LORDS OF THE EARTH 38 - THE DAWN OF CIVILIZATION
Newsfax Turn: #13 ( 2070 - 2066 BC )
March 5, 2017

ANNOUNCEMENTS: New or changed from previous turn will be in red.
My Stats program only accepts whole gp for University investment, and only stores whole nfp leftover at end of turn.
Progress in metallurgy & literacy will be in green and is the situation at the start of the turn.
If your University level is 2 or less you probably aren't producing tech points.
The rules for interacting with migrating tribes are deferred until I have time.
The Eastern half has changed sequence to go down the west coast of India then up the east coast. I think this is a more contiguous flow.


QUICK SCROLL if you know where you want to go:
Iberia/Southern Gaul
Central Mediterranean
Aegean Centered <-- Minoans moved to end of section
Nile Valley
Red Sea/Arabia Centered
Levant
Greater Mesopotamia
Iranian Plateau
Oxus Valley
Indus Valley
Southern India
Ganges Valley
Tibetan Plateau
Irrawaddy Valley
Southeast Asia

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IBERIA / SOUTHERN GAUL
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fortified Settlement of Los Millares in Granada


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.
Literacy has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.


Lusitanian Tribes Barbarian Metalworking Oligarchy
Uxentio, Chief of the Council of Clans
    Uxentio contniued small investments in pretty much everything hoping for a lucky breakthrough. Wells and irrigation ditches were dug in Portugal to improve agricultural yield. Uxentio then worked with the Council of Clans to handle the realm's needs. At night he enjoyed his wife Aretaunin, daughter of a chief, and in early 2069 year a daughter was born. The birth was difficult and Aretaunin did not conceive again despite the prayers of local Celtic priestesses.


Kingdom of Tartessos Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Tartessian syllabaric alphabet)
Riana, Queen of Tartessos
    Gorgio, the former king's son by a maidservant (and now heir) worked with the bureaucrats since widowed Queen Riana had no interest in the work of ruling, instead spending her days being entertained or pleasured. The young heir directed spending on naval engineering as well as storing a large grain surplus. Taking advantage of the warm climate, groves of citrus trees were planted in the homeland.
    Queen Riana ordered Gorgio to conquer Murcia, loot it and enslave the population, standard procedure in these times. Gorgio however had spent several years together with his brother Jose locked in a tower room and half-starved, at the Queen's command. Heading toward the army barracks he mused it might be payback time.
    The heir met with the army officers1 and although of only average ability convinced them to join him to seize the throne. With nearly four thousand men he marched the short distance to Huelva where the city garrison agreed to open the gates. Meanwhile Riana had married the Captain of the guard - palace gossip speculated if she'd fallen pregnant or simply wanted to keep the man under her control - and was enjoying a lavish celebration when the compound was stormed. While the noble guests ran in all directions in panic, the Captain's guards resisted but numbering only a few hundred they were quickly overwhelmed. A frantic search found the Queen badly hurt from falling and being trampled by the crowd. She was seen by a healer then escorted to a familiar tower room.
    Gorgio proclaimed himself king and named his younger brother Jose to be his heir. Word came early in 2067 of a Minoan pentaconter visiting Los Millares and its captain meeting with local traders. The inhabitants were quite impressed by the warship.

1 this is the situation for a potential "strongman overthrow" scenario unless the army leader is very loyal, which Gorgio was not (being imprisoned will do that) and can convince the men to follow him (d10 charisma check) which he did. He also convinced the city (another charisma check) to open its gates.


Celtiberian Tribes Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ihintza, Queen of Celtiberian Clans
    Yet again Ihintza again saved the wealth of the clans for later use. Funds were allocated trying to make government work attractive to qualified citizens. That underway, she crossed the Pyranees into Aquitaine to negotiate with its lord, offering her daughter Usoa in marriage in exchange for a treaty. The Queen was an average diplomat and was impeded by language differences but eventually the locals agreed the Celtiberians had some claim on them. In 2068 she crossed the Garonne into Languedoc to speak with its lord; after much talking (and a well-received gift) he pledged fealty to Ihintza. She returned home in the summer of 2066 exhausted from her travels and in ill health.
    Heir Amets returned to Cortes and ruled, finally able to enjoy his wife Sicounin of Old Castile who'd waited patiently for years to consummate their union. She delivered a son in late 2070 and a daughter in late 2068. Word came about the same time of a Minoan pentaconter visiting Ullastret and its captain meeting with local traders. The inhabitants were quite impressed by the warship.
    Towards the end of 2066 Amets - now over 60, old for the time - began suffering severe headaches accompanied by trembling and dizziness.


Artenac Culture Barbarian Metalworking Oligarchy
Vascons, Chief of the Council of Clans
    NPN at present - future turn open for a player

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Central Mediterranean
(Corsica, Sardinia, Italian penninsula & Maghreb area of North Africa)
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Etruscan capital of Luni in Tuscany


Literacy has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.

Nuragic Civilization Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Pasquale, Navarch, Lord of Albucci, de facto leader of Nuragic Civilization
    Pasquale hired scholars, philosophers, artists and unemployed foreign scribes to work on a method to record the Nuragic language, unlike any other known tongue. The Navarch also invested in setting up a way to move messages quickly. A surplus of vegetables were dried and stored for future needs. On Sardinia itself wells and irrigation ditches were dug to help increase farm productivity.
    open for a player


(Proto-)Etruscans Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Vulca Ulthese, King of Etruscans
    Returning to the capital with his Ligurian bride, Vulca got the bureaucrats working again and putting in full days at their jobs. The king next spent what wealth the kingdom possessed attempting to establish a service to relay news quickly through the realm; alas those in charge of the effort were no more competent than their predecessors. Meeting with merchants Vulca ordered trade with the Minoans moved to Locri to reduce distance and allow Etruscan ships to participate.
    The king then ruled his lands while curiously ignoring his new wife. In 2068 his son Abramo came of age and was proclaimed Heir. Abramo was a popular boy but the opposite of his hardworking father, being lazy and with no concern for governing when there was boar to hunt and palace wenches to bed.


Apennine Culture Civilized Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Crassus, Lord of Scoglio, de facto leader of Apennine Culture
    Crassus spent heavily trying to create a service to relay news swiftly but had no more luck than his Etruscan neighbors. The University campus was nearly doubled with additional lecture halls, dormatories and a communal dining hall. With great effort the substantial wilderness areas of Spoleto were cleared and acreage granted for farming and herding. Captains were authorized to trade with Herakleopolis and Hazor.
    The leader then coordinated Apennine efforts with the assistance of Euripedes, son of late king Decimus. Crassus finally spent time with his wife Venus; he'd been away for years on diplomatic missions. Time passed without pregnancy and the couple called upon priestesses of fertility from the capital's temple. The chanting and incense were apparently effective: Venus birthed twin boys in late 2067.


City-State of Herakleopolis Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (hieroglyphic pictographs and hieratic script)
Ramses III, King of the IX Dynasty, favored of Heryshef
    Ramses III invested in the future by funding the hiring of more scholars and purchase of supplies for the University. To create a line of succession he proclaimed Tetmoses IV, an officer in royal service, to be his heir.
    Having become king in his mid-50s Ramses III knew he had few years remaining and so decided to act boldly. Gathering over 2,500 infantry he marched west through Kabilya and Algeria, falling upon the Neolithic tribes of Cheliff like a thunderstorm. Disciplined Egyptian troops with bronze swords and armor made short work of the tribal warriors with stone axes. The sparsely populated wilderness was stripped of anything valuable (mostly livestock, pottery and some carved ivory from Zirid) and its populace enslaved. Ramses III returned to Tunis in late 2068, parading slaves, prisoners of war and herds of bleating goats in triumph.
    A few days later the king died peacefully in his sleep. Tetmoses IV, who'd been ruling in his absence, took the throne without incident.

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AEGEAN CENTERED
(Balkans, Aegean Sea littoral & Anatolia)
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City of Troy in Bithnia overlooking the Hellespont


Minoans moved to end so the land-continuous Illyria/Acheans/Troy/Hittiteswould be in sequence.

Literacy exists throughout this area as shown below.

Illyrians Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Cabar, King of Illyrians
    Upon returning to the palace in Salona, Cabar funded recruitment of bureaucrats and attempts to initate a messenger service. The University received a grant to purchase supplies. In the homeland gristmills received new millstones and more common pasture land was fenced. Two hundred men were trained to the bow and a light galley built at the municipal shipyards in Salona for coastal trading. Sensing the size of the kingdom was more than could be managed, Cabar granted both Slovenia and Croatia autonomy in exchange for fealty.
    All that set in motion, the king collected royal princesses Harmonia and Semni and together with over a thousand archers and skirmishers crossed the mountains into Croatia heading east. Reaching the Sava River the royal party crossed on a local ferry to the settlement of Gomalova. The elders were astonished at the visit of a king, who offered the settlement's leader the hand of Semni in marriage in exchange for ties to Illyria. In early 2068 there was more astonishment when five light galleys flying Minoan banners docked at the settlement. Much feasting ensued involving Illyrians, Minoans and Gomalovans. Discussions resumed after the ships departed and eventually the elders agreed to pay tribute to Illyria with dried fish, local produce and handicrafts.
    Cabar and Harmonia - who'd been further educated in diplomacy - returned to Salona in late summer 2066 to learn elderly vassal Damir of Nesactium had retired to his seaside estate. The kingdom was peaceful thanks to the vigilance of heir Pavla.


Achaean Greeks Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Linear B glyphs)
Opites, King of Achaeans
    Opites continued to spend heavily on military engineering and increasing governmental efficiency. The latter effort knew success when a mid-level scribe devised a new way of cataloging scrolls so their information was more easily located. In rural Attica small streams were bridged to allow farm wagons to reach market faster. With an eye to the growing power of Troy, additional defenses were built in Macedon and Thessaly. This was to prove prescient when a Trojan army crossed into Bulgaria midsummer of 2070.
    Asaeus collected troops and headed for Thessaly where he joined Epriot vassal Deipyrus and his household guard. King Opites occasionally appeared on the palace balcony with wife Eritha but appeared content to let his heir handle the situation. [see Troy]

    In late 2067 rumor came from the palace Eritha had died after a fall. Opites rarely appeared after that.


City-State of Troy Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy - literate (Luwian hieroglyphics)
Antenor, King of Troy IV
    From Thrace King Antenor sent his orders back to Troy. Many civilians with analytical skills were hired into government service. The University received a new lecture hall and supplies. In Lydia the foothills of the eastern mountains were terraced for grape vines or grazing sheep. Most of the city-state's wealth however was spent increasing the army by a thousand heavy spearmen, six hundred archers and several hundred swordsmen. The recruits would soon see action.
    In March heir Eurytion crossed the Hellespont into Thrace bringing a thousand archers with him, the light units being ferried within the month. Joining the king, the two of them, the recently enfeoffed Orthryoneus of Thrace and feudal vassal Iapyx II of Moldovia invaded Bulgaria midsummer of 2070 with an army of over six thousand archers, swordsmen and skirmishers. In overall command was Eurytion, a blunt-talking and charmless but unmatched when it came to war.
    Bulgaria saw to its own defense with two thousand militia who assembled around their lord's stone keep. The Bulgarians knew their lands but the Trojans had better leaders, more scouts and - once the Trojan armies united - two thousand archers. These dropped sheets of bolts onto the native ranks (think the Persian arrow storm from the movie "300" ) who'd never before encountered such.
    Half the locals were down before the two sides closed to swords, slings and javelins. The remainders were slaughtered and the keep burnt although not before the local lord led a desperation breakout that allowed the Bulgarians a brief rampage among the Trojan archers. The lord joined hundreds of his wounded men as prisoners. The Trojans lost only a few hundred killed but among them was Iapyx II of Moldovia, hit by a random javelin; his men departed with his body chanting mournful dirges.
    By this point lieutenant Caletor ("the Scarred" from a gruesome battle wound) had arrived with nearly fifteen hundred armored spearmen as reinforcements, the Hellespont ferries having taken three months to transport them to Thrace. During that time five light galleys passed by with Minoan banners but no incidents occurred.

    After wintering the Trojans broke camp and set to work. While some warriors guarded the against Achaean response others enslaved1 the Bulgarian populace. With their best men already lost the locals' resistance was swiftly crushed. Abandoning the now-depopulated Bulgaria, the Trojan host returned to Thrace mid-2069, herding thousands of prisoners and civilians into overcrowded slave pens by the field forts. Orthryoneus, already feeling guilt about the treachery that made Thrace his fief - he was an honorable warrior - felt himself questioning his actions. Yet when the forces of Troy headed west toward the Macedonian border he marched with his king.

    In the spring of 2068 seven thousand Trojans invaded, a mix of archers and infantry. Movement was slower than the Bulgarian campaign due to the accompanying heavy infantry but by summer the Greek kingdom's defenses of Macedon were reached: four stone keeps at strategic points backed by 400 mixed infantry. Trojan infantry closed with scaling ladders whilst their archers droped volleys of arrows upon the Achaeans causing heavy loss among the supporting troops. The forts were stormed amidst savage fighting, the men of Troy relying on overwhelming numbers to offset the lack of seige engineers. By late summer the last one had been taken with the invaders suffering over 300 dead and twice that wounded.
    While one army defended against counterattack the rest of the warriors looted anything of value, leaving the populace to suffer through the approaching winter. Worse was to come.

    After wintering the Trojans got busy enslaving the natives. Or attempting to. However the Macedonians themselves hadn't taken losses of their own in the previous fighting and - knowing what had happened in Bulgaria - had used the winter to organize. With most of the Trojans guarding against Greek counterattack, the Macedonian revolt took most of 2067 for Caletor and Othryoneus to put down - at the cost of most of their troops. Othryoneus himself had gone missing towards the end of the fighting and was presumed dead somewhere.

    The year 2066 saw the men of Troy split forces. Caletor moved east through Thrace with enslaved or captured Macedonians and Greeks, collecting Bulgarians along the way from holding pens. A slave sampler of sorts. The whole wretched mass of nearly six thousand shuffled along in chains towards the Hellespont, escorted by skirmishers to keep order.
    Although losses and the need to supply an escort for the slaves had reduced the forces available to King Antenor and heir Eurytion, they still had over 4,000 including a lot of archers. And so they decided to head further west for Thessaly. Here the Greeks had decided to make a stand, assembling 2,000 Achean infantry led by Asaeus and a thousand men of Epirus led by vassal Deipyrus, deployed anticipating attack from Macedon. Their lines were anchored on four stone towers.


Achean and Trojan spearmen locked in battle

    The men of Troy followed a familiar script: while archers dropped sheets of arrows upon the defenders the various infantry types rushed forward, spearmen for field battle, swordsmen and skirmishers with scaling ladders.
    The defenders suffered several hundred casualties from the arrow storm. The invaders reached the entrenchments and towers and despite bloody close-quarter combat were unable to break through, each side taking about fifteen hundred casualties. King Antenor ordered the army to fall back into Macedon taking nearly a thousand wounded with them. Much had been accomplished and it was foolish to risk it all now.
    The Greeks and Epriots prayed thankfully to their (pre-Olympian) gods as they scavanged the battlefield.

1 after several years without being worked farmland is gradually overgrown and degraded. Cultivated to half-cultivated, and half-cultivated to wilderness or jungle.


Hitties Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Luwian hieroglyphics)
Sapalulme, King of the Hittites
    Sapalulme ordered the walls of the capital to be improved with towers and bastions. To the Hittite's astonishment as the years went by there was no attack from Troy. The priests of the Temple of Arinna assured the king their prayers were responsible.


Minoans Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (Linear A glyphs)
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Ugarit
Urglaz, First of the Council
    Urglaz guided Council discussions. First up were political issues. After much talk a mutual defense pact with the city-state of Ugarit was approved and so proclaimed to the populace. Jutkas, former lord of Cyprus, was given quarters near the University campus where he taught all things Cypriot to broaden the worldview of the students.
    Next up were financial decisions. Gold was spent on military quality and recruiting more government employees. A campus was built for training Minoan missionaries; temple priests were hired as instructors of the initial class. In the fertile south of Crete the first orchards of pomegranates and figs were planted, and experiments in soil replenishment were begun using lentils.
    Nautical items were then addressed. Trade was initiated with Hazor (courtesy its new Mediterranean port), Nubia (thanks to rutters of the Lower Nile) and nations in Iberia using Borg in-Nadur as a conduit. Another bireme was built (named The Bull of Tyros) at the municipal arsenal in Knossos and its sea trials went more smoothly than with the first bireme. Four light galleys were launched as well.

    All that underway, Urglaz - a skilled diplomat known as "Golden Tongue" - collected Horoz and Tiloz, young sons of Alogys, Second of the Council, and took them to the Kyklades to observe diplomacy in progress. Years of negotiations followed (the 7 year old boys were bored beyond words) until in autumn 2068 the lord of the islands agreed to preferential treatment for Minoan merchants. A banquet was held to celebrate the economic agreement; shortly negotiations would resume on even closer ties. Urglaz arose, wine goblet in hand to make a toast, clutched his chest and fell forward with a groan faceplanting into a tureen of fish chowder. The boys watched horrified as their mentor's body was carried out; a retainer of the lord would see it and the siblings returned to Knossos.

    Second of the Council Alogys patrolled the waters around Crete with two biremes and a squadron of pentaconters. A galley from Knossos reached his fleet near the end of 2068 with news of Urglaz's death and that he was the new First. Alogys decided to appoint Jutkas of Cyprus as his Second - only to learn the Cypriot had died of a flux common to Crete but unknown in his homeland. Next on Alogys's succession list was his younger brother Fteriku and to the First's relief Fteriku was very much alive and married to S'arini, a daughter of a wealthy merchant.

    Minoan vassal Ploion of Miletos had traveled by pentaconer to Knossos where he was honored at a sea-themed festival and awarded a rich purple robe for his loyal service. It was then east to Tell Abu Hawan, the newly built port of the City-State of Hazor, arriving late 2070. Trade was discussed as well as the mechanics of shipping a few Syrian elephants to Crete for display in Knossos. The following year Ploion traveled up the Nile to Aswanopolis then back downriver, stopping briefly at Abydos to meet with representatives of the Egyptian Priesthood. Crossing to the western Mediterranean he made port calls in Ponteau, Ullastret and finally Los Millares before returning home late 2066. Scarcely had the pentaconter docked than the crew was headed en masse to the taverns and brothels.
    Meanwhile smooth-talking lieutenant Arkalokri had headed to the port settlement of Ponteau in Provence. Several years into his negotiations the locals were impressed when Minoan vassal Ploion of Miletos briefly visited. The war galley he captained displayed Minoan engineering and his magnificent purple robe - the necessary dye was extremely expensive - served as example of Minoan wealth. Arkalokri's job was made easier and the settlement's elders agreed to tributary status.

    In early 2070 Ally Tobglak of Phylakopi had set out north toward the Bosphorus, this time with a fleet of light galleys. The galleys returned to Phlakopi autumn 2066 with tired crews in a celebratory mood.
    Not long afterward terrible news arrived from Cyprus. [see The Big Quake]

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NILE VALLEY
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Egyptian capital of Memphis in Lower Egypt on the Nile


Knowledge of bronzeworking exists throughout the Nile Valley.
Literacy exists throughout the Nile Valley as shown below.


Egyptian Priesthood Civilized Bronzeworking Theocracy - literate (hieroglyphic pictographs and hieratic script)
Sharek, High Priest of Osiris
    Sharek decreed additional funds be spent enticing more followers to join the Priesthood. Faithful with analytical skills were recruited to support site building. Extra donated food was stored for the future. The High Priest then traveled south by Nile barge to Lower Nubia where he presided over construction of a Temple Shrine that the newly-converted inhabitants would have their spiritual needs addressed.

    Meanwhile High Priestess Anashepsut of Sobek took a commercial galley up the Nile and along the coast to Byblos where she oversaw the expansion of the existing temple enclosure to a full temple complex despite delays due to language differences. The work had just been completed when tsunami waves demolished part of the harbor - [see The Big Quake] - fortunately the complex was further into the city and unaffected. It was not long before rumor swept the city that the Semetic and Mesopotamian gods had punished the people for allowing increasing Egyptian influence to upset the balance of pantheons.

    In late summer 2069 a Minoan pentaconter had docked at Abydos and and its captain delivered a scroll to the local priest of Sobek since both Sharek and Anashepsut were out of the city.
    Priesthood missionaries were sent from the temple in Mersa Gawasisto by boat to rural Yemen and the port of Sawakin to spread the word of their pantheon. In Yemen nearly a third of the peasantry were converted. The inhabitants of Sawakin proved more difficult due to the natural skepticism of the sophisticated (well, relatively speaking) urbanite, but over a fifth embraced the true gods.


Middle Kingdom Egypt Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (hieroglyphic pictographs and hieratic script)
Ipu, Queen of the VIII Dynasty, favored of Ptah
    For years Ipu had saved most of the kingdom's wealth for future use. Now it would be used. Another wave of colonists was sent to Middle Egypt equipped with draft animals, wagons, tools and building materials. Joining those already there the devastated region began looking inhabited again with homesteads and hamlets scattered through the wilderness. The effort was overseen and protected by the Queen's brother (and heir) Kanefer.
    A port area was built in Lower Egypt on the Gulf of Cyprus. This would extend the range of Egypt's trade further since galleys wouldn't have to navigate the Nile delta to reach river ports. (Those who worked the docks and harbor businesses in Memphis and Heliopolis were none too pleased with this turn of events.)
    Investments were made in military quality and government hiring. A new lecture hall was built for the University and a large wheat surplus stored for the future. Ipu then ruled her realm and spent time with her half-Minoan son Manetho.

    Meanwhile lieutenant Meru trekked to the baking hot lands of Ghebel Gharib to establish ties with the nomads of that sparsely populated region. Offering marriage heir Kanefer in marriage to a nomad princess (okay, the daughter of a scruffy chief) helped overcome Meru's poor diplomatic skills and the tribesmen pledged fealty to Egypt.
    Taking Kanefer's betrothed Tiye with him, Meru journeyed further east to Mersa Gawasis where he fared miserably negotiating with the city's ruler. The lords of Mersa Gawasis had become accustomed to the independence they'd had for over a generation. When Meru offered the Queen's son Manetho in marriage to a local noblewoman, the lord became furious, calling the boy a halfbreed and ordered Meru (and Tiye) driven from the city into the desert with worse threatened should they return. Seriously harsh.


Kingdom of Nubia Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Candace, Regent for Maraga II son of late King Maraga
    Candace realized the kingdom had grown larger than the bureaucrats could handle; they were overwhelmed with minutiae to track and decisions to make. The nation's finances were suffering and morale among the employees was low. So she poured what wealth and labor Nubia did have recruiting scholars, philosophers, tribal shamen, pretty much anyone to brainstorm and implement a more efficient government. It was a Manhattan Project level effort and it paid off within a few years with a new organization scheme, better record keeping and more efficient procedures.
    The Regent ruled the realm. Word came in late spring 2069 of a Minoan pentaconter visiting Aswanopolis and its captain meeting with local traders. The inhabitants were quite impressed by the warship.
    In the summer of 2067 Maraga II (her son with the late king) came of age and took the throne as the new king. Already large for his age, he was physically imposing and well spoken if rather self-centered.

    Prince Selenat meanwhile recrossed the Nubian Desert from diplomacy in Suakin, returning home to spend time with his children and wife Lanati. Another daughter was born in 2069 followed by a miscarriage the previous year that left Lanati weak and feverish for weeks, and she did not become pregnant again despite many fertility rituals.
    Lieutenant Tu'faliya left Kerma heading north to Upper Egypt whereupon he assumed command of its garrison. The next year he was rewarded with the region as his fief, and swore his oath of loyalty to the Regent's representative.


City-State of Meroe Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Saba, King of Meroe
    Saba spent heavily improving rural Sennar with wells, irrigation ditches, communal pastures and barns for draft animals, all designed to improve agricultural output. The king was indifferent when word arrived that Egyptian missionaries were active in the Red Sea port of Sawakin but the local shamen were furious and warned of consequences.
    Saba held court and continued to get children on wife Medani: boys in 2069 and 2068, then a girl in 2067. The girl was the 12th child birthed and an exhausted Medani prayed Saba would spend time with his concubines instead.
    Heir Arakamani continued his many uneventful years of guarding the kingdom from invaders, the troops (and the heir himself) increasingly laying about the barracks drinking or keeping the rural homeland brothels in business.
    A light trade galley from distant (and half-mythical) Lothal docked in Swakin and the captain declared he was honored to be the first of his people to trade with Nubia. When he was informed the port belonged to Meroe, he shrugged and displayed his trade wares anyway for the curious crowd. Gold is gold.

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RED SEA / ARABIA CENTERED
(including Horn of Africa)
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Sabaean capital of Sa'na in Yemen


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area except as noted below.
Literacy exists throughout this area as shown below.


Land of Punt Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Finja, King of Punt
    Finja again invested in military quality and trying to attract more scribes for government work. The University received supplies and funding to hire more scholars. Facilities were built along the Red Sea coast to help fishermen dry and store their catches. With a final large amount of gold the cultivation of Adowa was completed and much drunken celebration followed.
    That underway, Finja ruled his kingdom and - under pressure from the court to produce heirs - finally married his (diplomatic) betrothed, the Ziellan noblewoman Nelida. A daughter was born early 2069 followed by a son in 2067. A pregnancy in 2066 ended with Nelida dying in childbirth along with the child after several days of labor. Finja was heartbroken, having come to adore his wife.
    Not long afterward a minor earthquake rocked Djibuti, collapsing some 20% of structures including the palace of allied leader Barde as well as mills, barns and homes. Barde was injured but recovered and toured the region.


Sabaeans Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Zabar script glyphs)
Almakah, King of Sa'na
    Almakah ordered gold spent on military quality, experiments with alloys of copper and trying to recruit more government scribes. In Sheba - just recently cleard of wilderness - much wealth and labor went to dig wells and irrigation ditches, build mills and barns, and plant orchards of fruit trees. In a decade the region had been transformed from wilderness to productive agriculture.
    The king then administered his lands with assistance from Sami, Prince (retired) of Sheba. This let him spend more time with his Sheban wife Sirwah, siring a girl in 2070. The labor was difficult and Sirwah did not conceive again for years. Pregnant again in 2066 after many fertility rituals, she birthed a boy but thereafter became sick and died a few days later of childbirth fever. Husband Almakah and brother Sami were both plunged into a deep grief.
    Worse, the court astrologer predicted the boy would die before he reached manhood. This, he added, was because the king had invited Egyptian missionaries to trick the naive peasants of the homeland to worship foreign gods.

    Meanwhile charismatic heir (and nephew) Shu Samawi along with lieutenant Haubas headed east to Ma'rib in Sheba. Its leaders were surprised such a high-ranking royal delegation would come to their impoverished settlement. Both men were persuasive individually; it was said jointly they could talk a snake out of its scales. The settlement fully joined the Sabaean kingdom.


Traders of Dilmun Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Muqrin, First of the Council
    Muqrin obtained Council approval for continued investmented in ship design and trying to establish a messenger service - especially with the Traders' holdings spread so far. Civic improvements now focused on the city of Hadiboh including sewers, water pipes and paving of the central plaza and major streets. Seven trade galleys were launched from the Dilumn shipyards and together with extant galleys equipped as a fishing fleet to ease the chronic food shortage.
    Muqrin then administered the many activities of the Traders and continued to ignore his barbaric Socotran wife, who in turn continued flirting - and more, if palace rumor be true - with courtiers, guardsmen and even servants.

    In the meantime Second of the Council Talal collected excess urban population, their possessions, tools and building materials then headed for Berbera and unloaded them on the coast by the tin mines. A village had grown up around the mines where native workers, merchants and vendors lived. The newcomers from Dilmun were put to work expanding the village into a settlement with a small harbor where ships could dock. Swordsmen kept the locals from doing more than muttering and giving dirty looks.
    Talal next met with the chiefs of pacified Berbera hoping to persuade them further of the advantages of cooperation. Although the memory of the conquest was fading, they were quite unhappy with the settlers and so Tilal made less progress than before.
    When the Second returned to Dilumn in late 2066 he was startled to see how tired and sickly Muqiin had become. It was clear he didn't have much longer to live.

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THE LEVANT
(Eastern Mediterranean shore then west to Subartu)
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City-State of Ugarit on the Eastern Mediterranean


Literacy exists throughout Greater Levant (cuneiform).

City-State of Hazor Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ibiranu, King of Hazor
    Ibiranu continued investing in military quality and after years of disappointment it paid off with officers demonstrating new tactics in swordfighting. A large number of civilians with analytical minds were hired for specialized government jobs and 400 recruits trained as infantry. Surveys and land clearing were begun to expand the University campus. Fruits and vegetables from another large harvest surplus were dried for the future, requiring construction of additional storehouses.
    In Jordan small creeks were bridged to allow farm wagons to reach market faster, and irrigation ditches were dug to bring water to the dry lands around the Dead Sea. Surplus urban population was sent along with equipment to enlarge the new port settlement of Tell Abu Hawam to a full city. In early 2069 a Minoan pentaconter visited and its captain met with local traders. The inhabitants were quite impressed by the warship.
    Meanwhile Ibiranu gathered the army under his command. Not that he didn't trust his brothers Niqmepa (heir) and Yaqarum (a prince) - but why take chances? The king then ruled his kingdom but oddly ignored his comely wife Pudukhepa, who increasing sought solace at the ophiolatrist temple shrine in the capital.
    Neither of the king's brothers were given orders and felt a mix of resentment and freedom. Niqmepa spent time with his family. Unmarried Yaqarum spent time slumming the bars and brothels in the unsavory quarters of Hazor.

    Ill fortune plagued the royal family in the years that followed: Domina, 10 year old daughter of Ibiranu and deceased wife Donatiya died after a fall. Maher, the 14 year old son of Niqmepa died in the same fall - apparently they'd been climbing the outside of an old palace tower and both lost their balance. The following year - 2068 - Quarta and Sisa, sisters of the king, died in their mid-30s of food poisoning after purchasing grilled meat from a vendor while shopping in the marketplace. The common folk whispered the royals were cursed.


City-State of Ugarit Civilized Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Minoans, mutual defense with Subartu
Yaqarum, First of the Council
    With Yaqarum even more insane - now claiming divinity - and even more fixated on gilding the palace, new Second of the Council Ibarinum coordinated Council activity. The First was kept supplied with gold and slaves (time time Assuran POWs) for his gilded palace (aka "Great Palace of Yaqarum the Mad") project which kept him busy.
    Ibarinum ordered investment made in infantry quality and Palmyra fortified with forts at key locations. Another two hundred men were trained as seige engineers and the walls of Ebla further strengthened (although the work was poorly done with unfortunate results). After much talk mutual defense pacts with the Minoans and the Kingdom of Subartu were approved and so proclaimed to the populace. Merchants were given approval to initiate trade with the Etruscans.
    In Ugarit itself a great public square was built with stone paving, fountains and statues glorifying the victory over Assur. At one end a great amphitheater was constructed where actors, poets and musicians could entertain the citizens. Ibarinum then held court and tended to the daily decisions of the Council. Lieutenant Aziru and various feudal vassals stayed alert ready to react to an invasion.

    In the hot summer of 2070 Yaqarum frequently spent time alone atop the highest palace tower. One night he appeared on the balcony and cried out to the people below to bear witness: He was the god of the sky, called Horus or Anu, and He would fly into the sky to join his fellow gods. With that he leaped, arms out, golden robes illuminated by the ring of torches around the palace that were kept burning every night. He hit the street pavement hard with a crunch of bone as the crowd scattered. Now that's entertainment.
    Ibarinum became the new First of the Council. Agaliba, famed orator and the current Mayor of Ugarit became the new Second. Life is good agreed the men as they sipped wine watching the most comely of Assuran slave girls dancing before them.
    Naturally, this invited the worst to happen. It just took a while.

The Big Quake
    In late 2066 the buildup of tectonic stress finally caused a major rupture of the East Anatolian Fault1 with the epicenter being in southeastern Cilicia. The resultant 8.35 Richter magnitude earthquake sent seismic waves outward in all directions. In eastern Cilicia and western Edessa (including the city of Samosite) over 30% of the houses, barns and mills collapsed. The same fate befell northwestern Palmyra and the city of Ebla.
    When the waves reached the coast of Cyprus a tsunami swept over the eastern half of the island leaving piles of debris where farms and hamlets had stood. North and south of Cyprus waves sank galleys and left shorelines littered with detritus. By the time the event reached the Tyros and Tyre the force had decreased to high tides and minor harbor damage.
    In Aleppo the shock traveled south here too leveling over 30% of rural structures. In Ugarit multi-story housing collapsed, sewers and water lines broke, newly added city walls crumbled and even portions of the Great Palace - including the tower from which Yaqarum leapt - toppled in clouds of golden debris. The columned entrances of government buildings gave way taking much of the structures with them; fortunately it was not a work day and few employees were crushed. The waterfront was shaken and then inundated as the tsunami waves reached it. A few hours later the same happened to the harbor of Byblos although at reduced strength.


Council headquarters after the earthquake


    First Ibarinum declared a state of emergency in Ugarit, ordering the army to maintain order and help searching for victims in the rubble. He requested assistance from the rest the city-state's territory, only realizing the extent of the calamity as pleas for help trickled in from all directions. Rumor swept the capital this was the gods' punishment for the presumption of Yaqarum to think himself one of them.

1 caused by the Arabian Plate pushing against the Anatolian Plate. See East Anatolian Fault.
Fortunately the quake did not trigger activity along the Dead Sea Transform fault or the destruction would've continued to the Gulf of Aqaba. See Dead Sea Transform


Kingdom of Subartu Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Ugarit
Jovka, Queen of Subartu
    Jovka invested small amounts in both military and government improvements but retained most of her realm's wealth for future use. Hundreds of captured Assuran POWs were put to the lash terracing hillsides and digging snow melt retention basins in the homeland. After discussions with court advisors and famed general (and son & heir) Caregin, a mutual defense treaty with Ugarit was announced. With that accomplished, the Queen ruled Subartu.

    In the hot summer of 2068 a flux swept through the capital sickening royal and commoner alike. Among the several score dead was Jovka. After recovering from his own near-fatal bout Caregin was crowned king. While a battlefield genius, Caregin had no patience for holding court when he could be competing in tournaments or using his godlike looks to bed the ladies of the palace (single or not). Fortunately lieutenant Aslan was helping and effectively took over administration.
    Caregin's younger brother Vahan became the new heir and another tournament was held to celebrate. Not long afterward officers studying the lessons of the campaign against Assur presented new ideas for infantry tactics - something that finally held the king's interest.

    In late 2066 came word from Edessa of a savage shaking of the ground and resultant damage and loss of life. [see The Big Quake]

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GREATER MESOPOTAMIA
(Mesopotamia & Persian Gulf littoral)
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City of Kish on the Euphrates River


Literacy exists throughout Greater Mesopotamia (cuneiform except for Elam which uses Elamite Linear script).

Mesopotamian Priesthood Civilized Bronzeworking Theocracy
Shuruppak, High Priest of Innana (Ishtar) at Uruk
    High Priest Shuruppak saved most of the Priesthood's wealth but did spent enough to recruit and train more initiate priests. Four hundred of the Faithful were trained with spear and shield to protect the Temple Precinct in Uruk. A surplus of donated food was saved for times of need. Shuruppak then rejoined High Priestess Salabikh in devising new rituals to appease the gods.
    open for a player



City-State of Kish Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Uruk & Lagash
Jushur II, 2nd King of the VI Dynasty, favored of Zababa
    By command of Jushur II two hundred men were trained as archers and a thousand more in the use of javelin and sling. Once again large sums were spent on improvements in Circis: lowlands along the river were drained and built up for farming, gristmills had their millstones replaced, the dirt roads to the bitumen deposits were widened and graveled for better wagon access. A port fortress was constructed on the Euphrates near those deposits to guard them and allow barge loading.
    The king thereafter ruled his kingdom and rather than remarry instead enjoyed his many concubines. It was good to be king! Three of them fell pregnant resulting in twin sons born late 2070 and daughters born 2070 and 2067.
    Meanwhile the king's elder son (and heir) Jushur III crossed the Tigris to Diyala. The region was formerly one of Assur's until that city fell; now Jurhur III negotiated to gain its loyalty to Kish. The lord of Diyala was suspicious of new entanglements and not impressed by the offered gifts;; despite years of talks he remained unmoved. Discouraged, the heir returned home.


State of Uruk-Lagash Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Kish
Kuda, 2nd King of the IV Dynasty, favored of Inanna
    Kuda allocated gold hoping to entice more citizens into public service. Another dormitory was buit at the growing University. stocked a library, hiring staff to maintain it. To continue the war against Gutia, four hundred men were trained as heavy infantry and another three squadrons of battle carts equipped. Construction continued on a bridge over the Euphrates near Ur.
    Once again leaving Nam-mahazi the Golden, former King of Lagash (and heir) to rule their combined lands, Kuda led an army of eight thousand mixed infantry (the vast majority heavy spearmen) and five squadrons of battle carts south through Elam into Mand, camping for the winter by the previously-pacified settlement of Anshan. Accompanying him was Prince Puzur-Ili as second in command.
    In April of 2069 the king ordered everything and everyone in the settlement seized. The bewildered inhabitants (absurdly outnumbered by the royal army) didn't even resist. The people were dirt-poor and looting found nothing of value. The hapless civilians were herded towards the coast. Surveyors and engineers from Uruk had already planned a port site and had brought tools and building materials. By year's end the exhausted people had built a new settlement henceforth known as Kudashan. The Urukish army went into winter encampment nearby.
    In the spring of 2068 once the snows melted from the mountain passes Kuda led his army into pacified Neyriz and then in midsummer north toward the border with Zagros. The Gutians had interfered in his conquest of Elam; now they would pay the price. Or not. The king was nearly sixty and many years of campaigning had taken their toll. One morning his retainers found he'd died in his sleep.
    Puzur-Ili was now in command.1 As per his orders he turned the army's march west towards Elam and eventually back to Uruk, bringing Kuda's ashes for burial in the royal necropolis. Nam-mahazi the Golden, former King of Lagash, was now king of all.

    Meanwhie Lieutenant Ilum-Gamil aka "Silvertongue" had traveled to Ahvaz to persuade its lord Sin-Iribam to closer ties with Uruk-Lagash, offering young princess Anurash for betrothal to a nobleman, with marriage to follow when she came of age in 2068. After several years of negotiations Ahvaz became fully part of the dual kingdom and Sin-Iribam retired to his riverfront estate.
    Upon hearing word of Kuda's death Ilum-Gamil met up with the army as it returned to Uruk.

    Reports reached Uruk in the summer of 2066 of a light galley with Ganweriwalan banners running aground in the Tigris, but an accompanying galley managed to work it free without needing help from onlookers.

1 this is the situation for a classic "strongman overthrow" scenario unless the army leader makes his loyalty check (d10 roll vs loyalty stat) which Puzur-Ili did.

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IRANIAN PLATEAU
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Silk Road marketplace in Gutian capital of Borahshi


Literacy exists throughout this area as shown below.

Kingdom of Gutia Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Gazsi, King of Gutium
    Ignoring the urgings of royal advisors to increase the army, Gazsi continued to spend trying to recruit government workers and more laborers were sent to work on the royal road being built from Borashi to Tepe Sialk. Surplus vegetables were dried and stored in case of famine. In Persia wells were dug and hostels built for travelers along the Silk Road. The king met with Prince Kindattu, former King of Elam, presumably to discuss the strategic situation. Gazsi then continued on to Zagros with over three thousand mixed infantry where he joined forces already there to defend against an anticipated attack - which didn't happen. [see Uruk].
    A nameless lieutenant spent years talking to the lord of Zagros about merging with Gutia. After much feasting, drinking and many gifts of gold, the lord agreed to retirement.

    Gazsi's son (and heir) Samu returned to Borahshi but rather than rule he spent all his time in his suite and gardens with wife Shadi. A daughter was born in late 2070. A second girl the following year was a long and difficult birth; the child was listless and sickly while Shadi was feverish for weeks. Shadi did not conceive again until early 2066, delivering twins (girl, boy) near the end of the year.
    Palace rumor claims the king's comely Zagrosian wife Roshanak - who's been pretty much ignored by Gazsi for years - spends many nights together with Samu and Shadi. Given Roshanak is also Samu's stepmother makes the rumors doubly scandalous.


Kingdom of Ganweriwala Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Indus glyphs)
Vihana the Magnificent, King of Ganweriwala
    Vihana bade investment in military quality and supplies for the University. Wells were dug in the semi-desert of Carmania - the first improvements ever in that harsh region. Four light galleys were built in the shipyards of Yukta. The king next proclaimed his son Lakshmana to be his heir, replacing his brother Dhaval who would often be away from the capital. (Dhaval had no patience for holding court and so was not particularly upset by the announcement - he'd rather be drinking and wenching anyways.)
    Vihana then ruled his lands and enjoyed his concubines. After a few years a delegation of army officers presented to him details of improvements in infantry tactics and equipment.
    Dhaval and Rishi had been commanded to explore waters beyond current knowledge; this time they had navy-crewed1 galleys to do it. Dhaval took two galleys west from Yukta heading into the Persian Gulf. When they returned home late 2066 one ship was towing the other, which had apparently sustained damage and lost oars, and the crews were in a somber mood.
    Meanwhile lieutenant Rishi took two galleys south into the Gulf of Oman. They returned in autumn 2066 intact and with the crews ready to seek out wine and women.

1 a leader moving alone across water is assumed to have hired a commercial vessel for the trip. However such captains will not venture into unknown seas. To Explore a leader must have one or more naval units with him/her who (if the leader passes a Charisma check) may be persuaded to make the attempt.

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OXUS VALLEY
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City of Namazgadepe in Turkmen - foreground slopes downward to Oxus River


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy (pictographic symbols) exists throughout this area.


City-State of Namazgadepe Civilized Metalworking Centralized Monarchy
Piyama, King of Namazgadepe
    Piyama decreed investment in military quality and hiring for government service. A small grant was given to metalworkers to experiment with alloys of copper. Prisoners taken in the conquest of Kara-Khitai were put to work building a library for the University. Stone towers were built in Kara-Khitai at strategic locations to keep the populace under control. Finally, with much ceremony his son Nilichi was annointed his heir.
    The king then returned to Bokhara to speak to its lord (without hinted threats this time) of closer ties with Namazgadepe. Piyama was at best an average diplomat and surprisingly had brought neither gifts nor marriage offers, but he was persistant. After many years the lord pledged fealty - his court whispered it was so Piyama would stop talking and go home.
    During the king's absence the noblewoman (and skilled warrior) Eresh stood ready to react to any invasion with five thousand warriors, assisted by lieutenant Prinay, but all remained peaceful. The noblewoman was disappointed; she enjoyed a good fight.


City-State of Gonur Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Pudha, King of Gonur
    Pudha again invested in government hiring and metalluric experimentation. Another dormitory was built for the University. Work continued in the forested hills of Tadzik where hostels were constructed for Silk Road travelers around which local shops sold them food, drink and supplies. With an eye to his powerful neighbor to the south the king ordered a thousand men recruited and trained with spear and shield.
    Pudha then ruled his kingdom and - remembering he did have a wife - re-established their marital relationship. A son was born in late 2070 but wife Zairichi died hours after the difficult birth, leaving the king in mourning.
    Bangha, Pudha's twin brother (and heir) traveled the Silk Road to the settlement of Tepe Fullol to discuss closer ties with its leader. He offered Thriti, a daughter of a past king, in marriage to him. Bangha was a silver-tongued negotiator and the settlement became part of Gonur.
    Meanwhile lieutenant Chathwarespa crossed the Oxus headwaters into Uzebek, meeting with the tribal chiefs and offering the hand of Vadhut, a daughter of a past king (and sister to Thriti) in marriage. The strongest chieftan - the lord of that land in all but name - was smitten and claimed her; he announced Uzebek was joining Gonur and no other chief dared protest.

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INDUS VALLEY
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City of Rupar in Sahis, longtime ally of Harappa


Literacy (Indus glyphs) exists throughout the Indus Valley civilization.

State of Harappa and Rupar Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy
Abhinabyu, King of Harappa
    Abhinabyu - having proven himself incapable of (and having no interest in) administering the kingdom, stood ready to react to invasion. To increase his forces another 400 men were trained to the bow and 200 in skirmishing and scouting. While the king spent much of his time with the army, he did enjoy his wife Priya, siring daughters in 2070, 2069 and 2068.
    Prince Ritpara and lieutenant Zeeshan administered the dual state. More scribes were hired to help run the bureaucracy. A communal dining hall and another dormitory were built at the expanding University. In Harappa a new central plaza was begun including public fountains and rows of shade trees, with a public library to be at one end and an amphitheater at the other. Nor was the countryside neglected: in Sahis more irrigation from the Saraswati resulted in more productive fields and pastures, and in Und laborers took the first steps toward clearing the remaining wilderness.

    In late spring 2067 tragedy struck. A group of royal ladies went to shop and view the new plaza under construction. As they passed what would become the new library a section of scaffolding collapsed into the street in an avalanche of wood, mud brick, mortar and screaming workmen. Crushed under the mass was queen Priya, Fulmala (widow of the previous king) and Rewati (daughter of another king). Many of the twenty-something royal women suffered varying degrees of injury.
    A month of mourning was ordered in the kingdom. At its conclusion King Abhinabyu - ever the practical monarch - chose a bride from among the local noblewomen. Surprisingly, many were eager to become Queen despite the high turnover rate in the job. In late 2066 his latest wife produced another daughter.


Traders of Dholavira Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Polyar, First of the Council
    Polyar led the Council debate regarding finances resulting in small amounts invested in military quality and enticing people to work for the government in various capacities. The University was funded to build a small library. In the distant port of Qana groves of shade trees were planted, more water lines and public fountains installed (it gets hot there!) and the rundown waterfront area rebuilt. Polyar then held court - despite the increasing frequency of dizzy spells - and spent time with his wife Imasha, the daughter of the previous First and sister of Harshan, current Sword of the Council.

    In summer 2066 students at the University began protesting standards of admission and graduation, quality of lodging and food, corruption in the administration, government control of finances ... in short pretty much everything. Instead of attending classes students spent their time in "rallies" where they got drunk and hailed speakers who complained and demanded increasingly radical changes. Most teaching Scholars (ie professors) had fled but those with delusional utopian views remained and sided with the protesters.
    In failing health and judgement Polyar decided to go to the University. Imasha insisted in accompanying him. Although concilatory he was shouted down by the increasingly emboldened students; when his guards drew swords and moved to escort him to safety a youth cried out the crowd was in danger and threw a paving stone. The mob copied the act; badly outnumbered the guards were hit repeatedly. A stone hit the First in the face sending him to his knees; he suddenly clutched his chest and collapsed. His wife screamed but was beaten down as the protest became a full-scale riot as students used rocks or fists against anyone not one of them.


Rioters kill Imasha while a radical Scholar urges the mob onward

    Second of the Council Harshan kept his squadron of pentaconters busy patrolling the waters around Dholavira lest a neighbor attempt a landing. A small galley met them with news of the riot. Angry beyond words Harshan ordered his ships to dock and returned to the city and took command of the city garrison. A terrified Council voted him the new First. He in turn urged Polyar's son (and his nephew) Harvan, a recent member of the Council, be appointed the new Second.
    Realizing they'd crossed a line and there was no turning back, radical students and Scholars barricaded the University campus after looting adjacent neighborhoods. Hundreds of students armed themselves with makeshift weapons and vowed to resist any attempt by the Council to retake the campus. They demanded half of Dholavira's budget be spent on the University and amnesty for everyone involved.
    A tense standoff ensued while the Council debated what to do.


City-State of Lothal Seafaring Bronzeworking Monarchy
Cherasan, King of Lothal
    Cherasan suddenly realized his cities lacked defensive walls and ordered such built immediately. Another stone fort was constructed in the homeland as well. The king heavily funded naval architects who promised to deliver new ship designs and prototypes. Alas, they fell to arguing and ultimately accomplished nothing. Lothal had additional water and sewer pipes installed, public housing built for the poor, more streets paved and a public park with shade trees and ponds landscaped.
    Cherasan thereafter held court with 11-year-old son Ervam at his side learning the art of ruling. In 2069 a feverish sickness1 swept the palace - perhaps brought by a trader or visitor from another land - and the boy was among mostly children or elderly who perished. The king grieved but inexplicably continued to ignore his Nasiki wife Chee who was the boy's mother.
    Heir David remained in Lothal as well, helping the king administer the nation but likewise ignoring his wife Drusa, also from Nasiki. The wives spent much time together out of the palace - it was rumored frequenting brothels that catered to women. Who could blame them?
    In summer 2067 while playing with her siblings in the water near the harbor Cherasan's 10-year-old daughter Emeen screamed and started thrashing. The venom of the banded sea krait is highly toxic and stronger than any land snake in the area. She was dead within the hour.

    Meanwhile ten pentaconters commanded by lieutenant Devi set out south along the coast. In late 2066 they returned intact and docked at Lothal, the crews rushing en masse to dockside bars and fleshpots. Devi reported to Cherasan in a triumphant mood.

1 sore throat, cough, congestion, high fever, aches everywhere - the flu and nary a flu shot to be found.

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SOUTHERN INDIA
(Indian subcontinent south of Vindhya Mountain range, plus Ceylon)
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wall painting of Naga priest conducting ritual


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.


Kingdom of Chera Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Chola
Narmudi Chera, King of Chera
    He funded experiments with alloys of copper and continued to fund devising a way to record the Tamil language.1 To his frustration neither made progress; however a group of officers visited the palace and reported a breakthrough in seige engineering - an effort begun many years ago that had finally achieved results. If only the metalsmiths and academics could do the same! thought the king.
    In the homeland hillsides were terraced with rice paddies kept wet by mountain rain runoff. Narmudi then held court daily despite his increasingly frequent debilitating headaches. When Prince Senguttuvan arrived in Muciri in late summer with brides for Narmudi and royal male Adu Kottu Pattu, at his marriage celebration the king proclaimed Senguttuvan to be his heir. The appointment was to prove prescient.
    In 2069 the king's health deteriorated quickly with convulsions becoming more frequent. During one he toppled down a staircase before his retainers could grab him, breaking his neck at the bottom. After a funeral at the capital's Naga temple, Senguttuvan took the throne without incident. Lacking children of his own he announced Adu Kottu Pattu, son of previous king Palyane, to be his heir.

    Meanwhile ally Kakkaipatiniyar of Pandya had departed to sea early in 2070. His light galley returned in early 2067 - ahead of schedule - under command of the first mate. Apparently some of the provisions had become tainted and the noble captain and several crew died. Kakkaipatiniyar's grieving son Perunkunrurk became the new lord of Pandya and declared he was no ally of royalty who sent his father to his death.

1 Narmudi suggested to the scholars and linguists it would be easier if they tried creating an alphabetic writing system rather than a Chola-style syllabaric script, since all varieties of alphabets have far fewer symbols. The intellectuals said they'd consider the idea but the king suspected by their condecending smirks they automatically discounted any idea from outside of their circle.


Kingdom of Chola Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (syllabaric Tamil script)
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Chera
Aditya, King of Chola
    Aditya realized the existance of writing meant a count could be recorded of people and possessions to improve tax revenue. He commanded it be done, and soon scribes were busy taking a census. Next the king considered the lack of family for both himself and heir Khanjamar. Each chose a comely woman of Cholan nobility for marriage. Thereafter Aditya ruled assisted by Khanjamar and lieutenant Sangum.
    Nearing 60 years old, Aditya failed to sire any viable children (his wife had several miscarriages) which was understandable given his steadily declining health and vitality. Thirty-something Khanjamar sired a boy in 2068 followed by a girl in 2067. It became evident whose line would be ruling the kingdom in the years ahead. Even for men, age matters.
    Pennarciyar (wife of king before Karikala whom Aditya overthrew) and her children and other royals were kept prisoner in the palace and treated respectfully but were going stir-crazy. After four years Urayur, elder son of Pennarciyar, couldn't stand the situation any longer and attacked palace guards who were forced to kill him.
    By the end of 2066 Aditya was sleeping more and more, and the Naga priests told Khanjamar the king didn't have much time left. Meanwhile rumors were rampant in Arikamedu that Karikala had been seen in the capital.

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GANGES VALLEY
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City of Atranjikhera on the Ganges River


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area except as noted below.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.


City-State of Hastinapura Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Elamite Linear script)
Lakhimpur II, King of Hastinapura
    Lakhimpur II funded metalworkers for experiments with copper alloys, and in the homeland irrigation ditches were dug to bring water from the Ganges. The king then ruled and spent time with his wife Kristina, who at age 46 birthed a daughter. Palace rumor had it the father was the captain of the place guard who'd frequently visited her quarters during the years the king had ignored her.
    The king's eldest son (and heir) Rupuraba and his bride from Rajput enjoyed each other. A healthy son was born in 2069 but another son in 2068 was stunted and clubfooted.
    open for a player


City-State of Atranjikhera Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Elamite Linear script)
Samavati, Queen of Atranjikhera
    Samavati spent small amounts to entice citizens to government service and allow the University to hire another scholar. Another small harvest surplus stored. The first light galley was built in the municipal shipyards and outfitted for river fishing.
    Leaving Sagara, daughter of a past monarch (and heir) to rule, the queen coordinated a census of people, animals and buildings within the realm to more fairly (and efficiently!) levy taxes. Samavati had taken her nephew (son of her late sister Ila) Udayana with her to observe.
    In late spring 2069 excess population was given wagons, draft animals, tools and supplies and led by Samavati to Malwah where the settlement was expanded into a full city. After attending the completion celebration the queen and Udayana returned to the capital.
    In autumn 2066 Kuru, the widowed husband of Ila (and father of Udayana) died after drinking increasingly heavily. The queen declared a month of mourning in his memory.


City-State of Kaushambi Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy
Jagadambika, King of Kaushambi
    Jagadambika shook off his lethargy and directed much gold be spent on rural Chandela: more wells and irrigation ditches dug, small streams bridged for faster wagon movement, lowlands along the Ganges converted to rice paddies. The defenses of the homeland were strengthened with more forts built in strategic locations. He then ruled his realm and spent time with his wife, siring a daughter in 2070 and a son in 2067.
    Meanwhile his younger brother (and heir) Jaafar - a very skilled warrior - and vassal Aakash of Jaunpor stood by to react to invasion.
    open for a player

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TIBETAN PLATEAU
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Tibetan capital of Lhasa


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.


Kingdom of Zhang Zhung Pastoral-Nomadic Metalworking Monarchy
Huan, King of Zhang Zhung
    Huan again invested a little gold into just about everything. Several score unsavory characters were hired for purposes unknown. The University purchased supplies to continue operations. The king then held court and enjoyed the company of his wife Chun, daughter of past king Biming. She proved remarkably fertile having a boy, a girl, another boy and another girl.
    Meanwhile heir Cong, son of past king Biming, headed to Khotan so persuade its khan to join his harsh lands to the kingdom. Cong was scarred from a childhood accident but a very persuasive orator. He also offered Ju - another daughter of past king Biming (of course) in marriage and so convinced the ruler to retire with his bride.


Kingdom of Tibet Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Tibetan syllabaric alphabet)
Choenyi, King of Tibet
    Choenyi invested in attempting to create a message relay service to move news quickly through the rugged terrain. Apparently the minor noble put in charge was both innovative and competent and the effort proved successful. The defenses of the homeland were strengthened and some hillsides terraced for vegetable planting. The king then ruled his realm.
    open for a player

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IRRAWADDY VALLEY
(Tibeto-Burman migration from north down the Irrawaddy Valley displaced original Mon-Khmer peoples southward)
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Beikthano, oldest Irrawaddy Valley city


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.


City-State of Halin Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Pyu script glyphs)
Kanyaza of the Shakya Dynasty, King of Halin
    Kanyaza (and second wife Kuwerami) returned to Halin to resume running the kingdom. Two hundred swordsmen were added to the garrison of Burma. New rice paddies were planted in lowlands along the Irrawaddy River. Excess population was equipped with wagons, draft animals (rather tempermental water buffalo) and tools and along with their possessions sent north to expand the river settlement of Tagaung into a real city. Having set all that in motion, the king ruled inexplicably ignoring his wife Kuwerami who'd helped him with numerous diplomatic missions. Her resentment grew each year as did her interest in the handsome palace guards.
    Kanyaza's son (and heir) Abirej helped administer the realm since his father hadn't had much experience due to travel. Being a widower in his twenties and quite virile Abirej got a frequent customer discount at the city's brothels.
    In 2067 a delegation of metalworkers demonstrated an alloy of copper much stronger than the pure metal. Although not funded for many years they'd continued on their own out of curiousity. Kanyaza and Abirej commended them for their persistance.
    Lieutenant Pyuirej was again sent down the Irrawaddy with two galleys to explore what lay beyond. He returned towards the end of 2066 apparently successful given the celebratory mood of the crews.


City-States of Binnaka & Maingmaw Civilized Metalworking Monarchies - literate (Pyu script glyphs)
Thomanaya, King of Maingmaw, and Ruranaya, King of Binnaka
    Thomanaya funded the University sufficiently for it to purchase supplies. The rest of the states' wealth was spent improving the homeland: small creeks and streams were bridged, hillsides of the eastern mountains were terraced for growing rice and retention basins dug to trap monsoon rains for water in the dry season. Collecting tribute from the mountain clans of Padishan was proving more expensive than it was worth so they were given autonomy once they swore continued fealty. Thomanaya then ruled and spent time with wife Talisaya but was careful not to get her pregnant - nine children were enough.
    Tragedy struck in 2068 when the adult siblings of Thomanaya went hunting for tiger. The carnivore doubled back and attacked a half-dozen of the group before being driven off. Among the mauled were the king's brothers Tharanaya and Seminaya. Their sister Lominaya (who'd gone along to cheer their expected success) tried to help them and was bitten, no good deed going unpunished. Tharanaya and Lominaya died of their wounds as did four retainers; Seminaya and two others survived but all would bear extensive scars.

    Meanwhile brother king Ruranaya and lieutenant Chilaya - already as far east as Padishan - crossed the forbidding mountains into the steppeland of Korat. Ruranaya (a skilled negotiator but scarred from an accident) and Chilaya (a poor negotiator by any measure) spent years haranging the chiefs of the resident pastoral nomads. Chilaya using his handsome looks to seduce the wife of the strongest chief proved the key to success and the chiefs pledged fealty to the twin cities.
    Back in Binnaka wife Larisaya (who claimed to see visions, not that anyone listened to her) cried out in 2068 both royal families were marked for death. Her servants exchanged glances and assured the queen everyone would be fine. Not long afterward a messenger arrived from Maingmaw with the deaths-by-tiger news. Later that same day young Taylissa, her daughter with Ruranaya, kept within the palace to avoid harm, died age 11 when she slipped in the bath and struck her head on the edge of the tub.
    In the hot summer of 2066 Ruranaya's widowed mother (and Taylissa's grandmother) Taraminia of Beitkthano died in her sleep just short of sixty. The king had reason for much sorrow if he ever returned from diplomatic missions.


City-State of Beikthano Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Peshak, King of Beikthano
    Peshak again saved the majority of the realm's wealth for future use but continued to make small investments in military quality and government hiring. The University was funded to hire another scholar. Being in his 50s and realizing there was no line of succession, proclaimed his young half-brother Daw (his mother was a servant girl) to be his heir upon coming of age in 2069.
    The king then ruled his lands and started spending nights with his long-neglected Thatonese wife Mahn. She proved very fertile: girls born 2070 and 2069, twins (boy, girl) born 2068 and another girl in 2066. Amidst his joy Peshak grieved when his sister Fala died feverish as a dry cough steadily worsened until her handkerchiefs were flecked with blood.

    In 2066 agricultural slaves on an isolated Pegu plantation rose up and killed their sadistic owner. The revolt spread farm to farm as ever-increasing numbers of slaves armed with makeshift weapons roamed the countryside burning villas and looting hamlets for supplies. Vassal Khun of Pegu vowed to "teach the dogs their place" with his household guards but was fatally stabbed by one of his servants, who in turn was cut down by his retainers. His ill-tempered son Saya took his place and - being even more bloodthirsty than his sire - was eager to meet the marauding slaves in battle but was persuaded by his advisors to await hoped-for royal reinfocements.

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SOUTHEAST ASIA
(Viet migration from China starting to displace original Mon-Khmer peoples southward)
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Lam Ap royal palace at Tra Kiew


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.


Kingdom of Langkasuka Seafaring Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Pallava script glyphs)
Surat Bunyasarn, King of Langkasuka
    Surat Bunyasarn funded experiments in military quality and metallurgy. More was spent trying to create a messenger service to move news quickly through the country. The king then ruled the realm and spent all his free time ingesting Psilocybin hallucinogenic mushrooms along with most of amongst the nobility and priests. His Andaman Islands wife Arisa was ignored and eventually decided "if you can't 'em, join 'em", gave up trying to entice Surat to lovemaking and instead began indulging too.
    In late 2067 while in the midst of a really good trip Surat decided he was part fish and could swim across the Penenjunk Wan. He failed. His only son Akkarat who'd used Psilocybin since childhood became king and was completely inept at anything requiring focus or decision-making, like running a country for example. He often practiced at swordplay with others of the court who indulged, which will likely end badly.


Kingdom of Funan Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Kaundinya I, King of Funan
    Kaundinya again devoted the snake's share1 of the nation's resources into improving rural Funan with communal rice paddies and retention basins to hold monsoon rainwater for the dry season. Small amounts of gold were invested in military quality and devising a method to record the Mon-Khemer language. To reduce the strain on a government unable to keep records the region of Phanrang was exempted from paying tribute in return for feudal vassalage. A small harvest surplus was stored for future needs.
    Next Kaundinya headed to Surin taking royal son Chenru (with wife Liuye) and royal daughter Neang Neak (with a concubine) with him to learn the arts of diplomacy (from Lady Sadhar who accompanied them) and espionage (from the king) respectively. While Sadhar negotiated Kaundinya skulked about learning what he could of local politics. The army accompanying them was explained as Sadhar's escort.
    In 2068 while the king, Neang Neak and retainers were leaving a tavern (where they'd bought drinks to loosen tongues) they were followed and set upon by thieves who believed him a wealthy merchant. His daughter managed to slip away to get help. By the time the local lord's guardsmen arrived, Kaundinya and one retainer were dead and the others unconscious; they'd slain four robbers before the rest of the band had fled. A sobbing Neang revealed Kaundinya's identity and the dead and wounded were brought to the lord's holding. Sadhar had some quick talking to do about the king's intentions and played on the local's guilt this happened in his lands - and speculation about royal retribution. Eventually Drona of Surin swore the oath of a feudal vassal of Funan which avoided much unpleasantness.

    Meanwhile the smooth-talking eunuch (and heir) Leab Phnom traveled down the Mekong to the port settlement of Oc Eo whose stubborn leaders has resisted previous diplomatic efforts. After many years Leab convinced them to sign a treaty giving Funanese traders preferential treatment. He returned home in 2066 to learn he was now ruler of Funan.

1 the biggest portion. There aren't lions in Southeast Asia.


Kingdom of Lam Ap Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Pallava script glyphs)
Ang Bak, King of Lam Ap
    Ang Bak spent small amounts to improve naval engineering and provide supplies fo the University. Most of the kingdom's resources went to dig retention basins to keep monsoon rainwaters for the dry season. A large surplus of rice was stored for lean times. That underway he held court to see to the day to day decisions. His wife Anh was left to spend time with her widowed sister Aun.

    Meanwhile his elder son (and heir) Ang Le Bak remained in Cochin to tour that land with his new bride Hong. He sired two sons followed by two daughters. In 2066 word finally reached him that his father had died several years earlier and his twin brother Ang Sou Bak was handling the affairs of state and proving to be a very able administrator. (And according to rumors very loyal to his brother, having dismissed some courtiers who had suggested he seize the throne and declare himself king.)


Kingdom of Van Lang Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Hng Vuong of Chan Dynasty, King of Van Lang
    Hng Vuong returned home and dove into the business of governing. Assistants and servants were provided for the scholars, philosophers, artists and foreign scribes trying to create symbols to record the Viet language - but they failed to make progress despite (in theory) having more time to work. Many different approaches were endlessly debated.
    Hng then ruled while spending time with his first wife Tinh Hai from Mison. Despite her age of 42 in late 2070 she gave birth to healty twins, girl and boy. Life is good said the king, which was asking for trouble. It came the following year during a royal fishing trip when a sudden storm in the Gulf of Tonkin sank his galley with everyone aboard.

    The king's cousin (and heir) Thuc Phan had journeyed from Nampung to Assam where he met with local chiefs to convince them drawing closer to Van Lang was to their benefit. Certainly more so than holding a grudge about being conquered a generaion or more ago. Thuc was a middling diplomat but he was persistant and it paid off with significant progress.
   
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