Newsfax Turn: #14 ( 2065 - 2061 BC )
June 28, 2017

ANNOUNCEMENTS: New or changed from previous turn will be in red.
My Stats program only accepts whole gp for University investment, and only stores whole nfp leftover at end of turn.
Progress in metallurgy & literacy will be in green and is the situation at the start of the turn.
If your University level is 2 or less you probably aren't producing tech points.
The rules for interacting with migrating tribes are deferred until I have time.
1. I keep forgetting the limitations of Basic Rules tables 2-21 Maximum Status by Religion and 2-22 Maximum Status by Terrain. I've reduced control statuses if necessary to bring into compliance.
2. Positions not played for several turns have had a
ghost playerdo the move.

QUICK SCROLL if you know where you want to go:
Iberia/Southern Gaul
Central Mediterranean
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Nile Valley
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Iranian Plateau
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Indus Valley
Southern India
Ganges Valley
Tibetan Plateau
Irrawaddy Valley
Southeast Asia



fortified Settlement of Los Millares in Granada

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.
Literacy has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.

Lusitanian Tribes Barbarian Metalworking Oligarchy
Uxentio, Chief of the Council of Clans
    Uxentio invested in military quality, experiments with copper alloys and attempts to devise a way to record the Lusitanian tongue. Farmers in southern Portugal received funds to plant groves of citrus trees. Two hundred recruits were trained with stone-bladed weapons to bolster the homeland garrison. The Chief then held court to administer to the needs of the clans and enjoyed time with wife Aretaunin and their children. In the winter of 2063/2062 Uxentio's widowed mother Stena died after a severe cold worsened to pneumonia.
    In the meantime heir Turibas traveled north to Galacia where he offered its lord his comely sister Dutia in marriage in exchange for closer ties. Overcoming language differences the heir managed to persuade the locals into a full alliance with the Council of Clans.

Kingdom of Tartessos Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Tartessian syllabaric alphabet)
Gorgio, King of Tartessos
    Gorgio, the former king's son by a maidservant, was now king. His wicked stepmother (how Disney!) former queen Riana and her lover the former captain of the palace guard were imprisoned in the same tower room where Gorgio and his brother Jose had spent years half-starved. While savoring his triumph, the new king realized he needed to make decisions.
    After due consultation with his advisors he funded experiments in ship design. In the homeland barns were built and common pastures fenced. Prudently a large surplus of fruits and vegetables was dried and stored for times of famine. To reduce the administrative burden pacified Valencia was granted self-rule in exchange for swearing fealty.
    Gorgio next addressed the issue of beginning a new royal line. He married a noblewoman of Huelva and savored nights of pleasure as balance to days of holding court. She birthed a girl in 2064. Miscarrying after a fall in the palace bath (but at least not cracking her skull as so many L38 royals have done) she conceived again and birthed a boy in 2061.

    The king's twin brother (and heir) Jose assembled in Huelva a fleet of seven light galleys with 600 infantry aboard armed with stone-bladed weapons. He arrived in the coastal village of Ses Paisses in the Baeleric Islands early summer 2065 for some diplomacy-in-force. The villagers had been tributary to the Nuragic Civilization for many years. Jose offered himself in marriage in exchange for the locals switching allegiance to Tartessos. After lengthy discussions the villagers renounced their relations with the Nuragic and agreed Tartessos had some claim upon their loyalty. Jose was wed to the village leader's daughter - who considered marrying an heir quite the improvement to marrying an impoverished fisherman.

Celtiberian Tribes Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ihintza, Queen of Celtiberian Clans
    Ihintza - ruling but exhausted from her near-continuous diplomatic missions over rugged terrain - funded scholars, philosophers and artists to devise a way to record the Celtiberian dialect spoken in the Ebro valley. A small surplus of vegetables was dried and stored for future needs. The saved wealth of the clans along with hundreds of families awarded homesteads worked to clear the remaining wilderness in Navarre and replace it with productive farmland.
    That underway the Queen ruled her realm with her son Zeru at her side learning the art of administration. Heir Amets was in his sixties and was entrusted with the defense of the realm despite his steadily worsening severe headaches, trembling and dizziness. In the summer of 2064 dysentery swept Cortes, as usual more likely to be fatal to the old including both Ihintza and Amets. Zeru like other young royals was also afflicted but recovered to be proclaimed King by the Celtiberian Clans. He proved to be a gifted administrator.
    In 2061 word came from the lord of Aquitaine revoking Celtiberian claim to his lands since Ihnitza's daughter Usoa - betrothed to him in previous diplomacy - was never brought to him for the actual marriage

Artenac Culture Barbarian Metalworking Oligarchy
Vascons, Chief of the Council of Clans
    Leaving his heir Carvilius behind to administer, Vascons journeyed east into the Orleans wilderness, meeting with forest and hill chiefs to discuss items of mutual interest. He returned home late 2061 with a bride and an economic agreement that included access to the tin mines.
    open for a player


Central Mediterranean
(Corsica, Sardinia, Italian penninsula & Maghreb area of North Africa)

Etruscan capital of Luni in Tuscany

Literacy has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.

Nuragic Civilization Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Pasquale, Navarch, Lord of Albucci, de facto leader of Nuragic Civilization
    Pasquale continued to finance the efforts to devise a way to record the Nuragic language, unlike any other known tongue. New ship designs were considered and the University campus was significantly expanded. Mmost of the Civilization's wealth was spent upon rural Sardina where common pastures were fenced, mills and silos built and small creeks bridged to allow farm wagons faster trips bringing crops to market. The Navarch then coordinated the activities of the Nuragic holdings.
    Meanwhile his assistant Ignace took ship to the settlement of Filitosa where he met for years with its vassal leader Oberane trying to persuade him to closer ties. Ignace was a middling negotiator but his persistance paid off: Oberane agreed to become a full ally.
    ghost move -open for a player

(Proto-)Etruscans Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Vulca Ulthese, King of Etruscans
    Vulca again devoted the kingdom's income attempting to establish a service to relay news quickly. Apparently the third time was the charm utilizing a chain of relay stations built one day's run apart.
    The king then traveled overland from Tuscany through Liguria to Provence where he met with the local chiefs and spoke of closer ties. At one hamlet he crossed paths and shared a meal with the First of the Minoans and his group, also there for diplomacy. Vulca found the native religion hostile and the language different and it took years before the Provencials grudgingly swore fealty.

    The king's son (and heir) Abramo made a brief diplomatic jaunt to the Narce settlement where he spoke with its leader, offering himself in marriage in exchange for joining fully with the kingdom. The leader's daughter Pasqua (who wanted to be Queen someday) urged her father to accept the deal and he did, retiring to his vineyard.
    The heir returned to Luni where he was to rule in the king's absence. However Abramo cared not a bit for governing and occupied his time boar hunting, feasting, drinking and enjoying Pasqua. In late 2064 a sickly, jaundiced boy was born but was followed by healthy sons in 2062 and 2061. Meanwhile the government clerks followed Abramo's example and spent little time at their jobs.

Apennine Culture Civilized Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Crassus, Lord of Scoglio, de facto leader of Apennine Culture
    Apparently giving up for now creating a messenger service, Crassus spent heavily on newly-cultivated Spoleto: wells and irrigation ditches were dug, mills built and hillsides planted with grape vines. The garrison was strengthened by the addition of a stone fort. The University received funding to hire several additional scholars.
    The leader then coordinated Apennine efforts with the assistance of Euripedes, son of late king Decimus. Crassus spent more time with his Veronan wife Venus, siring a healthy girl in 2065 and a sickly one born in 2062. The next year Venus became pregnant again and delivered a son in midsummer but died in childbirth leaving Crassus stunned.
    By autumn vassal Victor Secundus of Verona received the news. Although he considered the Italian penninsular Etruscan-speaking people inferior to his Celtic-speaking Veronans, he'd honored the oath his father had sworn to a past Apennine ruler. But the death of his cousin Venus - whom he'd played with as a child - pushed his emotions over the edge and he sent a message revoking his vassal status.

City-State of Herakleopolis Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (hieroglyphic pictographs and hieratic script)
Tetmoses IV, King of the X Dynasty, favored of Heryshef
    Tetmoses ordered the hundreds of slaves taken from Cheliff put to the lash to construct another lecture hall and dormitory for the University. More dug wells in Tunisa to help agriculture. Three war galleys were built at the municipal arsenal of Tunis.
    With an eye towards continuing his new Dynasty the king took as wife a woman of a noble family, but lacking an adult heir he promoted lieutenant Poti to that position. Tetmoses then held court seeing to the needs of his realm and at night savoring the pleasures of his bride. After an initial miscarriage, the couple produced a girl in 2064 followed by sons the next two years.
    Lieutenant (now heir) Poti took command of the three new pentaconters and left Tunis early 2065. He returned earlier than expected late summer 2064 with only two warships showing storm damage and whose crews chanted a mournful dirge as the ships docked.


(Balkans, Aegean Sea littoral & Anatolia)

City of Troy in Bithnia overlooking the Hellespont

Literacy exists throughout this area as shown below.
Hittite and Minoan temples - both religions qualifying as "organized" - have been added to the map.

Illyrians Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Cabar, King of Illyrians
    The year 2065 began badly when Audata, wife of heir Pavla, died along with several others when her party was caught in an avalanche of snow during an outing. Fortunately young Autarieus, her son with Pavla, was saved by several retainers.
    After the funeral King Cabar addressed affair of state. He continued efforts to initiate a messenger service and recruit more scribes to government service. Another scholar was hired for the University. Trade was initiated with the Etruscan port of Locri. In the homeland small streams were bridged to allow wagons to reach market faster. Two light galleys were built and outfitted for fishing.
    Once again leaving heir Pavla to rule in his absence, All that set in motion, the king together with over a thousand archers and skirmishers crossed the mountains eastward returning to the river settlement of Gomalova. This time Cabar offered himself in marriage in exchange for closer ties; after several years of negotiations the settlement leader gave his younger sister Teuta as bride and ceded his holding to the Illyrian crown.

Bihac points towards Delphi where Phython is said to dwell

    During those same years a charasmatic leader who called himself Bihac began wandering the countryside speaking of the great serpent-dragon Phython. He insisted only those who worship Phython (and his scaled brethren) would be deemed worthy of an afterlife when judged at death. Bihac claimed to be the divine herald of the serpent-dragon, sent to bring Truth to the populace and rule in great Phython's name. After several years he'd gained a core of followers.

Achaean Greeks Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy - literate (Linear B glyphs)
Opites, King of Achaeans
    Having halted the Trojan invasion (at least for the moment) Opites spent most of the kingdom's wealth recruiting and training 800 men with spear and shield and 600 men as archers. Lieutenant Agapenor moved to Mycennae, assumed command and marched to Thessaly to join the previous battle's survivors led by heir Assaeus. He arrived midsummer along with a group of engineers with new tactics for fort garrisons to withstand a siege. Everyone dug in expecting another Trojan attack from Macedon. While inspecting the defenses Agapenor stumbled and fell into a defensive pit full of sharpened stakes.
    All remained quiet in Thessaly; the Trojans had other plans. [see Troy]

City-State of Troy Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy - literate (Luwian hieroglyphics)
Antenor, King of Troy IV
    From his military encampment in Thrace, Antenor sent his orders back to Troy. Extensive resources were devoted to experimenting with siege engineering, and attempts to recruit civilians - both savory and unsavory - into government service continued. Surplus harvest was stored for lean times. Eight hundred men were recruited and trained as various infantry types while another 400 trained as bowmen.
    King Anteor and his nephew (and heir) Eurytion defended Thrace in case of a Greek counterattack while Lieutenant Caletor "the Scarred" brought the recruits from Troy to Thrace using the Hellespont ferries. Leaving Eurytion and Caletor to handle the upcoming campaign, the king returned to Bithnia in August to react to any Hittite action. Meanwhile the heir and Caletor led the army back westward into Macedon as planned.

    In late September both Caletor and Eurytion ordered winter encampments built far enough apart that foraging parties wouldn't be searching the same territory; depopulated Macedon was desolate and food was scarce. The soldiers knew come the spring they'd be invading Serbia for slaves rather than bringing the Greek War to a close. Morale was especially low amongst the older men who'd been in the field away from their families for 15, 20 or more years. Rumors began spreading the heir planned to invade Illyria after Greece, then Italy after that, or perhaps the Levant.
    One night as a group of long-serving veterans sat drinking and venting their anger a brooding swordsman named Axylus abuptly stood and shouted they'd never go home - unless they took action. At his comrades' cries of agreement the charasmatic warrior led them toward Caletor's quarters, the group growing in size as it marched through camp. When the armed mob arrived they beheld Caletor holding Orthryoneus - a former vassal of Troy whom all thought dead - at swordpoint calling him a traitor. Caletor "the Scarred" was a grim, emotionless man and rather than talk the mutineers down he cursed them too as traitors and ordered his guards to kill them. Before the guards could obey (or not, considering how badly they were outnumbered) Axylus drew his sword and led his followers forward. Bloody mayhem ensued.

Axylus, swordsman and spontaneous leader of the mutiny

    In the confusion a brazier was upended and a badly wounded Caletor used the distraction of the burning tent to escape into the darkness. By now the camp was in an uproar as scattered fighting broke out between those loyal and those not. Orthryoneus urged the mutineers to accompany him and take service with the Acheans, but they would have none of it; they were going home. Those following Axylus - half the men in Caletor's camp - began the march toward Thrace and the Hellespont ferries.
    The news reached Eurytion several days later. His force was entirely heavy infantry and unlikely to catch the mutineers; he sent a warning to the ferry point. A week later vassal Iapyx III of Moldavia arrived with 800 skirmishers.

    After wintering the Trojans broke camp. Eurytion headed towards Thrace with nearly 1,500 heavy infantry. He was a military genius and knew attacking the mutineers - at least a thousand of which were archers - would be foolish. Being blunt and arrogant the idea of negotiating never entered his mind. He resolved to defend Thrace so Axylus couldn't double back and join the Achaeans after all.
    Meanwhile Caletor had healed (gaining another ugly scar) and still retained a thousand archers and over a thousand mixed infantry. Together with Iapyx's guardsmen they crossed into Serbia in April 2064 when the snow had melted from the mountain passes. The Serbians were tough hillmen nearly as numerous as the invaders and knew their lands intimately. The experienced Trojans were better trained, equipped and led.
    As usual the Trojan archers dropped volleys of arrows upon the hapless Serbians inflicting hundreds of casualties while the swordsmen and skirmishers advanced. With hard fighting the Trojans and Moldavians killed or wounded over 1,500 hillmen for the loss of half that many. The natives melted away and waged a war of ambushes, making a final stand at their chieftan's hill fort, which was taken using scaling ladders. The Trojans and Moldavians dug in awaiting a Greek response but none came.

    By late summer of 2063 the Achaeans still hadn't reacted so Caletor gave the order to enslave the Serbian population. They resisted but most of the able-bodied had already been killed or taken prisoner. Still it took until early 2062 before everyone worth putting in chains had been captured. The armies marched back through depopulated Bulgaria and joined Eurytion in Thrace midsummer 2061.
    Word of the mutiny had reached the Hellespont ferries ahead of Axylus's column and the boats had been anchored on the Bithnian side thus denying the mutineers the ability to cross. As a result the mutineers ( M on map) were foraging in the countryside between the Trojan army and the ferry point thus cutting their supply line. Caletor's men joined Eurytion's already foraging in Thrace.
    Woe indeed to be a Thracian civilian!

    Meanwhile in midsummer 2062 a pentaconter commanded by Minoan vassal Ploion of Miletos arrived at Troy carrying Kterifku, 15-year-old son of Alogys, First of the Minoan Council. In the local temple he married 25-year-old Andromanche, daughter of the previous Trojan king. The current king Antenor proclaimed Kterifku a Prince of Troy.
    Andromanche was soon pregnant and in 2061 went into labor early and birthed a boy who was small but survived.

Hitties Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Luwian hieroglyphics)
Sapalulme, King of the Hittites
    Sapalulme shook off his lethargy and funded trials of new infantry tactics. A thousand mixed infantry were trained along with 200 archers and an equal number of siege engineers. In the long-neglected homeland ditches and retention basins were dug to channel and hold snow melt from the southern mountains. Thereafter the king stood ready to defend his lands.
    Heir Arnuwandas saw to the administration of the kingdom. He also married a local noblewoman (the first royal celebration in over a decade) and enjoyed her, siring twin girls in 2065. Alas, they were followed by a miscarriage and then a sickly, stunted boy in 2063.
    Lieutenant Leranata traveled north to Galatia. Over the past 20 years between migrants and survivors it had regained the population it had before the Trojan conquest and enslavement. Leranata spoke with the various chiefs about restoring old ties with the kingdom. After several years of talks the strongest chief agreed to be a vassal. The lieutenant then crossed into Phyrgia which was still sparsely inhabited. After due negotiation the inhabitants swore fealty to the Hittites.
    ghost move -open for a player

Minoans Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (Linear A glyphs)
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Ugarit
Alogys, First of the Council
    It was now Alogys's turn to guide Council decisions. Gold was spent on military quality and trying to attract more government employees. The campus for training Minoan missionaries received funds for supplies and hiring support staff. Most of a large harvest surplus was stored for the future, but some was set aside as aid to Cyprus.
    Continuing the effort to diversify agriculture currants were planted in the north of Crete while groves of date palms added in the warmer south. Pastures were fenced and barns built to help a small import of Iberian Churra sheep multiply.
    Another bireme was built (named The Bull of Malta) at the municipal arsenal in Knossos and its sea trials went smoothly.

    All that underway, the First collected his sons Horoz and Tiloz and along with lieutenant Arkalokri hired a commercial galley that took them to the coast of Provence. Debarking, they spent years negotiating with the local chiefs to overcome language differences and mutally hostile religious beliefts. At one hamlet they crossed paths and shared a meal with the Etruscan king who was also there for diplomacy. Vassal Ploion of Miletos stopped offshore briefly late 2065 to show the inhabitants his pentaconter and rich garments as evidence of Minoan wealth but only a few fishing hamlets were aware of his display.
    Eventually the locals pledged fealty to Crete. Horoz had paid close attention to his father's persuasive skills but Tiloz proved distractable and increasingly preferred flirting with local girls to Arkalokri's attempts to educate him.

    Second of the Council Fteriku patrolled the waters around Crete with a trio of biremes and a squadron of pentaconters. Upon his return home in autumn 2061 he hungered for his wife S'arini (hey, five years at sea without a woman...) and she soon became pregnant.

    Meanwhile Ally Tobglak of Phylakopi had departed the Kyklades by pentaconter escorting five light trade galleys to the Nuragic capital of Albucci, arriving in autumn 2065. While his men enjoyed shore leave he hosted gatherings with Nuragic merchants and nobles where matters of trade and cartography were discussed, continuing through 2064. Vassal Ploion of Miletos visited in mid-2064 to help impress the Nuragic elite with evidence of Minoan wealth and indeed they were appreciative of his purple-dyed robe knowing such dye cost a fortune. However differences in religion and more importantly language - the Nuragic tongue being unlike any other encountered by the Minoans - made any talks challenging.
    In late spring 2061 the ships left Albucci (although some sailors remained behind having found wives and/or better employment) and returned home. Deeply disappointed that his visit to the Nuragic capital hadn't accomplished all he'd hoped, Tobglak began drinking heavily.



Egyptian capital of Memphis in Lower Egypt on the Nile

Knowledge of bronzeworking exists throughout the Nile Valley.
Literacy exists throughout the Nile Valley as shown below.

Egyptian Priesthood Civilized Bronzeworking Theocracy - literate (hieroglyphic pictographs and hieratic script)
Sharek, High Priest of Osiris
    From his location in Lower Nubia, Sharek ordered the priestly training facilities upgraded hoping to attract more followers to join the Priesthood; alas, secular life was good and few were interested. Recruitment bonuses were offered for scribes willing to assist with administrative minutiae. Merchants based in Mersa Gawasis were licensed to trade with various Red Sea ports on behalf of the Priesthood.
    The High Priest then traveled through the grasslands of Kassala and Beja to the Meroean port of Sawakin. Egyptian missionaries had previously gained sufficient converts to make a Shrine viable and Sharek established one despite threats from local shamen, finishing midsummer 2063. While boarding a galley bound for Yemen he felt dizzy, staggered and fell off the gangplank into the filthy harbor water. By the time his retainers leapt in and searched, he'd already drowned. Local shamen proclaimed the foreigner had been struck down by angry water spirits.

    High Priestess Anashepsut of Sobek meanwhile had taken commercial galley from Byblos to Tunis. Meeting with local priests of Heryshef she congratulated them on surviving the harsh trek to Tunis while tending to the spiritual needs of the Egyptian migrants. She supervised the expansion of the local site into a Temple Enclosure, then journeyed west to Cap Serrat where she consecrated a Temple Shrine.
    Priesthood missionaries continued their preaching in rural Yemen and the port of Sawakin. In Yemen enough new converts were made to bring worshippers of the Egyptian pantheon to a slight majority. In Sawakin another fifth of the citizens embraced the true gods despite warnings from local shamen that spirits would strike them down as they had the Egyptian High Priest.

Middle Kingdom Egypt Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (hieroglyphic pictographs and hieratic script)
Ipu, Queen of the VIII Dynasty, favored of Ptah
    Although nearly sixty, Ipu remained vigorous running her realm. Small investments were made recruiting for government jobs. A communal dining hall was built for the University and another surplus of wheat stored. Most of the dynasty's income was saved for future use. Ipu then ruled her realm and tried to spend time with her half-Minoan son Manetho when he wasn't chasing servant girls.
    Lieutenant Meru returned from the sands of Ghebel Gharib with Tiye, daughter of a chief and betrothed of the Queen's younger brother (and heir) Kanefer. They wed in the Temple of Ptah in the capital then returned to Middle Egypt where he was overseeing the restoration of the region. The couple produced a boy in 2064, a girl in 2063 and twin girls in 2062. Such fertility must've had the blessing of Isis!

    Meanwhile Meru returned east to Mersa Gawasis where previous failed diplomacy had left the city's ruler hostile. This time Meru brought gifts and did not offer Manetho in marriage as the local lord had been infuriated, calling the boy a halfbreed. While a poor negotiator Meru was persistant and while Mersa Gawasis had become accustomed to its independence the lord finally pledged fealty to the VIII Dynasty.
    Word came that vassal Duaenre of Heliopolis who'd been guarding the eastern border had died in a training accident. His young son Pentu accepted responsibility for defending against Levantine attack.

Kingdom of Nubia Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Maraga II, King of Nubia
    Maraga spent heavily hiring more scribes for the bureaucracy. The University received funding for needed supplies and the construction of a large dormitory. In Aswan lowlands along the Nile were filled in to become agricultural land and the crocs driven off downstream so the new farmers wouldn't be eaten immediately. Having acquired maps of the Gulf of Cyprus, merchants from Aswanopolis began trade with distant Ugarit and Hazor with chests of gold, returning with cedar, salt and resin.
    The king next traveled to Upper Egypt with over five thousand mixed infantry for some diplomacy-in-force, offering himself for marriage. The region was ruled by his vassal Tu'failya, a Nubian awarded the land as fief. However Maraga needed to court the locals as well to ensure their loyalty. Despite differences in language and mutually hostile religions, Maraga obtained a native Egyptian noblewoman as bride and a treaty awarding Nubian merchants preferential treatment. No sooner had the royal couple returned to Kerma than word arrived Tu'faiya had been fatally mauled when a lion hunt went badly. The region however remained peaceful.

    Meanwhile the charasmatic lieutenant Taraga, assisted by Prince Selanat, traveled for years persuading the populace to yet further lower their dependence on spirits and shamen. Despite increasing warnings from said shamen the vast majority of people were increasingly receptive. Even the death of Selanat in 2062 at age 64 was accepted as natural (he was pretty old!) rather than caused by spirits.

City-State of Meroe Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Saba, King of Meroe
    Saba decided to build a city in the half-wilderness region of Atbara thereby bringing it some degree of civilization. Huge numbers of surplus population were rounded up, equipped with wagons, draft animals, tools and such, then sent eastward. The new city was to be named "Dukamba" meaning in the middle of nowhere. In Sennar the foothills of the mountains were terraced and planted to boost crop yield.
    The king had previously given the Egyptian Priesthood permission to convert his people, feeling the Egyptian gods were more powerful than the spirits the shamen invoked. More powerful gods meant a more powerful kingdom, Saba reasoned. He therefore spent years in the homeland urging the people to give up their dependence on spirits and shamen. Local shamen often incited the crowds against the King's words; fortunately he'd brought 400 mixed infantry with him. After five years of essentially no progress a discouraged Saba one night went into the bushes to relieve himself and was fatally bitten by an Egyptian cobra he'd startled.

    Heir Arakamani continued his many, many uneventful years of guarding the kingdom from nonexistant invaders, he and his troops spending their time laying about the barracks drinking or keeping the rural homeland brothels in business. In late 2061 came word of the king's painful death - the royal messenger first having to throw a bucket of water over Arakamani (think Pirates of the Caribbean) to wake him from his stupor before delivering the news. The heir grunted and passed out again.
    Back in Meroe itself widowed Queen Medani persuaded the nobles to name Hamdab - the eldest son of Saba - to be the new heir just in case Arakamani drank himself to death.
    Egyptian priests were busy in the Red Sea port of Sawakin converting more of its population to worship of their pantheon. Shamen in the capital beseeched Queen Medani to expel the foreigners before angry spirits destroyed Meroe.


(including Horn of Africa)

Sabaean capital of Sa'na in Yemen

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area except as noted below.
Literacy exists throughout this area as shown below.

Land of Punt Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Finja, King of Punt
    Despite the grief of recently losing his wife in childbirth, Finja tended to the running of his kingdom. Gold was again invested in military quality resulting in a greater understanding of engineering for construction and siege. Efforts were made to attract more scribes for government work. Another lecture hall was built at the University. In the homeland the foothills of the western mountains were terraced for planting and funds were sent to Djibuti to assist recovery efforts after a moderately strong earth tremor.
    Finja thereafter ruled his kingdom and doted on his children. Nights were spent with his concubines. The famed (in Punt at least) warrior Hafza stood ready to defend the realm.
    In late 2063 word came from Djibuti that allied leader Barde had died, perhaps due to injuries received during the earthquake. His son Barde II agreed to continue the alliance with Punt.

Sabaeans Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Zabar script glyphs)
Almakah, King of Sa'na
    Almakah continued his policy of spending on military quality, experiments with alloys of copper and recruiting scribes for government work. Recruitment proved successful and the additional clerks made possible a more effective administration of the nation. Much gold was spent in Sheba hiring laborers and providing equipment for the digging of retention basins and terracing the hillsides of the southern mountains for planting of date and fig trees.
    The king then ruled his lands with assistance from his heir (and nephew) Shu Samawi. The heir's presence proved fortunate when Almakah collapsed in the summer of 2064 complaining of intense pain in his head; he died several days later. Shu took the throne without incident and proclaimed his brother Shams to be his heir.

    Meanwhile Prince Sami (formerly of Sheba) and lieutenant Haubas had been traveling hamlet to hamlet throughout the homeland encouraging the rural folk to turn away from Arabian Paganism as primitive and unorganized, not worthy of a great people. Both were charasmatic speakers and managed to significantly lower the faith of the peasantry.
    Realizing less faith meant an easier job for Egyptian missionaries, the local Arabian pagan leaders urged their believers to action. Heir Shams, who had great interest in theology, died when he was caught in a riot between peasants led by local priests and those who'd converted to belief in the Egyptian pantheon. After the funeral Shu appointed his next-oldest brother Ramman to be heir.

Traders of Dilmun Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Muqrin, First of the Council
    Although in poor health Muqrin continued to chair the Council but could only get them to agree on storing a bountiful harvest for future days of want. In early 2064 he died in his sleep and Second Talal was voted to be First. He in turn proposed the experienced captain Tanurah as the new Second, and it was so agreed.
    In early 2061 shipwrights reported to the council they'd solved technical issues that had pervented the building of larger ships.


(Eastern Mediterranean shore then west to Subartu)

City-State of Ugarit on the Eastern Mediterranean

Literacy exists throughout Greater Levant (cuneiform).
This area is a mixture of "organized" religions and their various sized temples have been added to the map.

City-State of Hazor Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ibiranu, King of Hazor
    Ibiranu again invested in military quality and funded construction of a lecture hall and dormitory on the University campus. The surplus from another bountiful harvest was preserved for future needs. In Jordan experiments were done to breed drought-resistant crops to grow in the harsh southeast near the Al'Nefud desert. The army was expanded by recruiting and training four hundred each of skirmishers, swordsmen and spearmen. The king then ruled and spent time with his neglected (and still comely) wife Pudukhepa.
    The king's brothers Niquepa and Yaqarum were dispatched to Petra to persuade its elite to embrace the majority religion of the Levant. Niquepa was charasmatic and led the effort; after much theological discussion nearly a fifth of the region's elite converted to the faith of Hazor.

    Lieutenant Aqhat led 200 light infantry to Syria and captured a bull elephant, some females and young elephants1. The pachyderms were carefully herded back to Tell Abu Hawan in Canaan for expected pickup by a Minoan ship. However no ship arrived and the elephants proved expensive to feed and maintain. Depressed, Aqhat began drinking heavily and during a bender let himself into the bull's cage; unfortunately the male was in musth and the hapless lieutenant was trampled. His subordinate Sisera assumed command and ordered the cage cleaned - carefully.

1 capture does not imply domestication; at ivory trade centers elephants are captured before being killed for their tusks.

City-State of Ugarit Civilized Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Minoans, mutual defense with Subartu
Ibarinum, First of the Council
    First of the Council Ibarinum toured devastated Aleppo and committed nearly all the state's resources into rebuilding from the earthquake. Shops and homes were restored where possible or new ones constructed if the damage was too great. Wells were cleared of debris, cracks in the royal road filled, and more. Ibariunum ordered repairs made to the gilded structure known as the "Great Palace of Yaqarum the Mad" lest more towers collapse into Ugarit's streets. Once all was in progress the First handled the day to day decisions from the homeland since the Council's chambers in the capital were but rubble.
    Meanwhile famed orator and Second of the Council Agaliba traveled south to Byblos where he held lengthy discussions with feudal vassal Loweh. Despite language and religious differences eventually Loweh agreed to a full alliance.
    Lieutenant Aziru stood ready with a large force in Palmyra guarding against any invasion coming from that direction. In late 2063 while off duty he was killed during a brawl in one of the many taverns along the trade road.

Kingdom of Subartu Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Ugarit
Caregin, King of Subartu
    Caregin invested small amounts in both military and government improvements. Surplus population was rounded up, outfitted with tools and with an escort of 600 infantry were led by lieutenant Aslan towards Armenia to found a new city. Alas, an avalanche of snow buried him while the group threaded its way through mountain passes. Fortunately one of his officers stepped up to the leadership job. Once in Armenia a large lake seemed a promising source of water and fish but was disappointingly brackish. The would-be settlers continued north and chose a site close to the local obsidian mines where mountain streams provided water, naming their new home Arbela.

    The king spent little time ruling, shunning the tedium of it in favor of hunting, feasting, participating in tournaments (he was a master swordsman) or using his godlike looks to bed the ladies of the palace. Most were lucky enough to avoid pregnancy but a servant girl birthed twin girls at the end of 2065 and the daughter of a minor nobleman delivered a son in late 2062.
    Fortunately for the kingdom his brother (and heir) Vahan was a good administrator and kept the government operational. While lacking Caregin's charisma he had coin with which to entice tavern wenches, resulting in a daughter in 2063.


(Mesopotamia & Persian Gulf littoral)

City of Kish on the Euphrates River

Literacy exists throughout Greater Mesopotamia (cuneiform except for Elam which uses Elamite Linear script).

Mesopotamian Priesthood Civilized Bronzeworking Theocracy
Shuruppak, High Priest of Innana (Ishtar) at Uruk
    At Shuruppak's commanded large investments were made in recruitment and training resulting in both more novice priests as well as the laymen necessary to support them. Gold and labor were expended on flood control along the Kish riverfront and replacing the grinding stones in the mills of Hahmar. The High Priest then traveled to Kuwait where he oversaw the upgrade of its temple enclosure to a large temple complex.
    Meanwhile High Priestess Salabikh journeyed to Kish where she supervised the workmen expanding its temple complex into a full temple precinct occupying nearly a quarter of the city.

City-State of Kish Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Uruk-Lagash
Jushur II, 2nd King of the VI Dynasty, favored of Zababa
    Jushur II decreed large investments in the realm's infantry which he feared was antiquated comparted to his neighbors. A small agricultural surplus was stored for lean times. The army was increasd by six hundred bowmen and a port fortress was constructed on the Euphrates adjacent to Babylon to protect the city and the southern border. The king then held court but growing older had diminishing interest in his concubines.
    Meanwhile the king's elder son (and heir) Jushur III returned to Diyala where he'd previously been rebuffed in his attempts at diplomacy. This time he brought many gifts: trunks of carved cedarwood from Lebanon, incense from Arabia, carved lapis from the East. The lord of Diyala was deeply impressed and in time agreed to be tributary to Kish.

State of Uruk-Lagash Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Kish
Nam-mahazi the Golden, King of Uruk and Lagash, favored of Inanna
    Having negotiated peace with Gaszi of Gutia, Nam-mahazi could devote the state's wealth and workforce to peaceful pursuits. In the rather neglected homeland irrigation ditches were dug, common lands fenced for pasture, and swampy areas along both rivers drained and made ready for agriculture. Construction continued on a bridge over the Euphrates near Ur and it approached completion in the near future.
    Those efforts underway, the king proclaimed Prince Puzur-Ili was now heir, and royal male Utu-Hengal was now a Prince of Uruk-Lagash. Feasts in honor of the proclamation were held in Uruk, Susa, Ur and Kudashan as the word was spread by messengers in battle carts. Nam-mahazi then ruled his lands but curiously ignored his wife Amagi who while in her forties was quite comely, leaving her to dote on their children. And flirt with the virile palace guardsmen.
    Both Puzur-Ili and lieutenant Ilum-Gamil stood ready with over ten thousand warriors to react to any Gutian violation of the peace, but none occured to their mix of relief and disappointment.



Silk Road marketplace in Gutian capital of Borahshi

Literacy exists throughout this area as shown below.

Kingdom of Gutia Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Gazsi, King of Gutium
    Having begrudgingly negotiated peace with Nam-mahazi of Uruk-Lagash, Gazsi could devote the state's wealth and workforce to peaceful pursuits. In Persia hillsides of the northern mountains were terraced for farming. Surplus population was provided tools, wagons and draft animals and sent to Tepe Sialk to expand the Silk Road settlement into a true city in time for the last stretch of the royal road from Borashi to Tepe Sialk to be completed. A small surplus of grain was stored for the future. The king then ruled his prosperous lands and spent many nights of pleasure with his Zagrosian wife Roshanak, who despite being in her late 30s produced three daughters.

    For Gazsi's son (and heir) Samu and his wife Shadi 2065 began badly with the death of their sickly daughter Laleh, but the next year Shadi birthed a girl to the couple's joy. A few weeks later she went to the great marketplace with Roshanak and other royal ladies to celebrate. An argument between a vendor and customer escalated into a riot. In the violence a randomly thrown paving stone brained Shandi; guards eventually restored order while the shaken royal party returned to the palace, her retainers carrying her body.

    Meanwhile Prince Kindattu and nearly two thousand swordsmen marched north to Kurdistan for some diplomacy-in-force. Kindattu was famed as a general but was an even better negotiator. The hill chiefs were suspicious of strangers but some shrewd gifts persuaded them to pay tribute to Gutia. Kindattu was returning to Borahshi in triumph when a flux swept the army and he was among those who did not survive.
    Lieutenant Shapur and over 1,500 mixed infantry also marched north but with El'burz as their destination. He entreated with the lord of the half-wilderness region and offered gifts of lapis, tin and and jade from the distant east. Impressed, the lord swore the oath of a feudal vassal.

Kingdom of Ganweriwala Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Indus glyphs)
Vihana the Magnificent, King of Ganweriwala
    At Vihana's word gold was invested in naval architecture and building a training center for Harappan priests. The University constructed a new lecture while hillsides along the southern mountains of Baluchistan were terraced and planted. Two more light galleys were built in the shipyards of Yukta. The king bade his merchants to initiate trade with states of the Persian Gulf or Euphrates since those waters had recently been mapped. Vihana then stood ready to defend his lands; since no one invaded he had time to enjoy his concubines.
    The king's son (and heir) Lakshmana wed Dipti a local noblewoman (thus encouraging the Baluchistani to support the crown) and ruled while his father lived to advise him. He sired a daughter in 2064 and another in 2061, but her birth was early and she was small and jaundiced.

    Prince Dhaval took two light galleys west to explore waters beyond current knowledge. They returned in autumn 2061 intact with the crews ready to celebrate with wine & wenches.
    Lieutenant Rishi was tasked to preach to the elite of Bandar of the Harappan faith. One morning in late 2065 he was found dead near the University where he'd been copying maps of that region, apparently having fallen prey to thieves. His assistant Sandip was sent in his place and converted nearly a fifth of the forest chiefs and their advisors.



City of Namazgadepe in Turkmen - foreground slopes downward to Oxus River

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy (pictographic symbols) exists throughout this area.

City-State of Namazgadepe Civilized Metalworking Centralized Monarchy
Piyama, King of Namazgadepe
    Piyama spread small investments among military quality, hiring for government service and experiments with alloys of copper. The University received needed supplies and a surplus of vegetables was dried and stored for the future. The city of Loi Krylgan had its dirt streets improved to gravel greatly reducing the dust from wagons. For security Bactria was fortified and 400 swordsmen added to the army.
    The king then headed to the arid semi-desert of Kyzl-Kom where he met with the chiefs of various pastoral nomad clans. Surprised that king would come to their sparse lands, they were astonished when Piyama offered his son Adray and daughter Iskra in marriage in exchange for a treaty. The locals were deeply suspicious of outsiders by nature and the king being a middling orator didn't help. Adray choking to death on roast goat during a banquet was taken as an ill omen. Piyama and Iskra were asked to leave before the spirits were angered further.

    Meanwhile the king's son (and heir) Nilichi journeyed to Bokhara where he offered himself in marriage to promote closer ties. He was as poor a diplomat as his father but Culast, daughter of the local lord, wanted to marry the heir and become a queen someday. She helped Nilichi talk her father into an economic treaty. The heir and his new bride returned to Namazgadepe and produced a daughter in 2061.

City-State of Gonur Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Pudha, King of Gonur
    Pudha yet again invested in government hiring and metalluric experimentation and at last both were successful. Among the new employees was an organizational genius who made recordkeeping more efficient. A delegation of metalworkers presented a sample of a copper alloy much stronger for tools and weapons than pure copper. The University received funding to offer scholarships to promising students. To the citizens of Gonur it appeared a New Age had dawned of infinite possibilities.
    Other citizens were not so pleased with their lot. Surplus population was provided supplies, tools, wagons and draft animals and marched along the Silk Road to the semi-desert of Kophat Dagh to colonize. They built hamlets and farmed near waterholes resulting in arguments regarding water with the pastoralists who'd lived there for generations. Trouble was brewing.
    Pudha then ruled his kingdom with his son Ashvazendah at his side learning the arts of administering.

    Bangha, Pudha's twin brother (and heir) traveled the Silk Road west from Tepe Fullol, picked up two thousand mixed infantry in Gonur and continued on to Kophat Dagh along with his neice Forozendah. From there he raided Firoz Kohi and Forozendah learned the art of war. Despite crossing mountains the raiders took the forest tribes by surprise and stole what little of value they had. What his neice learned from the experience was raid people worth raiding.

    In late 2061 Ashvazendah - who had taken to slipping away from the palace at night - was found dead of stab wounds in an alley in a disreputable quarter of Gonur. Pudha declared a month of mourning for his son.



City of Rupar in Sahis, longtime ally of Harappa

Knowledge of bronzeworking exists throughout the Indus Valley civilization.
Literacy (Indus glyphs) exists throughout the Indus Valley civilization.

State of Harappa and Rupar Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy
Abhinabyu, King of Harappa
    Abhinabyu spent much gold hoping to attract more scribes into government service. Several new buildings were constructed at the University. In Und significant progress was made clearing wilderness to make room for agriculture. In Sahis swampy tracts along the Sarawati were filled, creeks bridged and paths widened to expedite movement of farm wagons to market and grinding stones replaced in gristmills. Surplus population throughout the dual kingdom was provided with all the necessities of colonization and ordered to the wasteland of Sind to rebuild farms and hamlets. The lives of the colonists were hard and exhausting.
    Next the king proclaimed his daughter Asha to be his heir. Fortunately the Harappan religion was "Earth Mother"-centric and there was no adverse reaction amongst the populace. That done, Abhinabyu gathered his army of over 14,000 mixed infantry and archers and marched east, leaving a completely unprepared Asha to rule. She had no idea what she was doing nor did she express any desire to learn.
    Fortunately Prince Ritpara and lieutenant Zeeshan assured Asha they were both accustomted to adminstering the realm. Unfortunately in mid-summer 2065 Zeeshan and royal lady Sabri became besotted with each other (according to palace gossip) and ran away together. Their decomposing remains were found weeks later; they'd apparently been robbed and killed by brigands.

    King Abhinabyu and his army marched into friendly Sahis where he was joined by lieutenant Rakesh with a thousand siege engineers. They were in reserve until such time as the city of Hastinapura was reached.
    In early spring 2064 the Harappans crossed the Saraswati and invaded Tarain, which was an ally of Hastinapura. Some 1,500 Taranian mixed infantry made a stand at their lord's keep. The Harappans had bronze weapons while the locals in this part of the world had stone-bladed axes and wooden shields, and had never experienced what damage massed archers could inflict before armies closed. By the end of 2064 the region was pacified and a groveling lesser noble appointed as satrap.
    In early spring 2063 the king led his force across the Upper Ganges into Uttar Pradesh. The Hastinapuran army numbered less than three thousand since it hadn't been rebuilt after the losses suffered a generation earlier trying to invade Kaushambi. However it had four stone forts to anchor the defense which was unsurprisingly directed toward any approach from Tarain. The Hastinapurans inflicted heavy loss among the invaders but their position was already crumbling when their king Lakhimpur II died trying to rally the garrison of a fort. The invaders again appointed a cowering lesser noble as satrap and converged upon Hastinapura itself.
    The city had no walls despite the ability to build them and in early 2062 heir (now king) Rupuraba agreed to surrender provided no harm came to civilians. Knowing the defenders had no chance of holding against his forces, an amused Abhinabyu agreed. He then pointed out this did not include the royal family who were promptly slaughtered from Rupuraba down to the youngest child. Anything worth taking was seized from government buildings, the treasury and even the University whose scholars were dragged away sputtering protests.
    In triumph the army of Harappa headed home. The siege specialists under Rakesh were disappointed they didn't get to participate.

Traders of Dholavira Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Harshan, First of the Council
    With the University revolt to be dealt with, the great warrior Harshan pushed the Council into swift resolution of finances: continued small amounts invested in military quality and enticing people to work for the government in various capacities. In the distant port of Qana an open-air amphitheater was built for presentation of plays, music and poetry.
    Second of the Council Harvan took command of a fleet of pentaconters and guarded the waters about Kutch. This freed Harshan to lead over two thousand mixed swordsmen and skirmishers to retake the University. The previous year anarchistic students and radical Scholars had violently occupied the campus and looted the surrounding neighborhood the previous year. The previous First, Polyar, had attempted to negotiate and had been killed; Harshan would not repeat his mistake of mercy.
    The army stormed the makeshift barricades and cut down any who resisted1. Finding themselves on the receiving end of bloodshed was a reality check - actions had consequences! Students and Scholars both surrendered in droves. The First ordered any surviving leaders of the insurrection beheaded and granted amnesty to their shaken followers.
    Triumphant, Harshan married Yuami, eldest daughter of Polyar. He ruled the city-state and emjoyed his young wife, siring a healthy daughter in 2064 and a premature, sickly one in 2062. Drinking heavily to deal with the resulting emotions, he died later that year. Second Harvan (who had married Yuami's sister Tianna, but had had little time to spend with her) became the new First.

1 before CNN you could actually deal with rebellion without a lot of justification and obligatory hand-wringing.

City-State of Lothal Seafaring Bronzeworking Monarchy
Cherasan, King of Lothal
    Cherasan ordered the defenses of the homeland strengthened and a surplus of vegetables and fruits dried and stored for lean times. For the citizens of Lothal an amphitheater was built at one end of the new park so they could enjoy the latest in plays, songs and poetry. At the other end a library was constructed with side rooms for the quiet study of scrolls.
    The king then ruled his lands but continued to ignore his Nasiki wife Chee. Heir David remained in Lothal as well, helping the king administer the nation but likewise ignoring his wife Drusa, also from Nasiki. Palace gossip had it both women (now nin their forties but still attractive) had taken virile young guardsmen as lovers. In early 2064 many royals sickened from eating spoiled meat served at a banquet; The Heir's 14-year-old daughter Esther had a particulary severe reaction which proved fatal.


(Indian subcontinent south of Vindhya Mountain range, plus Ceylon)

statue of Nagaraja - "The King of the Naga"

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.

Kingdom of Chera Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Chola
Senguttuvan, King of Chera
    The lack of literacy having resulted in lax (well, actually no) record-keeping including tax levies owed, Senguttuvan found himself coping with an impoverished nation. What little funds were available he provided to the scholars supposedly working on a method to record the Tamil language. To his frustration the academics spent all their time arguing - each felt his way was the only way. Senguttuvan then attended to the day to day operations of the kingdom with the assistance of his heir Adu Kottu Pattu.
    Lieutanant Aricil Kilar put to sea south to the coast of Pandya. After a feast he formally returned the light galley and its crew to feudal vassal Perunkunrurk in the hope it would soften his attitude towards Chera. Alas, the weathered vessel and older, less energetic crew did not impress. Disappointed, Aricil journeyed back to Murici where he joined the king and heir in running the realm.

Kingdom of Chola Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (syllabaric Tamil script)
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Chera
Aditya, King of Chola
    To no one's surprise Aditya expired in his sleep in early 2065 and his heir Khanjamar took the throne without incident. Spending a large amount of gold hoping to hire more scribes proved successful and the additional workforce made for a more efficient government. Civilians and hundreds of demobilized infantry were awarded homesteads in the Vengi grasslands, and provided the necessary tools, wagons, draft animals and herd animals to thrive there.
    Khanjamar then held court and spent many passionate nights with wife Vijayaliu, resulting in sons born in 2065 and 2064. Between the royal births, government reforms and development of Vengi, Cholan culture enjoyed a time of flowering. Poets and playwrights using the recently designed syllabaric Tamil script produced many significant works which were presented in the central marketplace of Arikamedu providing creative incentive to University students and scholars alike.

    Pennarciyar (wife of the king whom Aditya overthrew) and her children had been kept prisoner for years in the palace although treated respectfully. One fateful day in 2061 came news that she, her two adult daughters and adult son Thanjavur were gone! Apparently someone with intimate knowledge of the palace had drugged the food of the overnight guards and escaped with the imprisoned royals. Rumor swept the capital: it was Karakala who freed his mother and siblings!
    As the year 2061 continued Khanjamar grew sick with a steadily worsening cough with spots of blood appearing. His wife Vijayaliu birthed a stunted, jaundiced child who died after a few weeks. Had the scaled gods turned away from the current ruler of Chola?



City of Atranjikhera on the Ganges River

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area except as noted below.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.

City-State of Hastinapura Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Elamite Linear script)
Lakhimpur II, King of Hastinapura
    Lakhimpur II and his court were in turmoil from scandals and heartbreak. Only the news of Harappan invasion of allied Tarain in early 2064 shocked the monarchy into action. The king decided holding Tarain was a lost cause and commanded a directed defense of the homeland in that direction with the Ganges as additional protection. [see Harappa]

City-State of Atranjikhera Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Elamite Linear script)
Samavati, Queen of Atranjikhera
    Samavati continued to spend small amounts to entice citizens to government service and it finally paid off: suddenly many scribes accepted clerical jobs with the bureaucracy. (Perhaps a surge of patriotism due to the possible Harappan threat?) Among the new hires were several with innovative ideas for organizing and tracking information which led to a more efficient government.
    The University received gold to buy supplies and a wall was built to protect the newly-expanded city of Malwah. In the homeland lowlying areas along the Ganges were converted to rice paddies. Merchants were given approval to initiate trade with distant Chera - a forbidding trek over multiple mountain ranges. Four hundred recruits were trained as archers or swordsmen.

    Samavati then traveled to the grasslands of Chitor to negotiate with the pastoral nomads. Dicussions with the chiefs - suspicious of all "civilized" folk - were difficult and went nowhere. Evantually their priests slaughtered a goat and studied its entrails for an omen. A large tumor was unexpectedly found which made them immediately condemn Samavati as a sorceress seeking to enslave them i.e. the standard interpretation. Her retainers barely got her away to safety. Upon her return to Atranjikhera the shaken queen abdicated her throne in favor of heir Sagara.

    Speaking of whom, Sagara accompanied by Samavati's older son Duryodhana had traveled with escort through Chitor to the semi-desert of Amjer. Both offered themselves as spouses to hopefully compensate for Sagara being a poor diplomat especially when handicapped by both different languages and religions. The nomads here were even more suspicious of outsiders than those of Chitor and rebuffed all efforts. A discouraged royal pair returned to Atranjikhera in time for Sagara to take the throne and Duryodhana to become heir.

City-State of Kaushambi Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy
Jagadambika, King of Kaushambi
    At Jagadambika's command much of the kingdom's wealth was spent on military improvements, devising a method to permanently record the Elamo-Dravidian language, hiring citizens with a devious streak for government service and building an additional lecture hall at the University. A large surplus of rice and fish was dried and stored for the future.
    Surplus population was rounded up from Kaushambi, equipped with wagons, draft animals and tools and sent to clear the remaining wilderness from Nadavaria, receiving homesteads in return. To help them work crews dug irrigation ditches to bring water from the Ganges to the newly planted fields. Thereafter the king, his swordmaster younger brother (and heir) Jaafar and blunt-talking vassal Aakash of Jaunpor stood by to react to invasion; however all was peaceful. Meanwhile newly hired lieutenant Kabir, not assigned any responsibilities, frequented the taverns and brothels and in general lived a really good life.
    ghost move -open for a player



Tibetan capital of Lhasa

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.

Kingdom of Zhang Zhung Pastoral-Nomadic Metalworking Monarchy
Huan, King of Zhang Zhung
    Huan again invested a little gold into just about everything. Apparently it paid off in military matters because a delegation of officers took Huan outside the city and he came back pleased with what he'd seen. The king then ruled his grassland realm and enjoyed his wife Chun, daughter of past king Biming. After she suffered several miscarriages nomad shamen conducted lengthy rituals of curse removal and purification in the bedchamber. Apparently they knew their business for Chun had a daughter in 2063 and another in 2061. Unfortunately the second birth was very difficult and the queen died a few days later of a high fever.
    Heir Cong, son of past king Biming, had followed the merchant road to Alung-Gangri and through the Lipulkeh Pass. He reached Nepal as the winter snows closed the passage behind him. He was a shrewd negotiator - a blessing since a childhood accident involving hot cooking oil had left him disfigured. As further enticement to a treaty he offered himself - he is heir to the throne - and his royal sisters Liling and Fai in marriage. After years of talks the hill chiefs agreed to an economic agreement. Cong married one of the strongest chieftan's daughters (who was not pleased) and his sisters wed the sons of other chiefs.

Kingdom of Tibet Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Tibetan syllabaric alphabet)
Choenyi, King of Tibet
    Choenyi funded metalworkers to experiment with alloys of copper. In the homeland ditches were dug to channel snowmelt into retention basins. A substantial surplus of vegetables was dried and stored for later needs. The king then ruled his realm. In 2062 his longtime wife Amya died in a snow avalanche, leaving him heartbroken.
    open for a player


(Tibeto-Burman migration from north down the Irrawaddy Valley displaced original Mon-Khmer peoples southward)

Beikthano, oldest Irrawaddy Valley city

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area except as noted below.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.

City-State of Halin Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Pyu script glyphs)
Kanyaza of the Shakya Dynasty, King of Halin
    Kanyaza ordered the clearing of the remaining wilderness in Manipur that the land could be used for agriculture. Laborers with wagonloads of tools and provisions trekked north. In Burma itself storage sheds were built to accomodate dried rice from surplus. With those tasks set in motion the king left his son (and heir) Abirej to rule the realm while he traveled to the steaming jungle of Samatata. Once there Kanyaza spoke with the leaders of its scattered hamlets, staying for years. (His ignored and resentful of wife Kuwerami took sereral palace guards as lovers in his absence.) Eventually the local leaders swore fealty to Halin and Kanyaza returned home.
    Upon arrival he learned his grandson Andraroj had died of a flux a few years earlier, and the king hastened to belatedly comfort his son. The queen wasn't particularly pleased by her husband's return, having grown accustomed to her pleasures.

    Lieutenant Pyuirej was yet again sent down the Irrawaddy with two galleys to explore what lay beyond. He returned towards the end of 2061 yet again successful given the celebratory mood of the crews.

City-States of Binnaka & Maingmaw Civilized Metalworking Monarchies - literate (Pyu script glyphs)
Thomanaya, King of Maingmaw, and Ruranaya, King of Binnaka
    Thomanaya again funded the University to expand its library of scrolls amd the homeland was fortified. Merchants were given approval to trade with distant Van Lang but the terrain between was daunting especially the high mountains. Six hundred men were trained with sling and javelin and joined Thomanaya's guard along with another thousand he summoned from the regional garrison.
    Thomanaya of Maingmaw then proclaimed himself King of Binnaka as well, ending the power-sharing1 between the monarchs of the twin cities. There was outrage from both royals and commoners of Binnaka; messengers were swiftly dispatched to their king Ruranaya who was in distant Korat on a diplomatic mission.
    Ruranaya had crossed into Gouangxi for more diplomacy - taking him even further away from home - when the news reached him. Livid with fury at his brother king's surprising (yet perhaps inevitable) betrayal he rushed west as fast as possible. Slowed by endless mountains and then snow that blocked the passes to Sagaing, it was March of 2064 before he reached the homeland.
    Once there he was disheartened to learn both lieutenant Chilaya and feudal vassal Saralaya of Arakan had pledged loyalty to Thomanaya. Ruranaya's attempts to persuade garrison units to support him failed. It became clear to him while he'd been been away the transformation to true one-king monarchy had been accepted and no one was going to support him in a doomed effort to reverse it.
    The Binnakan royal family hadn't been imprisoned - one small blessing - so he gathered them and what retainers and servants remained true and left the city heading south, a ragtag caravan fleeing the Maingmaw tyranny....

    Thomanaya proclaimed his son Tholomaya his Heir and his son Thominba a Prince of the Realm. Much drunken celebration followed. Life is good thought the king. But only for a few more years. In 2062 when young royals went on a river fishing trip their galley ran aground on a sandbank and capsized. Most swam to shore but 11-year-old Polinba drowned as did lieutenant Chilaya trying to rescue him.

1 the two kings were treated as an Oligarchy. The change to a monarchy is one of the National Transformations in the Basic Rules.

City-State of Beikthano Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Peshak, King of Beikthano
    Peshak ordered small investments be made in pretty much everything. A longtime study of infantry tactics and equipment finally paid off just in time to deal with the slave revolt. Six hundred men were trained to the sword and an equal number to the bow and put under command of heir Daw who was much younger and vigorous than the old king. The king then held court and spent time with his Thatonese wife Mahn, who produced another daughter in 2062.

    In 2066 agricultural slaves on an isolated Pegu plantation had arisen and killed their sadistic owner. The revolt had spread farm to farm as ever-increasing numbers of slaves armed with makeshift weapons roamed the countryside burning villas and looting hamlets for supplies. Daw with his 1,200 men now crossed the Irrawaddy and joined forces with an equal number of feudal vassal Saya's household guards to crush the revolt.
    They swept the jungle often surprising bands of ex-slaves looting but at times being ambushed themselves. Royal archers helped in cleared areas with volleys of arrows dropping rebels at distance before both sides met in close combat. In early 2064 the leader of the rebellion was killed in a chance encounter after which the morale of the ex-slaves steadily declined. It still took several more years before all of them were killed, wounded or had surrendered. The kingdom had suffered a thousand casualties between Daw's and Saya's men but order had been restored.


(Viet migration from China starting to displace original Mon-Khmer peoples southward)

Lam Ap royal palace at Tra Kiew

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.

Kingdom of Langkasuka Seafaring Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Pallava script glyphs)
Akkarat Bunyasarn, King of Langkasuka
    In some rare hours of lucid thought between sessions ingesting Psilocybin hallucinogenic mushrooms along with most of amongst the nobility and priests, Akkarat Bunyasarn first decreed more gold be put towards creating a system to move news quickly. Alas, the nobles who were to lead the effort spent the funds on 'shrooms and made no progress. His second decree was more successful: he proclaimed royal male Sunisa to be his heir and tasked him with conducting a census of people, animals and homes. The new heir was among the few in the royal court who hadn't indulged in excess and actually got the job done. He also approved initiating sea trade with Funan then ruled the kingdom.
    Akkarat then began a carefree relationship with Surat's young widow Arisa. In early 2064 she announced she was pregnant and in celebration Akkarat ingested too much Psilocybin even for him and died. Sunisa took the throne and Arisa birthed a daughter later that year while continuing her 'shroom habit...

Kingdom of Funan Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Leab Phnom, King of Funan
    The eunuch Leab Phnom continued the previous king's policy of spending most of the nation's resources improving rural Funan. Small streams were bridged and paths widened so farm wagons could reach village markets faster. Small amounts of gold were again invested in military quality and devising a method to record the Mon-Khemer language. The University received funds to buy supplies.
    Leab Phnom then traveled to hostile (from previous failed diplomacy) Siam along with lieutenant Sadhar, various teen children of the late king and a significant escort. They were joined en route by feudal vassals Asvatthanman and Drona and their own household guards. In total some four thousand troops accompanied the party into Siam for serious diplomacy-in-force. The tribal chiefs quickly rethought their attitude and agreed to negotiations. The eunuch continued talks alone after Sadhar was one of a dozen who died from food poisoning at a banquet in early 2063. Offering the hand of royal daughter Soma in marrige to the strongest chief resulted an oath of fealty to Funan.

Kingdom of Lam Ap Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Pallava script glyphs)
Ang Le Bak, King of Lam Ap
    The year 2065 began with the death of Anh of Cochin, widow of the late king. Her sons the king and heir staged a state funeral after which they got to business. Ang Le Bak ordered a census taken of all citizens and placed his brother (and heir) Ang Sou Bak in charge of the scribes. An old effort to set up a system to relay messages quickly across the kingdom was finally successful.
    The king then stood ready with his army to defend his kingdom. The heir completed the census then spent his time idly in taverns and brothels. One night in 2064 he got into a drunken tavern brawl over the favors of a streetwalker and was fatally stabbed. Yet another state funeral was held after which Ang Le Bak proclaimed his younger brother Ang Bai Bak the new heir.

Kingdom of Van Lang Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Thuc Phan of Chan Dynasty, King of Van Lang
    Thuc Phan ordered much wealth given to the scholars, philosophers, artists and foreign scribes trying to create symbols to record the Viet language. They failed to make progress and spent much time living very well and arguing over different approaches. More successful was the gathering of surplus population, providing them with tools, wagons and draft animals and sending them to expand Ban Chiang in Nampung into a full city. The dirt-poor inhabitants were overjoyed when the (relatively) wealthy Van Lang colonists arrived and immedidately offered their services for pretty much anything.

    The king then conducted a brief diplomatic visit to Mison, offering himself in marriage to a local noblewoman in return for closer ties. Thuc Phan was a mediocre negotiator and was further handicapped by different languages. Fortunately Bokchio, opportunistic young sister of the local lord, wanted to be a queen and persuaded her brother to sign an economic treaty.
    The couple returned to Van Lang and the king set to ruling his kingdom but surprisingly made no effort to sire heirs with his bride. Bokchio became increasingly frustrated and arguments became frequent. During one such in 2061 Thuc Phan abruptly clutched his chest, staggered and keeled over dead at age 48. Local nobles decided she would be Regent for the young royal children of the previous king Hung Vuong.