his Galatian wife Pudukhepa by night. She birthed healthy twins (girl, boy) in 2125 but a sickly girl in 2124. The royal couple grieved when that frail daughter died at age 2 with no obvious cause.
    Leaving the palace where sadness hung like a dark cloud, he returned to Galatia for a brief diplomatic visit. Alas, the friendly lord he'd dealt with earlier had died of a raging fever, and his successor had expected to marry Pudukhepa before she was given to the Hittite king. Despite the assistance of Hattusili, the new Galatian lord dismissively (and with ill-concealed satisfaction) told the Hittites any prior agreements were no longer in effect.
    Leaving his Cappadocian wife behind, the King's younger brother Hattusili traveled all the way to Pontus and spent many years there feasting and drinking with the forest tribesmen. It was for naught as differences in language and mutually hostile religions resulted in no progress. Frustrated, Hattusili headed west to Galatia to assist the king with his diplomacy, but that too met with failure.
    The discouraged royals returned to Hattusus to be cheered by surprising news: the small group of hired scribes had developed a written version of the Hittite's language they named Luwian Hieroglyphics.


(including Horn of Africa)
Pyramids at Giza

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy (hieroglyphics) exists only among the Egyptians unless otherwise stated in the narrative.

Egyptian Priesthood Civilized Metalworking Theocracy
Menkaure, High Priest of Osiris
    Menkaure, believing the Priesthood's income was insufficient for the building of great temples to the gods, ordered trade begun with all civilized nations within reach. He next traveled to Mansura where he established a temple shrine in a farming village, leaving several novice priests to maintain it. High Priestess Hatshepsut supervised the construction of additional buildings and a wall around a shrine in Faiyum, upgrading the site to a temple enclosure. A group of lesser priests spoke to the nomadic herders of the Sinai of the Egyptian gods, but made no progress.
    currently NPN

Old Kingdom of Egypt (capital Memphis) Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Wadjkare, 1st King of the VIII Dynasty, favored of Ptah
    Wadjkare ordered additional irrigation ditches dug in both Lower Egypt and Mansura to bring more water from the Nile to croplands. Memphis was enhanced with public wells and fountains, and nearly a thousand more infantry recruited and trained. He then ruled his kingdom, the tedium eased by the arrival of Henutwati, his bride from Mansura. They had a son in 2125, and daughters in 2124 and 2123.
    His cousin Bakenrenef brought Henutwati home to the king, then was sent to the baking desert of the Sinai, traveling in the same caravan as a group of priests from Abydos. For years Bakenrenef met with tribal chiefs, eating of roast goat and drinking fermented goat milk (blarg!) and urging them to improve their lives (rather miserable, although he kept that opinion to himself) by aligning with the Old Kingdom. They agreed to an economic alliance including access to their turquoise mines, but after listening to the late-arriving King Jabin I of Hazor, they backed off to simply paying tribute.

City-State of Herakleopolis Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Akhtoy I, 1st King of the IX-X Dynasty, favored of Heryshef
    Akhtoy, concerned with the expansion of kingdoms to both his north and south, commanded more field forts to be built in Faiyum, and more infantry added to the city garrison. Investments were made in troop quality and funding metalworkers to experiment. The king was spending time with his bride from Mersa Gawasis when a frantic messanger arrived with news Ghabel Gharib had been invaded by Thebes, followed by another reporting a Thebean army was marching on Herakleopolis! Leaving a garrison to hold the city, together with his cousin Nekhbet he marched out to meet the Thebeans in the field. [see Thebes]
    Akhtoy returned victorious to Herakleopolis and enjoyed his wife, who bore him two daughters, bringing her joy despite the fall of her native city. Nekhbet remained in the field to guard the border.

City-State of Thebes Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Mentuhotep I, 1st King of the XI Dynasty, favored of Amun
    Mentuhotep spent lavishly to hire fast runners and set up hostels a day's run apart, to allow for swift communication between Thebes and outlying areas. Granaries were constructed to hold the large wheat surplus in case of future poor harvests. Those activities underway, the king with an army in Spring 2125 moved into Upper Egypt, already Thebean territory.

    Meanwhile younger brother Ipoti, gathering existing forces and newly trained recruits, headed north with almost 3,500 mixed infantry and skirmishers, crossing into Ghebel Gharib also in the Spring of 2125 with orders to bring the nomads there - who'd vowed fealty to Herakleopolis - under Thebean rule. Ipoti was a middling general and his army was swarmed by locals who knew the desert intimately. Fortunately for the Thebeans the nomad tribes were only armed as skirmishers and however brave were poorly led. Ipoti took light losses before he'd killed enough tribesmen for them to yield. He appointed a groveling chieftan new Nomarch (governor) of the region.
    After resting his army so his wounded could heal, Ipoti executed the second part of his orders and assaulted the port of Mersa Gawasis. The city lacked walls, so Ipoti's army fought a field battle among streets and buildings. Taking a few hundred losses, they crushed the outnumbered defenders. Ipoti put a cringing local in charge of the city with orders to repair the damage.

Akhtoy I of Herakleopolis
dispatches wounded Thebean

    While his brother was campaigning in the desert heat, King Mentuhotep marched his army of 2,500 infantry north into the farmlands of Faiyum with intent to perform diplomacy-in-force upon Herakleopolis. Unfortunately the timing of his arrival matched that of the news that Ghebel Gharib - aligned with Herakleopolis - had been invaded by wariors of Thebes. The Herakleoplitians immediately assumed this army was invading also and marched to meet it. And so it was as Mentuhotep's army neared a village by a slight rise in the terrain they were confronted by 4,000 mixed Herakleoptian infantry and skirmishers (whose scouting had tracked the Thebean army's movements). Mentuhotep shouted orders to his men to form ranks as the locals were clearly not in the mood to parley.

    The two armies of Egyptians came together in a crash of copper and stone weapons upon wooden shields, cries of triumph and screams of pain. Startled birds took flight from the nearby Nile riverbank. Fighting engulfed the village as well, and a fallen brazier started a fire. Outnumbered, and with their attackers led by leaders more skilled than their king, Mentuhotep's army suffered steady attrition as it fought its way clear and - taking over a thousand wounded with them - back into Upper Egypt.

Kingdom of Nubia Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Shabaqa, King of Nubia
    King Shabaqa, wanting his kingdom to be literate like their long-time enemies the Egyptians, lavishly funded the continuing effort of native wise men and shamans to create glyphs for recording the Nilo-Saharan language. He ordered improvements in in the countryside to continue with additional irrigation and retention ponds, plus granaries and mills, all to help increase the harvest and make efficient use of the grain.
    Shabaqa then paid a brief diplomatic visit to Lower Nubia, but failed to convince its ruler, Userkaf, to draw closer to Nubia. Returning discouraged to his capital of Kerma, he ruled his kingdom and enjoyed his wife and children.
    The King's younger brother Seb spent five years at the settlement of Napata, haranging its leader Isesi and his court to join with Nubia, until they agreed if Seb would just go away. Isesi retired to his small farm and enjoyed the quiet.
    Late in 2121 the wise men and shamans presented King Shabaqa with the results of their labors: a pictographic writing they called Old Nubian, blending Egyptian, Cushite and native symbols. As a side-effect of their work, the influx of the families, friends and retainers of the glyph-designers in turn led to an influx of vendors, tradesmen and laborers to support them, ultimately resulting in a substantial population increase in the capital.

City-State of Meroe Barbarian Metalworking Tribal
Rufasa, Chief of Meroe
    Rufasa poured much gold into continuing to clear the wilderness for cultivation, and anyone who could use an axe or shovel was put to work. He sent his brother Shendi back to Sennar to continue diplomacy, then ruled his kingdom. Shendi wasn't much of a diplomat, but offered a noble marriage to Rufasa. A wealthy merchant of ebony wood and carvings (who held much influence with the tribal chiefs) accepted on behalf of his sister. Not long afterword the council of chiefs agreed to join Sennar to Meroe, and Shendi brought Rufasa's new wife back to the capital.

Land of Punt Barbarian Metalworking Tribal
Kama Agala, Lord of Punt
    Kama Agala ordered the first of many planned improvements in the new croplands - ditches to bring water from nearby minor rivers. What little gold remained he used to subsidize craftsmen trying to create an alloy of copper more useful than copper. Kama then ruled his lands and enjoyed Derra, his wife from Zeila (who was a year older and rather intimidating). They produced a son in 2123 and a daughter in 2125.
    The king's cousin Makale (serious mutual dislike with Kama) traveled to Adowa to secure a treaty that would give Punt a monopoly on the region's ivory. He returned with an economic treaty and a wife for himself.


(Western Arabia north to Levant then west to Subartu)
City of Hazor as a storm
approaches from the north

Literacy (cuneiform) exists throughout Greater Levant except Western Arabia.

Sabaeans Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Hajr I, King of Sa'na
    Hajr had previously hired any who had exposure to writing, and continued to invest heavily in their efforts to create such for his kingdom. In rural Yemen public mills and granaries were built, slopes terraced and more rain catchbasins dug, all to increase the harvest. Leaving his younger brother Kainan to rule in his stead, Hajr traveled the trade route north into Asir, meeting with its lord, and offering himself in a royal marriage. After years of jointly hunting, feasting and drinking, the older lord and Hajr became good friends and Hajr married the lord's comely daughter, returning home with both bride and economic alliance.
    Hajr's younger brother Kainan journeyed back to Abyan for a follow-up diplomatic visit. His father-in-law was glad to see him but the brief time Kainan stayed wasn't enough to sway the chieftan to closer ties. Kainan returned to rule the Sabaeans while the king was traveling, and enjoy his wife. She birthed a boy in 2124, but almost went mad from grief having a stillborn child the following year. She was able to deliver another healthy boy in 2122.

City-State of Hazor Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Jabin I, King of Hazor
    Jabin I invested a bit of gold in everything, then ordered several hundred archers extensively trained. He lingered in Hazor for several years with his wife Donatiya, but her only pregnancy ended in a miscarriage. Leaving the realm in the hands of his courtiers, the king returned to Caanan and met with its lord (and his father-in-law) Paebel to discuss a closer alliance. Paebel rebuked Jabin for leaving Donatiya alone to deal with her grief, and tossed aside the gift Jabin had brought him.
    A discouraged and embarrased Jabin headed for the Sinai desert to sweet-talk the nomads into allegiance to Hazor. He arrived to find the Egyptian noble Bakenrenef already there for several years with the same mission. The nomads were about to accept an economic treaty with Old Kingdom Egypt, but Jabin persuaded them to simply pay tribute instead, a lesser commitment. Towards the end of 2121 he developed a chronic cough that continued despite court herbalists' potions and poultices.
    The king's cousin Sisera, who was as blunt and undiplomatic as was possible, was sent on a follow-up diplomatic mission to Petra. Differences in religion made the situation worse, and the Petrans rejected his offer of marriage to a chieftan's daughter. "Better a goat as husband than him," he overheard one elder mutter. Sulking, he returned home.

City-State of Ugarit Civilized Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Niqmaddu, First of the Council
    Niqmaddu continued the expansion of the army with another thousand men trained. As part of ongoing efforts to boost agricultural production, hills were planted with olive trees and vineyards. Trade was initiated with Subartu along difficult paths through the wilderness of Edessa.
    The council head then journeyed south to Lebanon, hoping to talk the locals into a treaty and access to their valuable cedar forests. Alas, he was only an average diplomat, spoke a different language than his hosts and no royal marriage to offer. After several years without progress, he left to try his luck in Palmyra and eventually convinced its lord that Ugarit had claim to his support.
    Meanwhile Ibiranu, Second of the Council, administered the realm in Niqmaddu's absence and saw to its defense. Some said he smiled upon hearing of his superior's woes, and was plotting to replace him. Such rumors became moot when in late 2121 he choked to death during a state banquet.

Kingdom of Subartu Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Anu, King of Subartu
    King Anu ordered levees and ditches dug to catch the runoff from the mountains and divert the water to the fields. A thousand more men were trained and equipped as infantry. Satisfied these efforts were underway, he went to Edessa and met with the hill tribes who previously had agreed to pay tribute, offering himself as husband for a chieftan's daughter. Honored that a king would wish to marry one of their own, the tribal chiefs agreed to join with Subartu; the marriage ceremony and pledging of loyalty was held among the sacred Gobekli Tepe monoliths, which deserved a second Newsfax reference.
    His uncle Argh returned to Subartu to conduct a census of the kingdom, see to its defense and while moving about the kingdom ensure the prosperity of assorted village taverns. When he returned to the palace he was met by several cringing clerks who reported an audit had revealed the treasury vault was empty, and their supervisor Feiht had gone missing.


(Mesopotamia, Persian Gulf, Iranian Plateau)
City of Ur after completion
of Temple Complex of Nanna-Sin,
God of the Moon

Literacy (cuneiform) exists throughout Greater Mesopotamia.

Mesopotamian Priesthood Civilized Bronzeworking Theocracy
Shuruppak, High Priest of Innana (Ishtar) at Uruk
    Shuruppak, continuing his intent to establish sites outside the cities, traveled by battle cart (those who serve the gods do not walk) to establish Temple Shrines in Diyala and Mosul, ending his travel with a visit to the Kish temple enclosure and discussion with its Priest of Zababa. Meanwhile High Priestess Salabikh spent many years in Ur working with its Priest of Nanna-Sin to ensure the upgrade of its site into a full Temple Complex (picture above) equal to the one already in Uruk.
    More gold was spent training the temple guards and trying to hire additional scribes depsite the lure of higher wages by illiterate states to the west and south.

City-State of Assur Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ashur-Uballit, favored of Ashur
    Ashur-Uballit spent gold on improving the quality of his army, and ordered bridges built over some minor rivers to help carts take produce to market faster. He and his wife Quiyaru (a local noblewoman) tried to have more children, and after a stillbirth in 2124 she had a healthy boy the following year. However that joy was balanced by the death of their frail son born four years earlier. Eventually she became pregnant again but died in childbirth, plunging Ashur-Uballit into a deep depression.
    His younger brother Sinjar spent these years across the river in Arbiliq sweet-talking the hill tribes and picking out a bride for himself. The hillmen valued war above all else; Sinjar being an excellent swordsman let him win a number of challenges. The strongest chief became a feudal ally of Assur, and Sinjar returned with the chief's sister as his new wife.

City-State of Kish Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Nannia, last King of the V Dynasty, favored of Zababa
    King Nannia ordered storehouses built to keep the current surplus available for lean years, and had numerous mills and granaries constructed in the countryside. He then ruled his kingdom waiting for Jushur's return.
    The king's nephew Jushur crossed the Euphrates back into Circis and spent over 4 years in Mari, charming the city's rulers and offering King Nannia as husband to a Mari noblewoman. Despite religious differences he talked the local lord into an economic alliance, and returned to Kish with the lord's comely daughter. She and Nannia were wed late in 2121 and she quickly became pregnant. The kingdom's joy was cut short a few weeks later when the king complained of chest pains and retired to his bedchamber to rest. The new queen's screams sounded later and courtiers found Nannia dead and his young wife hysterical. After a period of state mourning, Joshur ascended the throne, his wife considering how to deal with the widow of the former king...

City-State of Uruk Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ur-Nigina, 1st King of the IV Dynasty, favored of Inanna
    The king continued improvements to the agricultural areas including digging reservoirs to retain flood waters for use during the dry season. Investments were again made in all aspects of the military, with rumors (well, tavern talk) of some new engineering ideas resulting. Ur-Nigina then ruled his kingdom and enjoyed his wife, Adea. However at the end of her first pregnancy she died in childbirth in late 2125, leaving the king grieving.
    Meanwhile Ur-Gigir, the king's smooth-talking nephew, returned to Lagash (already tributary to Uruk) for another round of diplomatic talks. [see Lagash below].

City-State of Ur Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ur-Nammu, 1st King of the III Dynasty, favored of Nanna
    At Ur-Nammu's word more infantry were trained and the first units of battle carts equipped. Sewers were dug throughout Ur. After supervising a census of all inhabitants, animals and property, he defended his kingdom.
    The king's brother Elulu was sent on a diplomatic mission to the riverfront settlement of Babylon, offering the astonished elders no less than King Ur-Nammu for a royal marriage. The head elder had a rather free-spirited daughter available, and gave her (with a sigh of relief) to Elulu along with an economic treaty. Elulu brought her back to Ur for marriage to the king, then spent time with his own wife Kullaa, producing twins (boy & girl) in 2122.

City-State of Lagash Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ur-Babba, King of Lagash, favored of Bau
   King Ur-Babba still ruled his domain, but seethed at paying half his income to Uruk because of his tributary status, which he was determined to change as soon as possible. He ordered hundreds more infantry trained as well as a unit of archers to rain death from a distance. Gold was invested in designing new tactics and equipment. An army was assembled in the countryside under his cousin Ur-Ningirsu - the most skilled general of Lagash in centuries - to protect both the croplands as well as Lagash itself.
    When Ur-Gigir of Uruk returned to Lagash, he noted grimly the extensive fieldworks and army encamped in Abadan where previously only peasants had tilled the land. Upon his arrival at court, Ur-Babba of Lagash spoke to him: "This time you do not have an army with you, nor are we so unprepared," he stated, "tell your uncle that Lagash pays no more tribute." Ur-Gigir started to reply but the king pointed toward the door. "Go! Do not return until you can treat with us as equals." Ur-Gigir bowed, turned and left the Lagash court, returning to Uruk to consult with his brother. (Diplomacy-in-force, i.e. bringing an army with you, works on neutrals who can't do much about it. An NPN will be angry and humiliated, and will militarize to prevent a repeat of the intimidation. NPNs require respect and treatment as equals.)

Traders of Dilmun Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Jafar, First of the Council
    Jafar sent colonists, plus tools and buiding materials to the pacified settlement of Magan. Under the supervision of Mansour, Sword of the Council, the additional population built new homes and shops, expanding the site to a full city. Jafar spent much gold on terracing and irrigating the island's hills and flatlands to increase food production, using as slave labor the hill folk taken from Mand and Bandar the previous year. Finally, and with great ceremony, a regular ferry service was begun between the port of Dilmun and a sheltered cove on the nearby Qatar coast.
    Jafar used the new ferry to cross into Qatar along with an escort of several hundred skirmishers. He began meeting with tribal leaders and offering himself as husband for the daughter of a Qatari chieftan. After several years of talks and travel from camp to camp, the tribesmen agreed to align with Dilmun, with Jafar marrying into a powerful clan. He next headed north into Dharan, taking his bride with him. However their Qatari guide didn't know the empty sands between Qatar and Dharan as well as he thought, and the group soon found themselves lost in the trackless waste, rationing water and food. By the time some Dharan herders chanced upon them, scores of Dilmun warriors had died of dehydration, Jafar among them, having been giving his water to his young wife, now widowed among strangers. Jafar's furious retainers saw to the death of their fool of a guide.

    Meanwhile Mansour, after the expansion of Magan was finished, moved inland to the grassy patches of Oman where nomads tended their herds. The Sword of the Council was no diplomat, but he had a thousand infantry with him which helped impress the chiefs, plus his own initimidating size. Declaring himself available for marriage to a chieftan's daughter, he impressed the strongest chief, known as "One Eye" for a battle scar that ran from hairline to chin. One Eye saw in Mansour a younger version of himself, and pledged fealty to Dilmun.
    When Mansour, new wife and warriors returned to Magan they learned of the death of Jafar, and that the Council had quickly met and chosen one of its number to be the new First.

Kingdom of Elam Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Kutik-Inshushinak, King of Elam
    The king ordered a network of irrigation ditches and wells dug to increase agricultural production, especially with the the capital having been expanded. Kitik-Inshushinak then an army of over 2,500 into Mand, not to conquer but to show them the power of Elam to protect them from the Dilmun raiders. He proposed marriage between himself and the daughter of one of the more powerful hill tribes, and the chief accepted, convincing the council of tribes to pay tribute to Elam.
    His nephew Ukku-Tanhish collected a mix of infantry and skirmishers from rural garrisons, and stood ready (and eager) to defend Elam against aggression.

Kingdom of Gutia Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Erridupizir, King of Gutium
    Erridupizier continued improving the rural areas, building gravel roads and bridging minor rivers to enable harvests and herds to reach consumers faster, thereby reducing waste. That underway, he secluded himself in the pleasure wing of his palace with his young Persian wife Farideh, and although she miscarried in 2125 after falling in the baths (her attendants put to death for not catching her) she bore daughters in both 2124 and 2123.
    Meanwhile his malformed brother Kaveh (bent posture, milky eye and dragging club foot) was ignored by the king, perhaps as punishment for his diplomatic failure in Diyala the previous year. He took to spending most of his waking hours drinking in taverns (his sleeping hours were oft on the floor of the same taverns) finding an audience (as long as he kept buying rounds) as he bemoaned his fate and the cruelty of the gods.


Birdman with Snakes artifact 
(amulet?) found in excavation

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.

City-State of Namazgadepe Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Jamaspa, King of Namazgadepe
    King Jamaspa saw to more strengthening of regional defenses, and the construction of a light trade galley to increase trade with Gonur. Having heard rumors of Indus Valley cities recording language using marks or impressions, he hired anyone who had ideas how to do that. It seemed like it could be important.
    Jamaspa traveled to Bactria for another attempt at diplomacy, again offering himself for a royal marriage, as well as considerable gold to sweeten the deal. The strongest tribal chief bartered for over a year before agreeing to align with Namazgadepe. Next (taking his young bride with him) he took a boat downriver to the settlement of Koi Krylgan to meet with its elders.
    Unfortunately, he had neither marriage nor gold to offer, and they became angry, declaring he was wasting their time, and ordered him to leave. Discouraged (and having been humiliated before his new wife) he returned to Namazgadepe and found comfort in her arms. Towards the end of 2121 she gave birth to a son, but died several days later of a high fever. This was the second wife he'd lost; like his fellow king in Gonur, he cursed the gods.
    Meanwhile the king's twin (fraternal) brother Frasaostra ruled the kingdom in Jamaspa's absence while enjoying his wife, siring a daughter in 2125 and another in 2121. Clearly he had the favor of the gods.

City-State of Gonur Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Oir Karnesh, King of Gonur
    King Karnesh ordered another major increase in public works to further the productivity of the cultivated land, and strengthened its defenses as well. He then ruled his kingdom and spent time with wife Dughdh-v from Khopet Dagh, having a daughter in 2124. Dughdh-v became pregnant again in 2122 but bore a stillborn baby, dying herself during the very difficult birth. Karnesh, like his fellow king in Namazgadepe, cursed the gods.
    While all the above was transpiring, the king's brother Uxra brought Humay, his bride from the Merv settlement, back along the trade route to Gonur. He then followed it further east until it crossed into the rugged wilderness of Tadzik, where he met with the hill tribes. Having nothing to offer (and being a middling diplomat) he could not persuade them to ally.


City of Harappa

Literacy (glyphs) exists throughout the Indus Valley civilization.

City-State of Harappa Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Yashodharman, King of Harappa
    Yashodharman again traveled with only his retainers to the City-State of Rupar, where he met with its ruler King Rupawalla for very lengthy diplomatic talks. [see Rupar below]

    Meanwhile, Asoka "the Feared" and his army of over 9,000 mixed infantry and skirmishers headed back to Und, then followed the trade route south through Afghanistan to the mountainous border with Ghazni. He ordered a raid but the Ghazni hillmen were poor and had little of value to steal. The hill chiefs sent runners to alert their leige lord, who was a feudal ally of Mohenjo-Daro. He in turn sent runners to take word to Mohenjo-Daro and his liege lord, King Akbar Karzai.
    Again following the trade route, in late 2125 Asoka led his army through the mountains to conquer, but Ghazi's lord Jahan Din, a formidable warrior himself, having been alerted by the raid, was defending in fortifications with about 2,000 militia. Asoka's first invasion was driven back in confusion with hundreds killed on either side. In early 2124 the Harappans had regrouped and tried again, this time not so overconfident, and while the locals fought almost to extinction they were overwhelmed. Jahan Din's body was not found; it was assumed he fled when the day was lost. Asoka installed a lesser Ghazni chieftan as proxy ruler.

    In late Spring of 2123, once the winter snows melted from the southern mountain passes Asoka launched repeated raids into the farmland of Bauluch. Despite being on alert due to the news from Ghazni, the garrison commander (a minor noble who bought his commission and up until now had an easy posting chasing the occasional bandit) was consistantly outmanuvered by the veteran Harappans, who made off with much gold and other valuables, causing extensive destruction in their wake.
    In early 2122, Asoka having taken the measure of the Mohenjo-Daro defenders, marched his army into Bauluch. The Harappans outnumbered the region's garrison better than 4-to-1; even so it took hard fighting before the last field fort surrendered. Asoka now turned his formidable army towards Mohenjo-Daro itself for an all-out assault upon that city.

Harappan army storms
city of Mohenjo-Daro

    The Harappans faced three thousand defenders in Mohenjo-Daro led by King Akbar Karzai, who was even a better general than Asoka although with far less warriors at his command. Three times the Harappans rushed the walls of the city, hundreds of men falling to a storm of short-bow arrows, hurled javelins and slung rocks before getting close enough to make an effective reply: the fire from their more numerous short bows and slings in turn dropping defenders by the hundreds screaming from the battlements.
    Twice Akbar was able to reinforce threatened areas where Harappans had taken sections of wall. The third assault there were just too few men of Mohenjo-Daro remaining, and the Harappans gained the walls in multiple places, some working their way down to open the main gates. Fighting continued within the city, causing significant destruction, buying
time for the King and royal family to escape to the light trade galleys in the harbor and to flee downriver, there being no Harappan ships to stop them.
    In taking the city, the Harappans had lost over 1,500 killed and twice that wounded. Asoka had wished the royal family had been caught and executed, to prevent further resistance. However his men had taken the city's extensive stores of food intact, as well as the treasury ("damn, almost empty!" he growled) and University, its scholars found hiding fearfully in the library.
    Leaving a garrison, Asoka moved the rest of his army back to Bauluch to live off the conquered land and let his thousands of wounded heal.

City-State of Rupar Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Rupawalla, King of Rupar
    Rupawalla, noting the Harappan conquests to the west, invested in improving the quality of the army. Unemployed laborers and the prisoners taken by Sahiwalla in the conquest of Sukkur were put to work digging irrigation ditches, wells and levees.
    Not unexpectedly, King Yashodharman of Harappa returned on a state visit, this time with an intriguing offer: both he and his all-conquering brother Asoka would marry noblewomen of Rupar, thus linking the two city-states. Negotiations between the kings once again lasted for years with much gluttonous feasting and drinking, hunting expeditions and fishing on the river, i.e. male bonding stuff. Eventually Rupawalla agreed, calling Yashodharman his brother. The two kingdoms would act in concert, each king begin sovereign in his own realm.
    Meanwhile Sahiwalla stood ready to command the army of Rupar should it be necessary, but it wasn't.

City-State of Ganweriwala Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Chandra the Magnificent, King of Ganweriwala
    Chandra, noting with increasing unease the growing empire of the Harappans, poured much wealth into improving the training and equipment of the army. Surplus city population was levied to build mills and barns in the farmland. The king then ruled his domain and his Edrosian wife. She miscarried in 2124, but birthed a girl in 2123 and a boy in 2122.
    Meanwhile his son Kosavari returned to Edrosia and spent years there (without his own wife, alas for him) at court until the Edrosian lords signed a treaty of economic alliance.

City-State of Mohenjo-Daro Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Akbar Karzai, King of Mohenjo-Daro
    Akbar ordered much gold invested in improving his military, and grain stored for future needs. He then ruled his kingdom and spent time with his wife Laila, siring a boy in 2125 and another in 2124. An underweight, frail daughter was born in 2123, Laila having had several fevers during her pregnancy.
    In 2123 Harappan raiders began savaging the farmlands of Bauluch almost at will, followed by full-scale invasion in 2122 and assault upon Mohenjo-Daro itself in 2121. [see Harappa above] Akbar and his family barely escaped the capital as it fell, boarding a light trade galley and together with a score of similar boats fled downriver towards the Gulf of Oman.

    The king's cousin Hakin, oft described as "silver-tongued" and already in Registan, met briefly with the nomadic tribal chiefs and talked them into drawing closer to Mohenjo-Daro (which they recanted after later events). Hakin then headed south into Bauluch, by mid-2124 acquiring a thousand of the regional garrison for diplomacy-in-force. Continuing south along the trade route to sparsely-populated Carmania, Hakin spoke of alliance and offered himself for marriage. Despite differences in language and religion, he convinced a powerful nomad chief to become a feudal ally, and to provide his younger sister as a bride.
    In mid-2121 word reached Hakin of the disasters that befell his people. He sat heavily, head in his hands, stunned by the news, while his officers stood shocked and silent.

Traders of Dholavira Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Harshal, First of the Council
    Harshal ordered more pentaconter war galleys built at the city's shipyards and put under the command of Tanish, Sword of the Council, who patroled the ocean around the island of Kutch. Much terracing was done on the island and wells dug to put additional land in agricultural use.
    Harshal then married a daughter of a local wealthy merchant, who delivered a girl in 2124. Unfortunately a second pregnancy ended in the death of both mother and child the following year, leaving Harshal devastated.

City-State of Lothal Seafaring Bronzeworking Monarchy
Abar ap Zed, King of Lothal
    Abar ap Zed ordered a half-dozen trade galleys built at the municipal arsenal, and at a lengthy Council meeting it was decided to which routes the galleys would be assigned. Abar then ruled and spent time with his wife Abeena (who'd been brought from Jats by this time) siring a son in 2121.
    Ben ap Yed, cousin of the King, escorted two lovely young women of Jats to Lothal to be wives for himself and Abar. He then traveled to the wilderness of Anhivarta to entreat with the Neolithic tribes living there. He was a middling diplomat, and there were differences in both language and religion, but his prowess as a warrior with spear and sword deeply impressed the locals. However halfway through his visit Kumatturk, brother to the King of Chera arrived and convinced the chiefs to back off from becoming feudal allies of Lothal and instead (grudgingly) only agree Lothal had some slight claim to their loyalty.


Ganges Valley city

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.

City-State of Hastinapura Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Lakhimpur, King of Hastinapura
    Lakhimpur spent much gold and manpower to advance cultivation of the surrounding wilderness. He then ruled his kingdom and did his best to produce royal children, siring a boy in 2123, then a girl and another girl in 2121.
    His younger brother Rampjur returned to Tarain to entreat (or nag) its leaders into yet closer ties to Hastinapura. He even offered himself in royal marriage (quite the sacrifice for a man who enjoyed the upscale brothels) which was accepted and the region, despite different language and religion, fully joined the kingdom.

City-State of Atranjikhera Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Kali-Ra, King of Atranjikhera
    Kali-Ra directed continuing work on cultivating the Vasta wilderness, and municipal sewers to be installed in Atranjikhera itself. That begun, he returned to the river settlement of Kampilya, meeting with his wife's family who ruled that village. A poor diplomat, he was nevertheless persistant, hanging around for years until they agreed to join his kingdom. Satisfied, he returned to his palace in Atranjikhera, finally getting some quality wife time, and siring a daughter in 2121.
    The king's cousin Nadi-Sim, only slightly better as a persuader, traveled to Jihjhoti, hoping to convince the hill tribes to align with Atranjikhera, but their deep suspicion of outsiders resulted in no progress; at least they weren't hostile. Discouraged, he returned home to his wife Jorha from Avanti, but their nights together did not produce a child.

City-State of Kaushambi Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Kusa, King of Kaushambi
    Kusa, pretty much the master of sweet-talking, crossed the Vidhya mountains with over 3,000 mixed infantry and skirmishers for some diplomacy-in-force with the Neolithic tribes in Kosala. Intimidated and awed by the city-state's warriors, they agreed to pay tribute to Kaushambi.
    Kusa then took his army east into Pundra, meeting with the more suspicious hill tribes there. He won them over, and they too agreed to pay tribute. Between his successes in Kosala and Pundra, the king had gained a monopoly on the lucrative ivory trade around his kingdom. If there was a god of luck, he must be on Kusa's side.
    The king's older cousin Jagdish headed for the river settlement of Varanasi, hoping to overcome his middling diplomatic skills by offering himself as groom for a noble marriage. The locals agreed to pay tribute, although all they had to offer was produce, fish and woven cloth. Jagdish and his new wife (the daughter of the leader of the settlement) returned to Kaushambi where he held court and ruled, while she roamed the city awe-struck at its size.


(Indian subcontinent south of Vindhya Mountain range, plus Ceylon)
rural snake worship shrine

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.

Kingdom of Chera Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Nedum Cheralathan, King of Chera
    King Nedum, having heard tales from sailors that kingdoms to the West of a method of recording knowledge, hired large numbers of artists, scholars, wise men and philosophers to design such for Chera. Nedum then ruled his kingdom and enjoyed his Pandyan wife Kannagi. Her first pregnancy resulted in a stunted, often-sickly son who died at age 3. However by then the couple had had two more children: another boy in 2123 and a girl in 2122.
    The king's brother Kumatturk went to Nasik to meet with the untrusting Neolithic-level forest tribes living there. He had neither gold nor royal marriage to offer, nor expertise with weaponry to impress and there were language and religious differences. It all spelt trouble just waiting to happen, and when he accidentally insulted the tribal beliefs only the Cheran skirmishers accompanying him let Kumatturk escape the enraged tribesmen, who harried the Cherans all the way to the border with Anhivarta.
    Which is where he wanted to go anyway, but when he arrived in 2123 he found Ben ap Yed, cousin of the King of Lothal, already there trying to persuade the locals to align with Lothal. For two years Kumatturk worked at convincing the hill tribes to favor Chera, and while that didn't happen, instead of becoming feudal allies of Lothal the local chiefs backed off to agree Lothal only had a possible claim on them. Somewhat satisfied, Kumatturk realized he was unable to return home peacefully, his path blocked by the still-vengeful (they hold a grudge a really long time) Nasik warriors.
    In 2121 (shortly after his firstborn son died) Nedum traveled to Malabar to the court of his feudal ally Palaik Kantamanar for further talks. His brother Kamatturk was to meet him there to assist, but after waiting a month the king gave up and handled negotiations on his own. Astonishingly they were successful, and Malabar henceforth paid tribute to Chera.

Kingdom of Chola Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Ellalan Chola, King of Chola
    Already in Vengi, King Ellalan continued to talk to the pastoral nomads there, his native wife helping to overcome differences in language and religion. He had neither marriage nor wealth to offer, but after five years of negotiations, eating of sheep and drinking of rather poor quality beer, Ellalan convinced the nomads to pay tribute to Chola.
    Meanwhile, the King's cousin Ilametcenni and his annoyed but eventually supportive Seylanese bride worked the Neolithic hill tribes of Sri Lanka. Helpfully, they spoke Tamil and were Naga worshippers like Ilametcenni, and the most poweful chieftan became a feudal ally, securing Cholan access to the island's ivory.
    At the end of 2121, several merchants accompanied by a small group of tradesmen appeared at the palace asking for audience with the king or heir. They seemed quite excited, but then discouraged when neither royal was available.

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