Newsfax Turn: #15 ( 2060 - 2056 BC )
September 12, 2017

ANNOUNCEMENTS: New or changed from previous turn will be in red.
My Stats program only accepts whole gp for University investment, and only stores whole nfp leftover at end of turn.
Progress in metallurgy & literacy will be in green and is the situation at the start of the turn.
If your University level is 2 or less you probably aren't producing tech points.
The rules for interacting with migrating tribes are deferred until I have time.
Positions not played for several turns have had a ghost player do the move.

***** On the map Trade Centers for ivory were replaced with elephant icons. This was part of the implemention of Domestication rules which didn't happen due to time constraints. For now treat them as ivory Trade Centers. *****

QUICK SCROLL if you know where you want to go:
Iberia/Southern Gaul
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Aegean Centered
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Greater Mesopotamia <-- Dilmun moved to end of section
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Oxus Valley
Indus Valley
Southern India
Ganges Valley
Tibetan Plateau
Irrawaddy Valley
Southeast Asia



fortified Settlement of Los Millares in Granada

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.
Literacy has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.

Lusitanian Tribes Barbarian Metalworking Oligarchy
Uxentio, Chief of the Council of Lusitanian Clans
    Uxentio had little wealth for investment since his Chiefdom had grown larger than his administrative ability could handle. What was available was invested in experiments with copper alloys and attempts to devise a writing system. the chief then saw to the needs of the clans with Heir Turibas assisting - hopefully between them the realm would be better administered. In early 2059 Uxentio's wife Aretaunin gave birth to another son.

Kingdom of Tartessos Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Tartessian syllabaric alphabet)
Gorgio, King of Tartessos
    Gorgio saved the kingdom's wealth for future needs. Early in the year his cruel stepmother Riana died thus ending her continual scheming. The king then held court and enjoyed his wife, siring two daughters and a son. The king's twin brother (and Heir) Jose was in the Baeleric coastal village of Ses Paisses on a dimplomacy-in-force mission when his anchored ships were surprised by a Nuragic squadron.
    [see Mediterranean Mayhem ]

Celtiberian Tribes Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy
Zeru, Chief of the Council of Celtiberian Clans
    Zeru invested in military quality, devising a writing system.and government hiring. The capital of Cortes received long-overdue improvements. Two hundred men were trained to the sword. All this set in motion, the chief focused on the day to day decisions for the clans.

Artenac Culture Barbarian Metalworking Oligarchy
Vascons, Chief of the Council of Artenac Clans
    Vascons poured the wealth and manpower of the clans into clearing the remaining wilderness in Limousin. Leaving his Heir Carvilius behind to administer, Vascons (taking wife Marie with him) obtained tribute from Aquitaine but had no luck in Gascon.


Central Mediterranean
(Corsica, Sardinia, Italian penninsula & Maghreb area of North Africa)

Etruscan capital of Luni in Tuscany

Literacy has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.

Nuragic Civilization Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Pasquale, Navarch, Lord of Albucci, de facto leader of Nuragic Civilization
    Pasquale was furious when news arrived of Tartessian diplomacy persuading the Baeleric port of Ses Paisses to renounce loyalty to the Nuragic nation. More pentaconter warships were built and large investments were made in naval architecture, efforts to devise a writing system and government hiring. Leaving his assistant Ignace to handle the day to day decisions, Pasquale took five pentaconters to sea along with four trade galleys serving as military transports. the vengeful force arrived at Ses Paisses in late spring 2060. [see Mediterranean Mayhem below]
    ghost move -open for a player

2060 BC
    In Ses Paisses the Tartessian leader Jose was ashore conducting negotiations. Seven Tartessian light trade galleys were anchored in the harbor with crews mostly off duty. In late spring a Nuragic squadron of five pentaconters was approached the harbor accelerating to ramming speed. The surprised Tartessian sailors made haste to get underway but most their galleys had barely cleared the docks when two were rammed and left sinking while three others were scraped their length by bronze rams which sheared off the oars. The captains of the stricken boats surrendered to avoid more bloodshed. Two Tartessian ships managed to escape towards the west.
    Four Nuragic trade galleys then docked and the transported soldiers debarked and secured the port. A pentaconter which had taken damage1 backing out its ram docked next and repairs begun. Pasquale ordered the elders of Ses Paisses who'd changed their loyalty from Nuragic to Tartessos seized and beheaded.

2059 BC
    Pasquale was meeting with new elders in late spring when a Minoan fleet of six pentaconters and five Bull class biremes approached the harbor. the anchored Nuragic ships had been kept in readiness but the crews thanked their gods when the newcomers slowed to safely anchor. Nine Minoan trade galleys and two light galleys then docked and almost two thousand Etruscan infantry debarked and secured the port. Minoan diplomat Arkalokri told Pasquale the Nuragic force could leave unharmed but would not be allowed to stay. A seething Pasquale ordered his troops to board ship and the Nuragic force departed towards the east. Arkalokri began meeting with the village elders.

    Late in the year Minoan vassal Ploion Krafikos of Miletos arrived off Tunis aboard his pentaconter with orders to follow any warships or troop transports leaving the port.

2058 BC
    Back in the Baelerics by early in the new year Arkalokri had overcome language and religious differences and convinced the Ses Paisses elders to pay such tribute to both Minoans and Etruscans - at least whatever the impoverished fishing village could manage. Considering how often the location had changed hands, the Etruscans posted a garrison and the Minoans left behind laborers and equipment for future fortification.
    Also early in the new year Ploion's crew missed scouting2 a Heraklopolitan squadron of pentaconters exiting Tunis during a rain squall. They however soon noticed his ship and doubled back. Their commander Ramses IV had orders to react to any intrusion in the Bay of Tunis. Ploion's galley was rammed and sunk as witnessed by a passing merchant galley from Kytheria.

    Back in the Baelerics in late April the remaining Etruscans boarded the Minoan transports (along with a few score half-starved Tartessian POWs) and the fleet departed Ses Paisses heading southeast into the Bay of Tunis past the coast of Herakleopolis.
    They were scouted and intercepted between Sardinia and Cap Serrat by seven pentaconters commanded by Ramses IV. The Minoan warships turned to shield the trade galleys and both forces closed at speed. The Egyptians rammed and sank one Minoan pentaconter while damaging another as well as a bireme. However the better trained Minoans sank two Herakleopolitan pentaconters and inflicted damage upon four others. Ramses IV was badly shaken and signalled retreat toward Tunis. Fteriku - who needed to protect the transports - signalled his ships to resume course for the Etruscan port of Luni.
    Once the Etruscans disembarked the Minoan trade galleys left with Arkalokri while Fteriku headed back to the Gulf of Tunis with five pentaconters and five biremes - one of each at reduced capabilities due to damage.

2057 BC
    The Herakleopolitan squadron had returned to the Bay of Tunis - earlier damage having been repaired3 over the winter - and spotted the Minoan fleet. Ramses IV knew how another open-sea engagement would likely go and so ordered a return to Tunis. The Minoan fleet was likewise aware of the Egyptians and followed. Knowing from intel received in Luni that Tunis lacked walls (and therefore harbor defenses) Fteriku left his damaged galleys to keep watch and ordered his eight undamaged ships into the port hoping to finish off the Herakleoplitan navy.
    Ramses IV stationed his five pentaconters to engage the Minoans in the narrow harbor mouth. The tactic worked at first, one Minoan war galley being holed while another and a bireme were each oar-sheared by rams that raked along one side. However the better trained sailors of Crete sank one Egyptian ship and damaged three others. A dismayed city population watched as in turn each of their boats were trapped and rammed. Many crew drowned but some reached shore including Ramses IV who emerged from the filthy harbor water vowing revenge.
    While anchored in the outer harbor the damaged galleys were patched enough to survive open seas. Fteriku did not wish to be in the harbor at nightfall and so signalled the fleet to head out. For the rest of the year and much of the next traders reported being stopped by Minoan ships, boarded and then allowed to continue once it was evident they were carrying cargo rather than soldiers.

1 in L38 nonwarships have a defensive combat value to calculate the results of damage one side inflicts upon the other. It is therefore possible for a warship to take damage (structural) when ramming or oar-shearing a nonwarship. Stuff happens.
2 in L38 to determine if one ship(fleet) sees the other the commander makes a combat check (roll d10 vs combat stat) with modifiers such as the other ship(fleet) attempting to Evade.
3 in L38 damaged ships that are in a controlled port of at least settlement-sized are assumed to be repaired over winter (cost assumed included in Support).

(Proto-) Etruscans Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Vulca Ulthese, King of Etruscans
    Vulca equipped surplus population and sent them to Narce to expand the settlement to a true city. He charged his son (and Heir) Abramo with conducting a census to more efficiently collect taxes. the king then traveled to Latium and convinced its lord to proclaim Latium fully part of the Etruscan kingdom before leaving for his estate.
    Abramo cared not a bit for work and it was surprising he saw the census to completion. He spent his time on fishing excursions, feasting, drinking and enjoying his wife Pasqua, who birthed a son and two daughters.
    Meanwhile the warrior Ignasco collected nearly two thousand swordsmen and awaited the arrival of Minoan transports. In late summer 2060 a large number of Minoan war and trade galleys arrived at Luni. Once Ignasco and his Etruscans finished boarding, the Minoan fleet headed west.
    [see Mediterranean Mayhem above]

Apennine Culture Civilized Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Crassus, Lord of Scoglio, de facto leader of Apennine Culture
    Crassus ordered a little gold spent on pretty much everything. Most of the Apennine wealth was expended continuing improvements to Spoleto. Crassus then considered vassal Victor Secundus of Verona who'd revoked his feudal oath. Such could not be tolerated, and so sent Prince Euripedes to teach Victor actions have consequences.
    Euripedes marched north with nearly 3,000 mixed infantry and orders to fight as long as necessary to pacify Verona. The army crossed the Po into Lombardy then turned east to invade Verona in early spring 2059. Meanwhile the Lord of Verona had summoned all able-bodied men to reinforce his household troops, providing him almost 2,500 mixed infantry. Euripedes fought three campaigns with his army repeatedly taking more casualties than the locals. In the third a flung javelin struck Euripedes in the shoulder and he was persuaded by his officers to fall back into Lombardy. The Prince - his ranks seriously depleted - sent word to Crassus requesting reinforcements.

Bihac points towards Delphi where Phython is said to dwell

    In 2057 a charasmatic leader who called himself Bihac began wandering eastern Verona speaking of the great serpent-dragon Phython. It was the strength of Phython, he preached, that gave the warriors of Verona their victory. After several years he'd gained a core of followers.

City-State of Herakleopolis Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (hieroglyphic pictographs and hieratic script)
Tetmoses IV, King of the X Dynasty, favored of Heryshef
    Tetmoses IV lavishly funded the University and the naval arsenal where more pentaconters were built. While Heir Poti saw to the defense of the realm, Tetmoses then held court dealing with the day to day administration of the realm, curiously he neglected his comely wife. A large squadron of pentaconters was put under command of lieutenant Ramses IV and sent to the Bay of Tunis with orders to react to any threat from the sea. It would prove a fateful decision. [see Mediterranean Mayhem ]


(Balkans, Aegean Sea littoral & Anatolia)

City of Troy in Bithnia overlooking the Hellespont

Literacy exists throughout this area as shown below.
Hittite and Minoan temples - both religions qualifying as "organized" - exist on the map but do not have Priesthood positions.

Illyrians Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Cabar, King of Illyrians
    Cabar again funded efforts to recruit more citizens to government service. In the homeland more agriculture-boosting improvements were set underway. The king next addressed the problem of the wandering charasmatic leader who called himself Bihac. He'd already attracted a core of followers and the kingdom's pagan priests were complaining to their monarch. At Cabar's invitation Bihac came to the palace to visit and spent several years as a guest of the crown. After a loud argument in midsummer 2058 the preacher was not seen again.
    Cabar also spent much time with his bride Teuta, siring a small, sickly boy followed by a more robust one. His widowed Heir Pavla married Teuta's sister Trieuta resulting in two daughters and a son.

Achaean Greeks Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy - literate (Linear B glyphs)
Opites, King of Achaeans
    Opites again invested in infantry quality resulting a number of improvements in equipment. Additional defenses were built in the homeland, the walls around Mycennae were strengthened and another 800 men trained in seigecraft. Lieutenant Diores brought the new recruits to Thessaly and with them joined the army led by Heir Asaeus. It was rumored they were expecting another Trojan invasion.
    Rumor proved correct. [see Troy]

City-State of Troy Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy - literate (Luwian hieroglyphics)
Antenor, King of Troy IV
    From the field Antenor again sent his orders to Troy. Six hundred men were trained to the sword and two hundred to the bow, and a thousand learned engineering and its military uses. Antenor's next concern was the mutinous soldiers blocking his supply line to Troy. The King, his nephew (and Heir) Eurytion and lieutenant Caletor "the Scarred" moved toward the rebel camp by the Hellespont ferries. Their combined command numbered over 3,000 mixed infantry (the vast majority heavy spearmen) and 800 archers. the mutineers led by the charasmatic Axylus numbered about half that. They fought to the death (that being the punishment for mutiny anyway) inflicting about 600 casualties on the king's men. Fate brought Axylus and King Antenor in close proximity and they slew each other with simultaneous sword thrusts.

    The warrior Eurytion was now king and proclaimed his older son Ibrius would become Heir upon coming of age. In midsummer Prince Kterifku - a Minoan married to Eurytion's sister Andromanche - arrived from Troy with reinforcements. In late spring of 2059 Eurytion, Caletor and their combined five thousand warriors marched west through Macedon accompanied by vassal Iapyx III of Moldavia with skirmishers. Two men posing as camp followers were caught spying by suspicious guards. One was killed but the other despite being wounded escaped in the darkness.
    In summer the warriors of Troy invaded Thessaly. Awaiting them were nearly 3,500 Acheans and four stone forts. Their feudal vassal Deipyrus of Epirus had brought another eight hundred mixed infantry to help. The armies were matched in training and equipment with similar mixes of infantry types, archers and - new for both sides - seige engineers.
    The battle began as usual with archers exchanging volleys while infantry closed to melee. Trojan seige engineers were able to collapse one fort by undermining it but their Greek equivalents dug counter-mines; men fought underground with knives, pick-axes and shovels in the near-dark. Above ground the Trojans then tried to storm the forts with ladders only to be hurled back repeatedly with horrific losses. Eurytion was crushed when a scaling ladder laden with men was pushed away from a wall and fell squarely upon him. Caletor ordered withdrawal before the army was consumed. The Trojans evacuated thousands of wounded with them but left nearly 1,300 dead behind on the battlefield. The Acheans and Epriots had suffered less than half as many casualties.

    Caletor sent word to Ibrius of the king's death and affirmed his own loyalty. Prince Kterifku acted as informal Regent until Ibrius came of age in 2058 and was crowned King of Troy to widespread relief no struggle for the throne had ensued.

Hitties Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Luwian hieroglyphics)
Sapalulme, King of the Hittites
    Sapalulme's officers demonstrated new infantry tactics and the homeland garrison was increased. Thereafter the king ruled his realm while Heir Arnuwandas saw to its defense. Arnuwandas's sickly son died in 2059 and the Heir himself soon thereafter of too much drink. Sapalulme proclaimed Khattasulis (whom he despised but was the only remaining royal male) the new Heir.
    Lieutenant Leranata traveled to sparsely populated Cappadocia where he convinced the locals to pay tribute in silver in exchange for a chief's daughter marrying the king.

Minoans Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (Linear A glyphs)
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Ugarit
Alogys, First of the Council
    With Council agreement Alogys spent much gold trying to hire more scribes for government service and to increase agricultural yield in Crete. Two more biremes were built (named the Bull of Thapsos and the Ionian Bull) and the new school for Minoan missionaries graduated its first class. Alogys then ruled while enjoying his sister-wives Malia and Melisa, resulting in three daughters.
    Second of the Council Fteriku was given command of a large fleet of warships and trade galleys. With him was Arkalokri with gifts to assist his diplomacy including a costly robe embroidered with purple thread in the shape of a bull. The ships left Knossos heading west.
    [see Mediterranean Mayhem ]

    Ally Tobglak of Phylakopi and fiance Fylla of the Minoan royal family traveled to the Nuragic capital of Albucci for their wedding, bringing all the supplies for a grand reception with them as part of the continuing effort to impress that nation with Minoan wealth. Although Nuragic leader Pasquale wasn't there - he'd departed earlier in the year - a public ceremony was held anyway early in 2059 in Albucci's central square. The marriage was followed by many speeches (the groom emphasizing the common seafaring bond between the two peoples) and finally much feasting and drinking. The citizens of Albucci were invited to join the celebration and many accepted. Life is good thought Tobglak as he gazed at his bride, then suddenly clutched his chest and collapsed dead across the high table.
    Minoan vassal Ploion Krafikos had been at the wedding tragedy. He left in early summer when several resident Minoan associates were arrested. Ploion's departure proved fortunate because several months later Pasquale returned still furious at his humiliation by the men of Crete and ordered all Minoans expelled from Nuragic territory by year's end.

    Vassal Karfi of Kythera traveled to Tell Abu Hawam in Caanan to collect the half-dozen elephants waiting years for pickup. Hazor leader Sisera received a robe with an elephant embroidered in purple as apology for the long delay. Karfi unloaded the beasts in western Sicily where a preserve was established then headed to Tunis for mercantile affairs.



Egyptian capital of Memphis in Lower Egypt on the Nile

Knowledge of bronzeworking exists throughout the Nile Valley.
Literacy exists throughout the Nile Valley as shown below.

Egyptian Priesthood Civilized Bronzeworking theocracy - literate (hieroglyphic pictographs and hieratic script)
Anashepsut, High Priestess of Sobek
    Anashepsut sought to attract the pious to both religous and secular service but few were interested. In Tunis she organized the expansion of a temple enclosure into a full complex; after her death in late 2059 the local priests saw the work to completion. High Priest Mabaharek crossed the Red Sea to Yemen where he founded a temple shrine.
    Priesthood evangelists in the port of Sawakin converted the last of the pagans to worship the Egyptian pantheon. However in rural Danakil angry peasants incited by local shamen caused the missionaries to flee for their lives.

Middle Kingdom Egypt Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (hieroglyphic pictographs and hieratic script)
Ipu, Queen of the VIII Dynasty, favored of Ptah
    Ipu investmented in military quality and funded the University. Palace guards took away inmates from various prisons for purposes unknown - enslavement was rumored. The Queen then held court. Meanwhile the Queen's younger brother (and Heir) Kanefer oversaw another wave of colonists restoring empty farms and towns in Middle Egypt. Diplomat Meru spent years in the Eastern Desert but ultimately convinced the stubborn nomad chiefs to pledge fealty to the VIII Dynasty. The port of Mersa Gawasis was visited by a trade galley from half-mythical Dholavira.
    In 2057 tragedy struck when royal sisters Neferu and Pawah were among those who died when a flux swept the palace.

Kingdom of Nubia Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Maraga II, King of Nubia
    Maraga funded the University and investmented in military quality. Surplus population was outfitted and sent to the coast of Suakin where they built Suanos, giving Nubia a port on the Red Sea complete with a surrounding wall. More land in Aswan was put to the plough. The king then ruled his realm and with wife Terufiya produced a boy but no children thereafter.
    Meraga's mother Candace and two other royal women died of various ailments over the years. Shamen pointed to this plus the queen's lack of pregnancies as proof angry spirits were punishing the king for turning the kingdom away from the faith of their ancestors. Despite this pronouncement charasmatic lieutenant Taraga persuaded the last believers (other than the shamen themselves of course) in the old faith to abandon their dependence on primitive beliefs. Perhaps a more sophisticated religion appropriate for a modern nation ...

City-State of Meroe Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Arakamani, King of Meroe
    Perhaps worried about his neighbors, Arakamani commanded the homeland be heavily fortified. Sennar received extensive agriculture-related improvements. Egyptian priests fully converted the Red Sea port of Sawakin to their religion. That port was also was visited by a trade galley from half-mythical Dholavira. The king ruled effectively to the surprise of those who remembered him as a hard-drinking layabout Heir.


(including Horn of Africa)

Sabaean capital of Sa'na in Yemen

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area except as noted below.
Literacy exists throughout this area as shown below.

Land of Punt Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Finja, King of Punt
    Finja offered recruitment bonuses hoping to attract more scribes for government work. The University was funded and four hundred men recruited and trained to the sword. Most of the land's wealth was saved for future use. The king declared his sister Lea would be Regent if he should die before his son Alina came of age. Finja thereafter ruled his kingdom and doted on his children.

Sabaeans Civilized Metalworking Centralized Monarchy - literate (Zabar script glyphs)
Shu, King of Sa'na
    Shu spent heavily on military quality, experiments with alloys of copper and recruiting scribes for government work. Laborers with equipment were sent to Asir to clear its wilderness for productive farming. The capital of Sa'na received improvements while the settlement of Ma'Rib was expanded into a city. The king then ruled his lands with assistance from his Heir (and nephew) Ramman.
    Meanwhile Prince Sami (formerly of Sheba) and lieutenant Haubas continued traveling hamlet to hamlet throughout the homeland encouraging the rural folk to turn away from Arabian Paganism. Desperate priests again incited mobs and during one riot Sami was killed. Elsewhere in Yemen where a majority had converted to worship of the Egyptian pantheon a temple shrine was built without incident.


(Eastern Mediterranean shore then west to Subartu)

City-State of Ugarit on the Eastern Mediterranean

Literacy exists throughout Greater Levant (cuneiform).
Levant & Naga Pagan temples - both religions qualifying as "organized" - exist on the map but do not have Priesthood positions.

City-State of Hazor Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ibiranu, King of Hazor
    Ibiranu again invested in military quality, government hiring and the University. More land in Jordan was put to the plough. The king then ruled and enjoyed his wife Pudukhepa. The king's brothers Niqmepa and Yaqarum continued preaching to Petra's ruling class and doubled the converts to the religion of the Levant.
    In late spring Minoan vassal Karfi arrived to collect the bull elephant and females captured years ago in Syria. After a month of feasting Hazor leader Sisera received a robe with an elephant embroidered in purple as apology for the delay. The beasts were loaded aboard a light trade galley and the ship departed with trumpeting coming from below deck.

City-State of Ugarit Civilized Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Minoans, mutual defense with Subartu
Ibarinum, First of the Council
    Ibarinum invested heavily to improve the military and hire civilians for government work. Post-earthquake repairs contined upon the gilded structure known as the "Great Palace of Yaqarum the Mad" as well as both Ugarit and rural Aleppo. Four hundred men were trained as combat engineers. The First then ruled with the assistance of Second of the Council Agaliba until the summer of 2058 when they both died from bad shellfish eaten in a dockside tavern. Ammitt, Lord Mayor of Ugarit and Talbithra, Viceroy of Aleppo took their places per agreed succession.

Kingdom of Subartu Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Ugarit
Caregin, King of Subartu
    Caregin again invested in both military quality and was successful in attracting more scribes for government recordkeeping. Samosite finally got fresh water and Mosul was further fortified. Next the king married Amadia, the minor noblewoman and mother of his son, then ignored her and other women as well. Palace rumor said he'd picked up a painful disease in a brothel. Whether true or not local healers frequently visited his chambers while priests provided charms but to no avail. Caregin's younger brother (and heir) Vahan became king in 2059 and ruled wisely.


(Mesopotamia & Persian Gulf littoral)

City of Kish on the Euphrates River

Dilmun moved to this section due to events this turn.

Literacy exists throughout Greater Mesopotamia (cuneiform except for Elam which uses Elamite Linear script).

Mesopotamian Priesthood Civilized Bronzeworking theocracy
Shuruppak, High Priest of Innana (Ishtar) at Uruk
    Shuruppak's decreed again large investments in recruitment and training resulting in another graduating class of novice priests. Land trade was approved with Subartu and sea trade with Ganweriwala despite their primitive beliefs. Then High Priest then traveled from Kuwait north to Eshnunna where he oversaw the expansion of its temple complex to temple precinct filling a quarter of the city. High Priestess Salabikh left Kish for rural Mesopotamia where she supervised laborers busy increasing the temple complex into a full temple plantation complete with fields for crops, outbuildings and pastures for livestock.
    Mid-level priests were active in both Kish and Uruk increasing the influence of the Priesthood with the population. Missionaries in Kuwait converted the last Arabian Pagans to worship the pantheon of Zababa and Inanna.

City-State of Kish Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Uruk-Lagash
Jushur II, 2nd King of the VI Dynasty, favored of Zababa
    Jushur II ordered more investment in infantry quality which finally paid off when he was invited to observe the army on manuvers with new tactics. Diyala although only tributary status was improved to increase crop yield as well as fortified which impressed its lord. The king then held court but less frequently as he entered his sixth decade of life. Meanwhile the king's elder son (and Heir) Jushur III traveled to Eshnunna bringing many gifts. After much negotiation that city's lord became a feudal vassal.

State of Uruk-Lagash Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Kish
Nam-mahazi the Golden, King of Uruk and Lagash, favored of Inanna
    Nam-mahazi decided upon investments in military improvements and government hiring. Like the king of Kish he too was invited to observe the army demonstrating new tactics. The University was lavishly funded and surplus population sent to increase the pacified settlement of Kudashan to a friendy port city. Construction of a bridge spanning the Euphrates near Ur was completed. Eight hundred new seige engineers reinforced the army commanded by Heir Puzur-Ili.
    Turning his attention to the south Nam-mahazi decided the Traders of Dilmun had grown over-mighty. A navy was required to fight them so at the king's orders ten pentaconters were built in the shipyards of Susa and put under the command of Prince Utu-Hengal. Eleven trade galleys were constructed in the arsenal of Lagash, laden with provisions and assigned to lieutenant Ilum-Gamil. Heir Puzur-Ili led an army of nine thousand (mostly heavy spearmen) west along the coast, entering Dharan in late summer with battle carts scouting ahead and the trade galleys keeping pace just offshore. The Uruk-Lagash force continued south without attacking and the relieved nomads kept their distance.

    Meanwhile Prince Utu-Hengal had amassed a force of 14 pentaconters and in midsummer began sweeping the Persian Gulf, stopping merchant galleys in the Persian Gulf and seizing those of the Traders. The Dilmun navy of three pentaconters and five biremes under command of Tanurah ("Sword of the Council") was already patrolling around Bahrain. The two fleets mutually scouted each other and closed at speed. Due to rapid expansion the crews of both sides were mostly newly recruited so leadership was very important. Tanurah was a military genius while Utu-Hengal was an average leader. However the Mesopotamians outnumbered the Traders nearly 2 to 1.
    In a sustained battle lasting hours Dilmun lost two pentaconters and two biremes with another bireme damaged by a glancing blow that snapped oars. Uruk-Lagash suffered eight pentaconters sunk and another three left with splintered oars and leaking hulls. ( Many destroyed boats of either side had sustained damage in the initial encounter - often having some or all oars on a side sheared off as the ship turned to avoid being rammed - and were finished off later by intact enemy vessels.) Utu-Hengal signalled his six remaining pentaconters - those intact towing those missing oars - to head back to Lagash. Tanurah's command was down to a pentaconter, two biremes and a damaged bireme. Not knowing if there were other Mesopotamian fleets at sea he signalled a return to Dilmun for repairs before resuming patrol.

    Heir Puzur-Ili's army crossed into Qatar in late spring of 2059. The Qatar nomads owed fealty to Dilmun and dutifully alerted the Traders but were thereafter content to keep their distance while the Mesopotamians marched toward the ferry point. Upon leaving Dharan the army had no line of supply home and was being provisioned by periodic unloadings from lieutenant Ilum-Gamil's transports. Tanurah resumed patrol after the winter and soon found them. Fortunately the four Dilmun warships were also seen and Ilum-Gamil signalled his boats to scatter. Two Uruk-Lagash trade galleys were sunk and three damaged, one of which was overtaken and rammed later. The survivors made their ways to Lagash.

    Despite steady attrition from heatstroke (semi-desert in summer!) Puzur-Ili's men reached the ferry point by the end of August 2059. Unsurprisingly the ferries had been moved. The pentaconters to protect the crossing to Bahrain weren't there. Neither were the trade galleys with supplies and the capacity to take them to the island. When reports of the naval actions reached the Heir he was stunned. His choices were stark: stay and starve, or march back home on steadily reduced rations.
    The Mesopotamian Anabasis ended in autumn 2058 when the men crossed into Kuwait. Nine hundred had died from heat and exhaustion; the route back was marked by bleached bones and discarded equipment. Those who survived gorged themselves eating and drinking. Officers of the Kuwait garrison viewed Puzur-Ili with contempt but to his men he was a hero.

Traders of Dilmun Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Talal, First of the Council
    The Traders had saved much gold while they debated how to spend it. Finally it was decided to spend most of it on the long neglected military. Talal invested heavily in military quality, the defenses of Bahrain were strengthened and a thousand men trained with the sword. Five biremes were constructed thanks to an earlier breakthrough in ship design and put under command of the military genius Tanurah. The First then saw to the day to day running of the nation while Tanurah - "Sword of the Council" - patrolled the waters around Bahrain.
    In the early summer came word of Mesopotamian warships stopping and seizing Dilmun's merchant galleys. [see Uruk-Lagash above]
    ghost move -open for a player



Silk Road marketplace in Gutian capital of Borahshi

Literacy exists throughout this area as shown below.

Kingdom of Gutia Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Gazsi, King of Gutium
    Gazsi saved the nation's wealth for later use and ruled his realm contentedly. A previous recruitment effort for scribes paid off with many hired including several whose ideas made the government more efficient.

Kingdom of Ganweriwala Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Indus glyphs)
Vihana the Magnificent, King of Ganweriwala
    Vihana paid for improvements in rural Baluchistan and sent laborers with tools to start clearing the remaining wilderness so the land could be used for agriculture. Trade was begun with distant (and half-legendary) Subartu via it's river port of Assur. The king then saw to the defense of his lands and spent time with veterans of the great migration from the Indus Valley. The king's son (and Heir) Lakshmana ruled and spent time with his Baluchistani wife Dipti. She birthed a girl and a boy but died in childbirth a year later leaving Lakshmana devastated.
    Prince Dhaval and lieutenant Sandip both spoke of the Indus Valley beliefs to the elite of Bandar and after years more than half had accepted the faith of Ganweriwala.



City of Namazgadepe in Turkmen - foreground slopes downward to Oxus River

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area except as noted below.
Literacy (pictographic symbols) exists throughout this area.

City-State of Namazgadepe Civilized Metalworking Centralized Monarchy
Piyama, King of Namazgadepe
    Piyama nade small investments in military quality and experiments with alloys of copper. Citizens with analytical minds were hired for government service. Once improvements were underway in the homeland the king held court. Meanwhile Crown Prince Nilichi obtained an oath of fealty from the sullen nomad chiefs of Kyzl-Kom. Upon returning home Nilichi learned his father the king, his mother and his younger sister Dylora all drowned when the royal barge capsized during an excursion. The Crown Prince took the throne and was comforted by his wife resulting in a daughter. Nilichi proclaimed his younger brother Zenithar to be his Heir.
    Princess Eresh granted Kara-Khitai autonomy in exchange for tribute and withdrew the garrison. The satrap (a minor noble she appointed) was more than pleased to agree.

City-State of Gonur Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy
Pudha, King of Gonur
    Pudha continued to offer recruitment bonuses for government employment and funded the University. The Tepe Fullol settlement was expanded into a city. Another thousand men were trained as heavy spearmen. The king then led an army of over five thousand mixed infantry to Kophat Dagh where the colonists from Gonur had claimed the waterholes for farm irrigation and were arguing with the local nomads over water rights. The presence of the large force cowed the locals into silence. Meanwhile Bangha, Pudha's twin brother (and Heir) was left in Gonur to rule. He had no aptitude for the job but with his wife sired a girl and a boy.



City of Harappa on the Ravi River (a tributary of the Indus)

Knowledge of bronzeworking exists throughout the Indus Valley civilization.
Literacy (Indus glyphs) exists throughout the Indus Valley civilization.

State of Harappa-Rupar Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy
Abhinabyu, King of Harappa
    Abhinabyu spent more gold hoping to attract yet more scribes into government service. The city of Harappa and rural Sahis both received improvements. A port fortress was constructed near the capital and the University was lavishly funded. Clearing of wilderness for agriculture was completed in Und and began in Afghanistan, Sind and Kashimr. From the Ganges river port of Hastinapura trade was initiated with Atranjikhera and Kaushambi. The king then hosted many tournaments but stood ready to defend his lands.
    Despite obvious apathy royal daughter (and Heir) Asha was ordered to rule. Fortunately Prince Ritpara again helped with administration. Meanwhile master diplomat Manjima "Golden Tongue" aided by Rakesh convinced the lord of Und to join his lands to Harappa-Rupar and retire. In exchange the lord's son was betrothed to Asha.

Traders of Dholavira Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Harvan, First of the Council
    The First persuaded the Council to invest small amounts in military quality, government hiring and the University. Dholavira was expanded and trade initiated with distant Meroe and Egypt. Harvan thereafter attended to the daily decision-making as well as spending time with wife Tianna resulting in two sons. Second of the Council Bahadar commanded a squadron of pentaconters patrolling around Kutch.

City-State of Lothal Seafaring Bronzeworking Monarchy
Cherasan, King of Lothal
    Cherasan invested a little in both religious and secular recruitment efforts. An enormous amount of gold and labor raised the amenities of Lothal to top quality. His son Ethan - now of age - was proclaimed a Prince. The king then ruled and enjoyed his Nasiki wife Chee who became pregnant but died in childbirth leaving Cherasan and Ethan devastated. Heir David helped administer the nation and likewise enjoyed his Nasiki wife Drusa who avoided such a fate while producing four sons.
    Meanwhile master diplomat Goran (another "Golden Tongue") traveled to Nasik where he offered gifts plus marriages to 7 assorted layabout royals. The Neolithic wilderness chiefs were delighted to accept and joined their lands to the city-state.


(Indian subcontinent south of Vindhya Mountain range, plus Ceylon)

Vatteluttu script for recording the Tamil language

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Naga Pagan temples - the religion qualifying as "organized" - exist on the map but do not have Priesthood positions.

Kingdom of Chera Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Chola
Senguttuvan, King of Chera
    Senguttuvan lavished funds upon the scholars supposedly working on a method to record the Tamil language, emphasizing failure would no longer be tolerated. Their minds suddenly focused and the academics soon presented the Vatteluttu alphabet almost identical to what Chola had implemented ten years earlier. After a grueling competition among the royal children the charasmatic Kathik won and was proclaimed a Prince. The king then ruled with the assistance of Heir Adu Kottu Pattu.
    Lieutanant Aricil Kilar put to sea and returned a year later whereupon he joined the king and Heir in running the realm. In early 2056 Senguttuvan died of food poisoning during a banquet and Adu Kottu Pattu became king with his brother Prince Kathik taking his place as Heir. Yet another brother, Selva Kadumko, was proclaimed Prince.

Kingdom of Chola Civilized Metalworking Centralized Monarchy - literate (syllabaric Tamil script)
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Chera
Khanjamar, King of Chola
    Khanjamar's health continued to worsen and the threat from escaped members of the previous royal family went unresolved. Nevertheless eight hundred men were trained as spearmen and along with the king's own guards were given to famed general Sangum and inexplicably dispatched to guard the mountainous border of Vengi with Atranjikhera-controlled Kakatiya. To no one's surprise sickly Khanjamar expired of a "consumptive cough" in early 2059 without an adult Heir. The nobles of the court agreed his widow Vijayaliu would serve as Regent until young royal son Urauyr came of age and she proved to be an excellent administrator.



City of Atranjikhera on the Ganges River

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area except as noted below.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.

City-State of Atranjikhera Civilized Metalworking Centralized Monarchy - literate (Elamite Linear script)
Sagara, King of Atranjikhera
    Sagara invested heavily in military quality and spent a little on religious and government growth. More agriculture-boosting improvements were made it Vatsa. Merchants arrived from upriver with Harappan trade goods - perhaps the sprawling Indus state wanted peace? The king remained wary while ruling his realm. The master diplomat Kunti was negotiating with Jishu of Rajput when that lord abruptly departed for several months to deal with raiders from Juanpor. Jishu returned in good spirits and Kunti obtained an economic treaty by offering Heir Duryodhana as husband for one of the lord's daughters.
    Disturbing news eventually reached the capital: a Cholan army estimated at over two thousand was massed in Vengi across the border from the Atranjikheran-held region of Kakatiya. The resultant uncertainty overshadowed Duryodhana's wedding to Jishu's daughter Rani.

City-State of Kaushambi Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy
Jagadambika, King of Kaushambi
    Jagadambika generously funded scholars to devise a method to record the Elamo-Dravidian language but they argued and made little progess. Six hundred men were trained to the sword or sling. The rather squalid capital received some improvements. The king then ruled with eldest son Rudra at his side learning the arts of administration. Nights were spent with wife Anjali who birthed a sickly girl followed by healthy twin boys who were named to honor past kings. Diplomat Kabir talked the lord of Maghada into paying tribute.
    The king's swordmaster younger brother (and Heir) Jaafar went raiding with four thousand mixed infantry taking the king's next eldest son Vihaan with him. In Rajput the raiders were roughly handled by the region's large militia before retreating back to Jaunpor. In 2058 although exhausted after crossing very high mountains the Heir's force still sent the astonished militia of Sikkim to flight but found nothing worth stealing. The men returned to Juanpur frustrated and grumbling.



Tibetan capital of Lhasa

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.

Kingdom of Zhang Zhung Pastoral-Nomadic Metalworking Monarchy
Huan, King of Zhang Zhung
    Huan yet again invested a little gold into just about everything and it proved successful when a group of officers invited him to watch the infantry practice new tactics. The king then held court and - his wife having died - sampled the palace maidservants, siring a son upon one of them who was unlucky. In 2058 Huan died after a chill worsened to pneumonia. Heir Cong hastened back from Nepal (where he was learning Nepali) and took the throne. Lacking children of his own he proclaimed Huan's eldest son Jian would be his Heir upon coming of age.

Kingdom of Tibet Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Tibetan syllabaric alphabet)
Choenyi, King of Tibet
    Choenyi lavishly funded metalworkers to experiment with alloys of copper and they achieved success. Improvements were made in rural Salween. The king then ruled his holdings and (being a widower) consorted with the palace servant girls getting sons upon two of them. Lieutenant Denghe persuaded vassal Tenzin II of Gtsang to become a full ally in exchange for a daughter marrying Heir Jampa.


(Tibeto-Burman migration from north down the Irrawaddy Valley displaced original Mon-Khmer peoples southward)

Beikthano, oldest Irrawaddy Valley city

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area except as noted below.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.

City-State of Halin Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Pyu script glyphs)
Kanyaza of the Shakya Dynasty, King of Halin
    Kanyaza spent most of the city-state's wealth continuing to clear wilderness in Manipur so the land may be farmed. Two light trade galleys were built for the king's use. Leaving Heir Abhirej to rule, Kanyaza traveled up the swampy Brahmaputra where he offered his daughter Razi Korbaug to the lord of Gaur to obtain his fealty. Lieutenant Pyuirej was yet again sent down the Irrawaddy with two light galleys to explore and returned late 2056 apparently successful.

Kingdom of Maingmaw-Binnaka Civilized Metalworking Monarchies - literate (Pyu script glyphs)
Thomanaya, King of Maingmaw (and Binnaka)
    Thomanaya invested in naval engineering but put most of the kingdom's income towards improving Ava for farming. Thomanaya then held court and ruled wisely. His son (and Heir) Tholomaya married a local noblewoman and sired two daughters.

City-State of Beikthano Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Peshak, King of Beikthano
    Peshak again ordered small investments be made in pretty much everything. The king made the day to day decisions and spent time with his Thatonese wife Mahn; despite being in her 40s she produced two more daughters. Peshak's half-brother (and Heir) Daw tried diplomacy in Lampang offering himself in marraige. Near the end of 2060 a delegation from Funan arrived along with thousands of mixed infantry for diplomacy-in-force. They negotiated from a stronger position and the local lord eventually swore fealty to Funan.


(Viet migration from China starting to displace original Mon-Khmer peoples southward)

Lam Ap royal palace at Tra Kiew

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.

Naga Pagan temples - the religion qualifying as "organized" - exist on the map but do not have Priesthood positions.

Kingdom of Langkasuka Seafaring Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Pallava script glyphs)
Sunisa, King of Langkasuka
    Sunisa allocated small amounts invested in military quality, metalurgy and creating a system to move news quickly - which finally proved successful. The king ruled after marrying a local noblewoman who produced three boys and a girl. Some in the royal court whispered Aom, daughter of previous king Akkarat and heavy hallucinogenic Psilocybin user Arisa seemed ... different.

Kingdom of Funan Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Leab Phnom, King of Funan
    The eunuch Leab Phnom continued improvements to the homeland to boost crop yield. Overland trade was begun with Van Lang. Three light trade galleys were built for lieutenant Prasat who took them to sea, returning to Oc Eo after many years.
    Leab Phnom traveled to Lampang along with Heir Chenru, two teen daughters of the late king and a significant escort. Arriving late 2060 the Funan delegation found the Heir of Beikthano already there negotiating for several months. Leab Phnom (ably assisted by Chenru) offered in marriage Chenru himself and either of the princesses; the local lord eventually swore fealty to Funan.
    On the way back the eunuch was bitten by a venomous snake and died within hours. Chenru was crowned king upon reaching Vyadhapura, and proclaimed his sister Neang Neak to be his Heir - to the shock and diapproval of many nobles.
    In late 2056 feudal vassal Drona met a Vang Lang delegation in Nampung and was given a decorated ivory cylinder. Heading toward Surin he was killed when his party was attacked by brigands. Luckily his brother escaped across the Mekong with the gift.

Kingdom of Lam Ap Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Pallava script glyphs)
Ang Le Bak, King of Lam Ap
    The wealth of Lam Ap was saved for later use. Leaving his brother (and Heir) Ang Bai Bak to rule, King Ang Le Bak obtained tribute in ivory from the strongest chieftan of Preikuk in exchange for his brother marrying a daughter of the chief. Lieutenant Uy Pham inspected all trade ships from Langkasuka before releasing their cargo.

Kingdom of Van Lang Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Thuc Phan of Chan Dynasty, King of Van Lang
    Thuc Phan ordered yet more wealth given to the scholars trying to create symbols to "write" the Viet language, letting them know his patience was near an end. Within a few years they presented to the court the pictographic Chu Nom script. Just the thing for recording a census to collect more taxes! thought Thuc Phan. He then ruled his realm after dispatching several courtiers over the mountains with a decorated ivory cylinder

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