Newsfax Turn: #12 ( 2075 - 2071 BC )
January 25, 2017

ANNOUNCEMENTS: New or changed from previous turn will be in red.
My Stats program only accepts whole gp for University investment, and only stores whole nfp leftover at end of turn.
Progress in metallurgy & literacy will be in green and is the situation at the start of the turn.
If your University level is 2 or less you probably aren't producing tech points.

The rules for interacting with migrating tribes are deferred until I have time.

QUICK SCROLL if you know where you want to go:
Central Mediterranean
Aegean Centered
Nile Valley
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Oxus Valley
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Indus Valley
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Southern India
Irrawaddy Valley
Southeast Asia



fortified Settlement of Los Millares in Granada

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.
Literacy has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.

Lusitanian Tribes Barbarian Metalworking Oligarchy
Stena, Chief of the Council of Clans, Regent for Uxentio son of late Chief Mandonio
    Stena saved much of the tribal wealth but contniued small investments in military improvements and experiments with copper alloys. She recruited artists, philosophers and scholars to devise a way to record their language. Gristmills and silos were built in Portugal's rural areas. Trade was begun overland with the Celtiberian Tribes.
    She then administered the realm until Uxentio came of age and proved his manliness by siring a son. In 2074 he wed Aretaunin, daughter of a chief, and the following year a son was born. Stena duly stepped down and Uxentio became Chief of the Council, siring another son in 2071.

Kingdom of Tartessos Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Tartessian syllabaric alphabet)
Riana, Queen of Tartessos
    Having recently returned from a mission of exploration, Heir Eduardo found to his dismay his brother long dead and widowed Queen Riana skirking her duities, spending her time with storytellers, bards and acting troupes, or entertaining the captain of the palace guard in her quarters. The government scribes barely worked and the nation's finances were a mess.
    Having been frustrated by storms in his attempt to explore the Bay of Tunis, Eduardo convinced Riana that she would earn much glory if successful. Together with the captain of the guard and two hundred archers as escort, she led a pair of galleys eastward. With the Queen out of the way, the heir got busy, putting the clerks to work and ordering a surplus of food stored for lean times. Merchants were authorized to trade with the Lusitanians by sea. Trade was begun with the Celtiberians by land along the coast.
    Gorgio and Jose, the former king's sons by a palace maidservant, were found locked in a tower room and half-starved but very much alive, and took their places at court. Eduardo then ruled the land. All went well until late in 2072 when Eduardo chose a bride from a noble family. At the betrothal banquet a drunken argument ended with one of the guests fatally stabbing him.
    In the autumn of 2071 the explorers returned successfully and Raina was pleasantly surprised to learn of the death of her rival Eduardo. Returning to the palace with the guard captain and escort she found Gorgio and Jose popular with the court and temporarily in charge. The situation was awkward to say the least.

Celtiberian Tribes Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ihintza, Queen of Celtiberian Clans
    Ihintza again saved the wealth of the clans for later use. Small investments were made in both military quality and government efficiency. A small surplus of citrus fruits was dried and stored. Having traveled ceaselessly on diplomatic missions, the queen decided to stay home and rule. She also spent time with her much-neglected Aragonese husband and mourned when he died of a flux that swept the palace.
    Heir Amets left the capital for rural Navarre and encamped ready with the army to react to any threats. His betrothed from Old Castile remained behind in the palace recovering from the flux while both confused and frustrated by Amets's absence.


Central Mediterranean
(Corsica, Sardinia, Italian penninsula & Maghreb area of North Africa)

Etruscan capital of Luni in Tuscany

Literacy has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.

Nuragic Civilization Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Pasquale, Navarch, Lord of Albucci, de facto leader of Nuragic Civilization
    Pasquale ruled a prosperous civilization.

(Proto-)Etruscans Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Vulca Ulthese, King of Etruscans
    Vulca again directed significant investment be made in establishing a service to relay news quickly through the kingdom. The previously poorly funded University received a large grant with which to build a library and hire more scholars. Leaving his children in the care of palace servants, he next headed north to Liguria assuming the bureaucrats would work hard to keep the government running - generally a bad assumption.
    In Liguria he met with its lord, proposing a treaty and offering himself - a widower - in marriage to a Ligurian noblewoman. He was an accomplished negotiator and overcame differences in language and mutually hostile religions; the local lord declared himself a full ally.

Apennine Culture Civilized Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Decimus, Lord of Scoglio, de facto leader of Apennine Culture
    Decimus poured the wealth of the nation into the continued improvement of rural Apulia: wells dug, hillsides terraced for olive trees and grape vines, and small creeks bridged for wagon travel. Decimus then coordinated Apennine efforts. His wife Drusilla, having borne numerous children was greatful to be left alone.
    Meanwhile his nephew Crassus journeyed north through the wilderness of Spoleto and Romaga, crossing the Po and entering Lombardy. Crassus was a superb diplomat and had brought royal children Eudora, Eohippus and Evram along with him as marriage offerings to the court of the local ruler. After much discussion the Lombards signed an economic treaty.
    Crassus made the long trek back to Apulia. Upon arrival he learned Decimus had recently died. He, Crassus was now leader and Decimus's son Euripedes was Prince.

City-State of Herakleopolis Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (hieroglyphic pictographs and hieratic script)
Netinbeti, Queen of the IX-X Dynasty, favored of Heryshef
    Netinbeti devoted almost all her limited resources into improving the new homeland of Tunisia. Wells and irrigation ditches were dug, groves of date and olive trees planted, and communal pastures fenced. Merchants were encouraged to open trade with Tartessos, the Celtiberians and the Nuragic Civilization. The queen funded construction of new University buildings as well, then ruled her realm. By now in her late 60s (very old for the time) her health was declining.
    The Queen's husband (and heir) Ramses III defended Tunisia while lieutenant Tetmoses IV helped administer the realm. Near the end of 2072 Netinbeti died peacefully in her sleep at age 67 and Ramses III became king.


(Balkans, Aegean Sea littoral & Anatolia)

City of Troy in Bithnia overlooking the Hellespont

Literacy exists throughout this area as shown below.

Illyrians Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Cabar, King of Illyrians
    New king Cabar made up for the lethargy of his predecessor overseeing investments and the storing of surplus harvest. In the homeland hillsides were terraced and irrigation ditches dug. But his main interest was the expansion of Nesactium in Slovenia from a settlement into a true city. He gathered surplus population from Salona and together with a mix of archers and slingers marched north into Slovenia then west around the top of the Adriatic Sea, reaching the settlement in early 2074.
    Feudal vassal Damir of Nesactium regarded the approaching column with surprise. Nesactium was his fief and he hadn't agreed to it being colonized even if the newcomers spoke the same language and worshipped the same gods. On the other hand, with a larger holding his own importance would increase. He ordered the gates opened and went to meet King Cabar.
    For the next several years the king remained in Nesactium, ruling the kingdom and often touring the expanding settlement with Damir to keep the peace. In late 2071 came news from the capital of Cabar's queen Ravna dying when a cold worsened into pneumonia.

    Meanwhile heir Pavla had crossed the mountains into Croatia taking young royal Harmonia (daughter of a previous king) with him to, hopefully, learn the art of negotiating. Pavla offered himself for marriage to a local noblewoman to boost chances of a treaty, and after long discussions the Croatians agreed to pay tribute.
    He returned home in late summer 2072 with Harmonia plus his Croatian bride Audata to find the city mourning the death of his younger brother Tadej, killed in a dockside tavern brawl over the favors of a serving wench. Pavla's new wife was of comfort and she was soon pregnant, birthing a son the following year.

Achaean Greeks Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Linear B glyphs)
Opites, King of Achaeans
    Opites continued to spend heavily on military improvement - especially engineering - and increasing governmental efficiency. More effort was put into clearing the remaining wilderness in Macedon and that was completed late in 2071 with much harvest-festival type celebration. The homeland wasn't overlooked: more hillsides were terraced for olive groves and grape vines. The University received supplies and funds to hire additional instructors. The king approved initiation of trade with the Etruscans; five light galleys were built in the shipyards at Mycennae for assignment to that and other maritime routes.
    The king then ruled his realm and enjoyed his wife Eritha, a local noblewoman. She proved amazingly fertile: a son born late 2075, twin boys in 2074, then another son followed by daughters in 2072 and 2071. Opites's joy at his growing family was somewhat dulled when his mother Xanthe died in her sleep near the end of 2071 at the advanced age of 74.
    Heir Asaeus spent his years in the capital speaking to the people of the need to rely less upon the gods and more upon human efforts. The citizens paid more attention than to his previous efforts but not enough to decrease attendance at religious ceremonies.

    The king's brother Alcibiades had finally returned to Mycenae in late 2076 after an absence of well over a decade. In early 2075 he married his Bulgarian betrothed Srayanka (who'd seen the best years of her life pass by) and retired to his estate. It was said Srayanka soon became pregnant and late in the year - at nearly age 40 - birthed a sickly son. Alcibiades was not seen in public to confirm or deny.

Minoans Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (Linear A glyphs)
Tavrys, First of the Council
    Again Tavrys led Council debate on spending. Previous recruiting efforts for government workers with analytical skills paid off. Surplus vegetables were dried and stored for future needs. Hillsides were terranced in mountainous areas of Crete and planted with the classic olive trees and grape vines. Merchants were given permission to trade with former enemy Herakleopolis; gold bore no grudges.
    The first bireme was built at the municipal arsenal in Knossos and taken for trials - having that many rowers proved a challenge. Tavrys took personal command of the new ship plus a squadron of pentaconters and stood by to meet any invasion force.

    Second of the Council Urglaz - a skilled diplomat known as "Golden Tongue" - collected royal princess Fylla from the palace and traveled by commercial galley to Kalavasos. Once at the holding of feudal ally Jutkas of Cyprus, Urglas offered Fylla in marriage to Jutkas as well as a position for the local lord at the royal court in Knossos. Negotiations lasted for years as language differences and mutually hostile religions proved barriers to progress. Ultimately Jutkas agreed to sign a treaty giving Minoan traders exclusive access to the island's copper mines. He, new bride Fylla and a triumphant Urglaz returned to Knossos late autumn 2071; the Cypriot noble was awestruck by the sights and sounds of the capital city as his wife gave him a tour.
    Urglaz attended to less pleasant matters, learning upon his return of the death of Tavrys a few weeks earlier. The Council confirmed Urglaz as the new First, and Tavrys's son Alogys was appointed as Second.

    Meanwhile lieutenant Arkalokri and a half-dozen galleys left Crete headed west, arriving at Thapsos midsummer. Minoan stoneworkers constructed a wall with towers around the city. Leaving a garrison behind, Arkalokri's fleet rowed south for Malta. Once anchored, colonists were unloaded to expand its settlement of Borg in-Nadur to a full city. The locals were taken by surprise but the swordsmen accompanying the force limited their hostility to dark looks and muttering. Using prisoners of war (who'd been captives for a decade and in rather poor condition) a protective wall was built encircling the port.
    Leaving a garrison behind (both for defense and to protect the colonists) Arkalokri returned to Knossos late spring 2073, his ships docking and their crews going on leave. The lieutenant however had more to do, taking passage on a commercial galley to Rhodes where he met with the tribal elders of that sparsely-populated island, soon obtaining an oath of fealty.

    Ally Tobglak of Phylakopi set out north toward the Bosphorus with a light galley and pentaconter. Both ships returned late in 2071 from the same direction apparently successful judging by crew celebrations in dockside taverns.
    Vassal Ploion of Meletos set out by commercial galley for the mouth of the Nile, returning late in 2071 with gifts of gold and ebony.

City-State of Troy Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy - literate (Luwian hieroglyphics)
Ucalegon, King of Troy IV
    Continuing his habit of issuing orders from distant Tyras, Ucalegon commanded huge investments in military improvements; it was rumored new tactics for spearmen had been developed. Funds were spent attracting workers for varied government jobs and hiring more scholars for the University. Another 200 men were trained as archers. Wherever labor was needed Hittite prisoners of war and enslaved Phyrgians were worked under the lash. Destitute migrants were offered work in exchange for free food and housing.
    All that underway, the hard-drinking king (grieving the death of his queen the previous year), his retainers and many amphorae of wine boarded a commercial galley and headed into the Mare Negri.

    In early 2075 the king's half-brother (and heir) Antenor led an army of nearly five thousand swordsmen, archers and skirmishers aboard ferries and across the Hellespont to Thrace. When all were across and pleasantries exchanged with the local satrap, the Trojan force camped in strategic locations to defend against a Greek invasion. They were joined by feudal ally Iapyx of Moldovia who brought 800 slingers with him.
    Soon afterward came belated news of the king's death. A month after Ucalegon's hired 1 ship left Tyras it had returned without him and under command of its first mate. Eventually the tale was told: the king had demanded exploration east into the Euxeinos Pontos. The captain refused to venture into unknown waters and the resulting argument led to violence; the drunken king stabbed the captain and the furious crew threw Ucalegon and his retainers overboard. Antenor was now king.
    Antenor had been accompanied by general Orthryoneus who kept the men busy with drills and training so they wouldn't grow lazy as the years passed. On the spring equinox of 2071 the scattered Trojan units simultaneously decamped to seize control of the region. Its astonished tributary leaders were captured; resistance was confused and quickly put down. In midsummer Thrace was awarded to Orthryoneus as a fief for his loyal service, and a thousand men detached to serve as his personal guard.

    Meanwhile back in Troy the late Ucalegon's son Eurytion had come of age in 2074 and became the new Heir. He was clearly born to the sword, although being blunt-spoken and self-centered made the palace servants detest him. He married Henuba, daughter of a noble Bithnian family who knew her duty to the kingdom, and sired two sons.
    Rumor swept Troy towards the end of 2071 that Telipinus, former King of the Hittites, had died of disease that often swept the prisons.

1 a leader moving alone across water is assumed to have hired a commercial vessel for the trip. However such captains will not venture into unknown seas. To Explore a leader must have one or more naval units with him/her who (if the leader passes a Charisma check) may be persuaded to make the attempt.

Hitties Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Luwian hieroglyphics)
Sapalulme, King of the Hittites
    Expecting the Trojan hammer to fall within a few months, Sapalulme discussed the defense of the homeland with heir (and famed tactician) Arnuwandas. They decided to devote what resources remained into maximizing the fixed defenses, and so ordered construction of stone keeps at strategic crossroads and fords. To their astonishment as the years went by there was no attack.



Egyptian capital of Memphis in Lower Egypt on the Nile

Knowledge of bronzeworking exists throughout the area except as noted below.
Literacy exists throughout the Greater Nile Valley as shown below.

Egyptian Priesthood Civilized Metalworking Theocracy - literate (hieroglyphic pictographs and hieratic script)
Menkaure, High Priest of Osiris
    Menkaure funded the final training for an enthusiastic "graduating class" of novice priests. Surplus from foods donated to the temples was stored for the future. Another six hundred of the faithful were trained in Abydos to fight with spear and shield. A delegation of metalworkers in the employ of the Priesthood arrived with the news they'd finally produced a useful alloy of copper.
    The High Priest then spent years in Memphis at the court of Queen Ipa trying to convince her and her advisors of the need to increase the tithe paid to the Priesthood. Despite his death in late 2072 (apparently due to food poisoning, although there were rumors about jealous priests of Ptah) he'd managed to obtain royal agreement to more than doubling the Middle Kingdom's contribution.

    While this was in progress new High Priestess Anashepsut of Sobek traveled from Abydos across the Ghebel Gharib desert to the port of Mersa Gawasis to oversee the expansion of the existing temple enclosure to a full temple complex. Overzealous agents of the Priesthood were caught trying to take control of the project, but Anashepsut's beauty and charisma persuaded the local priests to release the men rather than execute them, and the construction was finished without further incident.
    Having previously converted a majority of the inhabitants, missionaries in Lower Nubia proved successful in converting those who were still African pagan. All of Lower Nubia now worships the Egyptian pantheon.

Middle Kingdom Egypt Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (hieroglyphic pictographs and hieratic script)
Ipu, Queen of the VIII Dynasty, favored of Ptah
    Ipu saved most of the kingdom's wealth for future use. Small amounts were invested in military quality and government hiring. A longstanding effort to create an efficient messenger service was finally successful. (The Priests of Ptah immediately claimed their repeated prayers and sacrifices were the reason.) A dormitory was built for the University and surplus grain put aside for later lean times. In Lower Egypt flood control work was done along the Nile to protect farmland. Gossip among Nile boatmen mentioned the passage by strangers dressed in the Minoan style.
    Ipu then ruled her realm and spent time with her half-Minoan son Manetho1 while vassal Duaenre continued to guard the eastern frontier. In Middle Egypt heir Scota was encamped with the army ready to counter hostility from any direction. In the hot summer of 2074 dysentery swept the camp and being older (49) than most he was one of those who died. Ipu proclaimed her brother Kanefer to be the new Heir.

2 his father was Kyrsi, First of the Minoan Council, long deceased.

Kingdom of Nubia Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Maraga, King of Nubia
    Maraga commanded small investments in military quality but spent heavily on the University, funding hiring of additional scholars and tuition grants to deserving students. In the region of Aswan irrigation ditches and wells were dug and lowlands along the Nile filled in for agricultural use, all as a gesture of goodwill to the local Egyptian inhabitants. Surplus Nubian population was given tools, wagons and building materials and sent to build a river port in the region, which was (appropriately) named Aswanopolis. It was far from the site of destroyed Thebes - no one wanted to disturb the bones of the dead and be cursed.
    The king then ruled his realm but continued to ignore his wives. In early spring 2073 a Minoan envoy, Ploion of Miletos, debarked at Kerma from one of numerous small boats that worked the Nile between cataracts. He spent several weeks visiting Maraga then departed south, stopping in turn at Napata and el-Kawa to display samples of trade goods.
    It was not long afterward that Maraga unexpectedly visited his wives' wing of the palace, perhaps to present some Minoan pottery as gifts, and walked in on a scene of debauchery with a number of virile palace guards. (Although he hadn't touched his wives for 8 years, so who could blame them?) The king shouted and vowed all the men would be castrated; exchanging glances the guards grabbed their weapons. Wife Nefertiti shrieked as Maraga was speared repeatedly. Wife Candace, who was to be Regent until royal son Maraga II came of age, kept calm and ordered the mess cleaned up. The king had had an unfortunate accident and no investigation was necessary.

    Prince Selenat crossed the Nubian Desert then the mountains into Suakin, arriving late summer 2075 to discuss relations with the chiefs of the pastoral nomads. A land of scrub and grasses, its only positive feature was a coastline on the Red Sea. After years of talks (and overcoming language differences) Selenat persuaded the assembled chiefs to be tributary to Nubia.
    Lieutenant Rufa'a expected to again assist Prince Selenat in convincing the populace to lower their dependence on spirits and shamen and instead rely on human strengths. Selenat however was off to Suakin, so Rufa'a spoke alone. He had some success, but in late 2072 addressing a particularly hostile crowd he suddenly groaned, staggered clutching his head, and collapsed from a stroke at age 50. "Struck down by angry spirits!" cried a quick-thinking shaman to the shocked onlookers, "see their power!" And so it appeared.

City-State of Meroe Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Saba, King of Meroe
    With the assistance of Nubian advisors and more investment by Saba, new infantry training and tactics were finally implemented. Groves of fruit trees were planted in Funj in the scattered hilly areas to maximize agriculture. In the capital itself (considered squalid even by the standards of the area) work began on water pipes and a sewer system.
    Saba then held court while spending nights with wife Medani, siring a son in 2074 and a daughter in 2073. In midsummer 2073 Ploion of Miletos, a Minoan envoy, reached Meroe via one of numerous small boats that worked the Nile between cataracts. He spent several weeks visiting Soba's court and displayed Minoan trade goods then departed for the long (seriously!) journey home.
    Prosperity, children, exotic visitors, thought Saba, life is good.
    But (of course) not for long. The following year Medani delivered a stillbirth, and a few months later daughter Moya died at age 10 after being bitten by a poisonous snake. In 2075 a sickly, stunted girl was born. Palace shamen claimed the pale-skinned, strangely dressed visitors had been demons and the palace was now cursed.


(including Horn of Africa)

Sabaean capital of Sa'na in Yemen

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area except as noted below.
Literacy exists throughout this area as shown below.

Land of Punt Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Finja, King of Punt
    Finja invested in military quality and trying to attract more scribes for government work. A new lecture hall was built for the University. In the homeland the hillsides along the western mountains were terraced and fruit trees planted. Most of the kingdom's resources however were spent on tools and labor to begin clearing the remaining wilderness in Adowa to make the region productive for agriculture.
    That underway, Finja ruled his kingdom. Lieutenant Samir returned from Ziella with Finja's betrothed, the noblewoman Nelida. The handsome Finja made no effort to marry since he was enjoying his pick of court ladies and servants. Both his mother Kahina and Samir tried to persuade Finja to wed and produce legitimate heirs. In the summer of 2073 both were among those trampled to death when a royal elephant hunt went terribly wrong, thus removing the voices of reason to which the king may have listened.

Sabaeans Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Zabar script glyphs)
Almakah, King of Sa'na
    Once again Almakah invested in military quality and trying to hire additional scribes for the bureaucracy. Thousands of urban unemployed were provided tools, wagons and draft animals and sent to Sheba where they cleared wilderness and were granted homesteads. In the capital of Sa'na more streets were paved and shade trees planted. The king then ruled his lands but curiously ignored his wife Sirwah.
    Charismatic heir (and nephew) Shu Samawi accompanied the settlers into Sheba to meet with its lord to discuss merging his lands with the kingdom; in exchange the lord would be proclaimed a Prince of the Realm. After much negotiation the deal was done.
    Meanwhile lieutenant Haubas headed to the Hadramuht wilderness to entreat with the ruling chieftan. Good diplomatic skills and the local being an old man resulted in the chief willingly retiring to enjoy his family and the region joining the Sabaean realm.

Traders of Dilmun Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Muqrin, First of the Council
    With Council approval Muqrin again investmented in ship design and trying to establish a messenger service. Civic improvements continued in the capital of Magan with construction of an amphitheater for public plays and poetry recitals.
    Muqrin then handled the day to day ruling while ignoring his barbaric (but exciting) Socotran wife, who began flirting with many young men of the court. In 2074 one of the younger captains (a son of a past First) was killed in a duel with another Council captain over her affections. In late 2071 Mirquin's 8 year old son drowned swimming alone in the palace pool, leaving Mirquin and his wife grief-stricken.

    In the meantime Second of the Council Talal had returned to Dilmun and collected colonists and their possessions, then returned to Hadiboh and unloaded them. The newcomers went to work expanding the settlement on Socotra into a full-sized port city. Talal next headed for Berbera which he'd pacified several years earlier and met with its chiefs, hoping to persuade them of the advantages of cooperation. With the memory of the conquest fading, he was able to make considerable progress.


(Eastern Mediterranean shore then west to Subartu)

City-State of Ugarit on the Eastern Mediterranean

Literacy exists throughout Greater Levant (cuneiform).

City-State of Hazor Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ibiranu, King of Hazor
    Ibiranu maintained investments in military quality, training priests and hiring civilians for a wide range of government work. Additional scholars were hired for the University and a large harvest surplus stored for the future. In Hazor more streets were paved and another 800 men trained to fight with sling and javelin.
    After dispatching his brother (and heir) Niqmepa westward with an army, the king's next priority was replacing his deceased wife. He chose comely Pudukhepa from a wealthy Jordanian family and their marriage was the social event of 2075. The king then ruled and spent passionate nights with his bride, siring a girl in 2074 and a boy in 2073. His joy was cut short by the death of his sickly son Yassib at age 8 also in 2073. Pudukhepa did not become pregnant again and the local priests claimed the angry spirit of Yassib was the cause. A gift of gold to their temple could fund much prayer and exorcising ritual, they added.

    Heir Niqmepa arrived outside the Jerusalem settlement midsummer 2075 with orders to evacuate the population and move them to the Mediterranean coast. The inhabitants were angry but two thousand mixed infantry with the heir kept them under control. The army assisted in the packing of belongings and movement of everything possible. In 2073 the populace began building a new port settlement named Tell Abu Hawam, again with the assistance of the army and significant government financing. While upset, none could claim the effort wasn't well handled. Niqmepa remained onsite for several years to "defend" the relocated inhabitants but in reality to keep the peace.

City-State of Ugarit Civilized Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Yaqarum, First of the Council
    With Yaqarum insane and fixated on gilding the palace, Second of the Council Ashirta obtained agreement for decisions. Civilians were hired for government work and the University was funded to build another lecture hall and dormitory. Hundreds of enslaved Cappadocians labored under the lash to improve the trade road between Urgarit and Ebla into a royal road.
    Nor were military matters ignored. The walls of Ugarit were made higher and thicker. Fourteen hundred recruits received engineering instruction and seige equipment; another four hundred men were trained as infantry.
    Ashirta offered Yaqarum gold and slaves for his gilded palace (aka "Great Palace of Yaqarum the Mad") project in exchange for the First giving up control of the troops under his direct command. Yaqarum agreed readily; having to review them and listen to complaints took time away from his golden obsession. The Second breathed a sigh of relief and sent word to Queen Jovka of Subartu that he would be sending the agreed-upon troops for their joint venture. [see Attack on Assur ]

    In autumn 2073 the army returned and with it hundreds of Assuran POWs and wagonloads of battlefield loot. Alas, Ashirta did not live to see it. He'd been touring the road building project when a crazed Cappadocian slave brained him with a shovel. (The slave was cut down immediately by guards but Ashirta died soon afterward not having regained consciousness.) Ibarinum, Lord Mayor of Ugarit was appointed by a shocked Council as the new Second. He was something of a dandy, vain and self-serving, but was on the scene when leadership was suddenly needed.

Kingdom of Subartu Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy
Jovka, Queen of Subartu
    Jovka invested in military quality and a breakthrough was made regarding engineering for seige warfare. Funds were spent on government hiring as well. A thousand men were recruited; 600 were trained as spearmen while 400 as archers. Upon receiving word from Ashirta of Ugarit that he would indeed be sending an army for their joint venture, she ordered the Subartun army to readiness. [see Attack on Assur ]

    In summer 2073 the army returned and with it hundreds of Assuran POWs (including King Ah-Kalla) and wagonloads of battlefield loot.


(Mesopotamia & Persian Gulf littoral)

City of Kish on the Euphrates River

Literacy exists throughout Greater Mesopotamia (cuneiform except for Elam which uses Elamite Linear script).

Mesopotamian Priesthood Civilized Bronzeworking Theocracy
Shuruppak, High Priest of Innana (Ishtar) at Uruk
    Both High Priest Shuruppak and High Priestess Salabikh spent their time in the great temple precinct in Uruk, supervising every function and driving the lesser priests crazy with their micromanaging.

City-State of Assur Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ah-Kalla, King of Assur, favored of Ashur
    Ah-Kalla was roused from his lethargy in 2074 when the armies of Ugarit and Subartu invade.

2075 BC
    Lieutenant Aziru of Ugarit accompanied by feudal vassal Ilirapih march northeast into Edessa leading over six thousand troops. They are met by waiting guides who lead them east into Subartu itself. By late summer they are bivouacked near the encampment of a Subartun army of equal size commanded by the queen's son (and heir) Caregin and lieutenant Harun.

2074 BC
    The Levantine allies decide Caregin will be in overall strategic command. In the spring he leads the combined Subartan-Ugaritan force of over twelve thousand warriors (archers, mixed infantry and seige engineers) over the border into Mosul. Assuran king Ah-Kalla - already in the region - sends messages to his vassals to provide support; meanwhile he and lieutenant Shulpae organize the defense.
    The Assur homeland is protected by five stone forts. Mobile troops consist of four thousand mixed infantry supported by battle carts with another twelve hundred warriors armed as skirmishers. The Assurans have the benefits of defending in their own land whose flat terrain advantaged their fast-moving battle carts. The invaders are more numerous, have engineers trained to seige forts, spearmen for shock value and the tactical genius of Caregin.
    Meanwhile Tizar of Eshnunna and Ninazu of Arbiliq, both vassals of Assur, set out from their distant fiefs each bringing their household guardsmen which in combination total nearly two thousand.

    After manuvering for position, in summer comes the assault. Between them Subartu and Ugarit mass several thousand archers who cover the charge of their infantry with massed volleys of arrows, inflicting over five hundred casualties on the men of Assur before the armies close. Once the Levantine soldiers hit the Assuran lines the fighting is intense and bloody.
    By the time night falls, the Subartans have taken two thousand casualties and the men of Ugarit nearly twenty-three hundred; the defenders have endured over four thousand, smashed battle carts litter the area and one of the forts has largely collapsed. Taking stock during the night Al-Kalla realizes he is running out of men and facing defeat; he resolves to go down fighting.
    With the coming of dawn fighting resumes. The remaining Assuran infantry and battle cart riders are cut down - although not before Ugarit leader Aziru is wounded by a thrown javelin - and the forts' walls are undermined one by one. The impact of a fleeing wounded onager leaves the King of Assur stunned and he is taken prisoner. The Assuran camp is overrun and hundreds of wounded captured cursing their city's patron god Ashur for apparently abandoning them.
    While the allies are consolidating their hold on Mosul, Tizar of Eshnunna and Ninazu of Arbiliq cross the Tigris into Assur itself, joining Queen Bau and the city's small garrison. They learn of Al-Kalla's defeat and capture.

2073 BC
    The armies of Subartu and Ugarit close on Assur in the early spring. Queen Bau has few swords with which to defend the city, and even fewer when Ninazu of Arbiliq is slain in a duel and his household troops leave the city to return home with his body. Tizar of Eshnunna advises Queen Bau to negotiate to spare the city; she surrenders with the agreement there will be no sack.
    The Levantines keep their word and appoint Bau as satrap of an Assur now tributary to Subartu. Tizar and his men are paroled and leave for Eshnunna. Lieutenant Harun is appointed commander of the Mosul garrison. Everyone else heads back to Subartu; the men of Ugarit continue on until they reach home in the autumn.

2071 BC
    Nearly 60 and long troubled by his inability to save his King, Tizar of Eshnunna dies in his sleep.

City-State of Kish Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Uruk & Lagash
Jushur II, 2nd King of the VI Dynasty, favored of Zababa
    Jushur II ordered the flood damage in Mesopotamia repaired and once again poured enormous sums into rural improvements in Circis: more irrigation ditches plus wells dug and hostels built for travelers along the Silk Road. Surplus food was set aside for later needs, and sufficient population was relocated to Babylon to expand the settlement into a city. The king ruled his kingdom and (his wife having died some years earlier) enjoyed his many concubines. Two of them fell pregnant, resulting in daughters born 2074 and 2073.
    The king's elder son (and heir) Jushur III married a comely lass from a noble Mesopotamian family. She birthed a girl in late 2075 but was then plagued by miscarriages despite the best incense-burning, animal-sacrificing, prayer-chanting efforts of the local priestesses of Ishtar. Eventually the goddess must've been pleased for a son was born in 2072.

State of Uruk and Lagash Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Kish
Kuda, 2nd King of the IV Dynasty, favored of Inanna
    Kuda finally attracted more scribes and clerks into public service thereby ensuring the government could handle the growing empire. Flood damage was repaired in the homeland. With funding the University built and stocked a library, hiring staff to maintain it. At war with both Elam and Gutia, the king ordered additional fortifications built in Hahmar and Abadan. Another 1,600 men were trained in Uruk to fight with spear and shield.
    Civil engineers directed preparation of bridge footings on either side of the Euphrates near Ur, with Gutian POWs doing the dangerous work.

    With all the above set in motion the king prepared for a counterattack by the Elamites. He led an army of over five thousand across the Tigris to hold the border region of Ahvaz. Kuda's brother king (and heir) Nam-mahazi of Lagash marched with him then continued on to Elam where he stood ready with another four thousand warriors. Completing the defense was Prince Puzur-Ili with another 800 men in Mand.
    When the year 2075 passed peacefully, King Kuda assumed the Elamites were waiting in Neyriz. Crossing the mountains once the snows melted from the passes the veteran troops of Uruk paused just inside the region fortifying against attack. Months passed peacefully. Finally the local lord appeared and explained the Elamites had left the previous year, heading north. [see Elam] Seeing the size of the Urukish army, the lord submitted to Kuda to avoid his militia being slaughtered. It was all rather anticlimactic.
    Leaving a large garrison1 behind, in autumn Kuda led the rest of his army over the mountains into Mand, going into winter quarters. In spring 2073 he demanded the surrender of the small Elamite settlement of Anshan; the horrified elders quickly ordered the gates opened. Leaving yet another garrison, the following year the army of Uruk marched home triumphant, but feeling they'd been cheated somehow.

    The forces commanded by Nam-mahazi and Puzur-Ili returned home in 2071, bored from having had no enemy incursion to fight. Lieutenant Ilum-Gamil "Silvertongue" had attempted to restore the close relationship between Ahvaz and Uruk but the its lord was offended by the offered bribe (seriously, who would've thought?) and ended discussions.

1 garrison requirements are doubled in the case of mutually hostile religions.

Kingdom of Elam Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Kindattu of the Simashki Dynasty, King of Elam
    Kindattu's army was hungry and unpaid. Loyalty to a fallen kingdom would only sustain the men's spirit for so long; they needed to leave Neyriz for somewhere with food and gold. His Gutian ally offered them both. In early 2075 the army, camp followers, family members who'd escaped from Elam, and Kindattu crossed the northern border into Zagros and sanctuary. [Elam no longer exists.]
    His vassal the local lord of Neyriz assured him he'd fight to the last man to hold off any invaders from Uruk.



Silk Road marketplace in Gutian capital of Borahshi

Literacy exists throughout this area as shown below.

Kingdom of Gutia Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Gazsi, King of Gutium
    Gazsi again decreed much wealth be spent trying to recruit government workers. The University was also lavishly funded to construct new lecture halls and dormitories. Significant surplus harvest was stored in case of famine. To replace the heavy losses sustained fighting Uruk, a thousand men were trained as spearmen and several hundred with the sword.
    The king then ruled his kingdom but oddly ignored his comely Zagrosian wife Roshanak who spent increasing amounts of time at social events flirting with court nobles.
    Gazsi's son (and heir) Samu and his experienced general Yakov each stood ready to defend the kingdom against Urukish invasion. In late spring 2075 King Kindattu of Elam crossed into Zagros with over five thousand warriors with assorted family members and camp followers. After several days' rest the Elamites continued on to Borahshi where they pledged fealty to Gazsi.

Kingdom of Ganweriwala Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Indus glyphs)
Vihana the Magnificent, King of Ganweriwala
    Setting aside a small agricultural surplus for future needs, Vihana Vihana spent most of the nation's wealth providing the new homeland with irrigation ditches, wells and bridging small creeks for easier movement of farm wagons to market.The king then ruled his realm with his son Lakshmana at his side learning the art of administration. The king's brother (and heir) Dhaval and lieutenant Rishi were commanded to explore sea zones to both east and west of current knowledge.
    Alas, no galley crew would take them beyond known waters1.

1 a leader moving alone across water is assumed to have hired a commercial vessel for the trip. However such captains will not venture into unknown seas. To Explore a leader must have one or more naval units with him/her who (if the leader passes a Charisma check) may be persuaded to make the attempt.



City of Namazgadepe in Turkmen - foreground slopes downward to Oxus River

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy (pictographic symbols) exists throughout this area.

City-State of Namazgadepe Civilized Metalworking Centralized Monarchy
Piyama, King of Namazgadepe
    The year 2075 began with the funeral of Namira, widow of the previous king. Once that was done, Piyama ordered investment to be spread over many areas of need. The effort of setting up a working messenger service was finally successful. In the homeland new irrigation ditches brought water from the Oxus River to additional fields. Surplus vegetables were dried and stored while another two hundred archers were added to the king's guard. Having completed successful negotiations in Bactria the previous year, Piyama headed to Bokhara hoping for similar results.

    The noblewoman (and skilled warrior) Eresh collected various garrison troops and marched on Kara-Khitai, crossing the border in late spring 2074 with over six thousand mixed infantry and archers. The brave but dull-witted local lord called the region's militia - nearly two thousand men - and made his stand in a compact mass near where two stone keeps guarded the silver mines.
    The invaders advanced under cover of sheets of arrows from massed bowmen that inflicted hundreds of casualties, then closed. Hand-to-hand combat followed with stone-bladed weaponry and painted wooden shields, men cursing and screaming. Eresh's force enveloped the locals on both flanks (think Cannae) and cut them to pieces, then stormed the keeps using scaling ladders. The garrisons had little fight left and surrendered. The warrior princess (yes, she was) left a garrison and returned home with a few hundred prisoners in chains.

    The king was a middling diplomat and this time his luck was bad. During negotiations he rather clumsily mentioned Eresh's conquest as an example of what happens to those who don't cooperate with Namazgedepe. The local lord took it as an insult to his courage and demanded Piyama and his retainers leave while they still could.

City-State of Gonur Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Pudha, King of Gonur
    Pudha decreed the significant investments in military, government and metallurgy to continue. The University was funded to hire more scholars. Work began in the forested hills of Tadzik to improve rural life with communal wells and fenced pastures. That underway, the king held court to handle day-to-day decisions but oddly ignored his Uzebeki wife Zairichi. Several years later a group of officers presented him with the details of new infantry tactics.
    Bangha, Pudha's twin brother (and heir) traveled to the harsh land of Kophet Dagh to meet with the chiefs of the pastoral nomad tribes to discuss closer ties. He offered himself in marriage to a daughter of Darius, its strongest chieftan. Bangha was an excellent negotiator; Kophet Dagh merged fully with Gonur and Darius retired to his pleasures.
    In 2072 renouned general and ally Megabyzuz of Merv died when an injury sustained during field manuvers became infected. As he had no clear successor, the elders of the Merv settlement voted to follow the example of the tribes around them and join with Gonur.



Tibetan capital of Lhasa

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.

Kingdom of Zhang Zhung Pastoral-Nomadic Metalworking Monarchy
Huan, King of Zhang Zhung
    Continuing the policy of Dequan, the previous king, Huan invested a little gold into just about everything. Again the University got the most, this time building a lecture hall. Significant wealth went into paving more streets of the capital and building a hostel for travelers.
    Next the king addressed the problem of a family. He took as a bride Chun, eldest daughter of Biming, a past king. (The nation has had quite a turnover of monarchs.) He then ruled his realm and enjoyed his bride. After a year she became pregnant and in time gave birth to a boy - who was stunted and sickly and died within the year. In late 2074 Cong, elder son of past king Biming, came of age. He was proclaimed as Heir since at that point Huan remained childless and an heir was needed to prevent chaos in event of his death. Cong was pleasant but scarred from a childhood accident that gave him a downright scary appearance.
    In the years that followed Chun suffered several miscarriages. Huan's advisors urged him to be rid of her and marry one of her sisters, but Huan - being an honorable man - kept her and in 2071 she birthed twins, a boy and a girl, both healthy.

Kingdom of Tibet Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Metok, King of Tibet
    Metok ordered irrigation ditches dug in the homeland to catch snow melt off the mountains and carry it to farmland. The University was able to purchase supplies and a surplus of grain and vegetables stored for the future. He then ruled his rocky realm until 2072 when he died in an avalanche while visiting Gtsang along with its lord Tenzin.
    Heir Choenyi took the throne without incident. He then proclaimed his son Jampa to be his heir. Towards the end of 2071 excited scholars from the University visited his court to demonstrate the alphabet of consonant-vowel sounds (an abugida or alphasyllabary) they'd finally developed to record the Tibetan dialect of the Tibeto-Burmese tongue.
    open for a player



City of Rupar in Sahis, longtime ally of Harappa

Literacy (Indus glyphs) exists throughout the Indus Valley civilization.

State of Harappa and Rupar Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy
Abhinabyu, King of Harappa
    Having proven himself incapable of (and having no interest in) administering the kingdom, the court advisors decided it was best Abhinabyu was kept busy and away from governing. He was persuaded to remarry and chose a young woman from a noble family. While the king spent much of his time in tournaments, taverns or training the army, he managed to sire a boy in 2074.
    The king was also convinced he needed an adult heir to manage the day to day running of the realm. He proclaimed Achuta, son of a past king, to be his Heir. Achuta began ruling and got the bureaucrats working again with the help of lieutenant Zeeshan, but due to their years of slacking off there only were funds for some street paving in the capital.
    Alas! At the celebration of the birth of Abhinabyu's son, Achuta over-indulged with wine. On the way back to his quarters he fell down a flight of stairs and broke his neck. (Or was pushed, some whispered, by a Harappan unhappy to see a noble of Rupar in the line of succession.) Another royal son was born in 2071 followed by celebration, but no one died this time.

Traders of Dholavira Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Polyar, First of the Council
    Polyar again obtained agreed to invest small amounts in pretty much everything, this time rewarded with a breakthrough in mining & engineering was made. The University was able to hire additional scholars and build another dormitory. With a bad harvest resulting in famine, ten galleys were built and outfitted for fishing off Qana.
    Polyar then held court and spent time with his wife Imasha, the daughter of the previous First and sister of Harshan, current Sword of the Council. Her last childbirthing had nearly been fatal to her so they were careful to avoid pregnancy. Towards the end of 2071 nearing fifty the First began experiencing dizzy spells, but rebuffed any suggestion he should rest more.
    Harshan kept his squadron of pentaconters busy patrolling the waters around Dholavira lest a neighbor attempt a landing, but all was quiet.

City-State of Lothal Seafaring Bronzeworking Monarchy
Cherasan, King of Lothal
    Cherasan committed much gold to putting the last unproductive areas of the homeland to agricultural use: draining and reclaiming marshland, widening trails so wagons could reach markets easier and yet more irrigation ditches. Lothal itself had several cross street intersections paved and public fountains installed in the resultant plazas. Merchants were given approval to initiate sea trade to Ganweriwala.
    Cherasan thereafter ruled his kingdom but ignored his Nasiki wife Chee. Heir David remained in Lothal as well, helping the king administer the nation but likewise ignoring his wife Drusa, also from Nasiki. The wives spent much time together enjoying performances by actors and musicians. Palace rumor said Dipa, 15 year old daughter of a past king, became so smitten with one handsome actor she disguised herself and left with him when the troupe moved on. Her furious older brother Dawar set out alone to find her only to be killed and robbed by brigands preying on travelers. There was much mourning in the palace.
    Meanwhile two squadrons of pentaconters - one commanded by Darioush and the other by lieutenant Devi - once again set out south along the coast on missions of exploration. Both returned about four years later, apparently successful. Upon docking it was learned Darioush had fallen overboard in a storm in late 2073 and one of his officers had taken command.



City of Atranjikhera on the Ganges River

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area except as noted below.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.

City-State of Hastinapura Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Elamite Linear script)
Lakhimpur II, King of Hastinapura
    The year 2075 began badly for Lakhimpur II when his mother Kheri died in her sleep at the ripe old age of 73. Following her funeral he got to work: in the homeland common pastures were fenced and barns constructed. A modest harvest surplus was set aside for the future. The king then ruled and strangely continued to ignore his wife Kristina, who kept to her quarters frequently visited by the captain of the palace guard.
    Meanwhile the king's eldest son (and heir) Rupuraba had been given a large escort of swordsmen and sent off to restore relations between the kingdom and Rajput, taking his younger sister Monorani with him. Once there, he offered himself as husband to a local noblewoman and Monorani to a local nobleman. The Rajputs were stubborn and it took long years of negotiating by the charming Rupuraba but the local lord finally signed a treaty giving Hastinapuran merchants preferential treatment.

City-State of Atranjikhera Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Elamite Linear script)
Samavati, Queen of Atranjikhera
    Samavati continued the policy of her predecessor by spending to attract citizens to government service. Attempts to organize a message-relay service still didn't work out. The University was funded to buy supplies and a small harvest surplus stored. In Vasta swampy areas along the Ganges were filled in and planted. The queen then held court with her nephew (son of her late sister Ila) Udayana attending so he learned the art of ruling. Despite initial boredom (he was after all only 10) over the years he became interested and learned.
    Meanwhile Sagara, a royal daughter of a past monarch (and now heir) savored the pleasures of palace life.

City-State of Kaushambi Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy
Jagadambika, King of Kaushambi
    Jagadambika ruled his realm and spent much time with his wife. Meanwhile his younger brother (and skilled warrior) Jaafar and vassal Aakash of Jaunpor stood by to react to invasion.


(Indian subcontinent south of Vindhya Mountain range, plus Ceylon)

wall painting of Naga priest conducting ritual

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.

Kingdom of Chera Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Chola
Narmudi Chera, King of Chera
    Having put the bureaucracy back to work, Narmudi had gold to spend. The effort to record the Tamil language was funded but the scholars argued endlessly amongst themselves (the "use Chola's way" faction vs the "Chera's own way" faction) and made no progress. In the homeland the first mills and granaries were built to help rural folk. The king dispatched the handsome prince Senguttuvan Chera and lieutenant Aricil Kilar on a diplomatic mission then held court to rule the kingdom.
    The pair first traveled to the wilderness of Belur where they spoke to the various chiefs of its Neolithic-level tribes of alliance with Chera. Senguttuvan offered the King in marriage to the daughter of a tribal chief. The prince was handsome but a middling diplomat (Aricil was a worse one) and failed to hide his disdain for the primitive Belurans; the locals wouldn't commit to more than pledging fealty to the kingdom.
    Taking Narmudi's bride with them, Senguttuvan and Aricil marched east into tributary Karnata. Again they spoke to its Neolithic chiefs of closer ties with Chera, offering royal male Adu Kottu Pattu as husband for a chieftan's daughter. After rather brief discussions the natives agreed to provide Cheran traders preferential access to the region's ivory.
    Ally Kakkaipatiniyar of Pandya departed to sea early in 2075. He returned some years later mysteriously in a galley of Cholan design to learn his wife Kottavai (of Cheran royalty) had died of a high fever while he was gone.
    In late 2071 the King began suffering debilitating headaches that often led to convulsions despite the best efforts of Naga priests.

Kingdom of Chola Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (syllabaric Tamil script)
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Chera
Aditya, King of Chola
    In the aftermath of Aditya's overthrow of King Nedunkilli brigands roamed freely robbing travelers. Farmers were afraid to bring food to market and famine gripped hamlets and cities alike. There was no money to pay the soldiers who'd put Aditya in power and to whom he'd promised soft duty in the homeland. Life is bad thought the new king, and he was accurate.
    In lieu of payment Aditya demobilized the army and granted land to all the soldiers. There was some grumbling but the men accepted the offer and dispersed. Next with proper ceremony Nedunkilli was beheaded in the main square of Arikamedu, providing some entertainment to the hungry citizens. Finally he proclaimed his good friend (and second in command) Khanjamar to be his heir.
    Reports reached the palace late 2075 that Kalinga - without a garrison to maintain pacification - had declared itself independent.


(Tibeto-Burman migration from north down the Irrawaddy Valley displaced original Mon-Khmer peoples southward)

Beikthano, oldest Irrawaddy Valley city

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.

City-State of Halin Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Pyu script glyphs)
Kanyaza of the Shakya Dynasty, King of Halin
    Since Kanyaza and wife Kuwerami were away, heir Abhirej made the needed decisions. Taking advantage of the writing invention he ordered scribes to take a census of all people, property and livestock. Retention basins were dug in Burma to hold monsoon rains for the dry season, and merchants given approval to initiate trade with distant Tibet - a daunting journey for even the most adventurous. Lieutenant Pyuirej was sent down the Irrawaddy with two galleys to explore what lay beyond.
    Abhirej then ruled and spent time with his Assamese wife Santhiri. Apparently the fertility rituals of the local priests finally worked, for she birthed sons in 2075 and 2074 followed by a daughter in 2073. Life is good the heir thought, thereby jinxing it. The couple's sickly 5 year old son Thuriya died that same year. Santhiri became pregnant again but the child was stillborn. Deeply depressed she drowned herself in the river.

    While all the above was underway, Kanyaza - already in the tributary Taguang - resumed negotiations with the river settlement's elders. After many years the leaders couldn't deal with yet more meetings and agreed to join their holding to Halin.
    In late 2071 Pyuirej returned to Halin with intact galleys and a crew desperate for tavern and brothel time.

City-States of Binnaka & Maingmaw Civilized Metalworking Monarchies - literate (Pyu script glyphs)
Thomanaya, King of Maingmaw, and Ruranaya, King of Binnaka
    Thomanaya devoted nearly all of the kingdom's wealth and labor into clearing the wilderness areas of Ava so the land could be used for farming. A small amount of gold was allocated to the University to hire more scholars. Thomanaya then ruled Maingmaw and spent nights of wild moneky sex with wife Talisaya, producing in succession: girl, boy, boy, twin boys and a final boy. At that point Talisaya begged him to frequent his concubines and let her recover. Enough was Enough.
    Meanwhile brother king Ruranaya left wife Larisaya (who claimed to see visions, not that anyone listened to her) and together with lieutenant Chilaya crossed into the rugged mountains of Padishan. Ruranaya (a skilled negotiator but scarred from an accident) spent years among the Neolithic level tribes there discussing ties to the twin cities. Chilaya (a poor orator) helped by using his good looks to seduce the wives of chiefs (okay, a dangerous game). Eventually the impoverished tribesfolk agreed to pay tribute, mostly in mountain herbs and animal pelts.

City-State of Beikthano Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Peshak, King of Beikthano
    Peshak saved most of the realm's wealth for future use but made small investments in military quality and government hiring. The University was able to purchase supplies. Ignoring his bride Mahn from Thaton he held court. In 2074 Wareru (daughter of a previous king and a palace servant girl) slipped out one too many times to visit the dangerous part of the city and was found dead in an alley at age 15.
    Worse was to follow. In the rainy season of 2072 Nala and Mahn (legitimate daughters of a past king) were aboard a river ferry that capsized when it hit an uncharted rock. They were among the many who drowned, weighed down by their heavy royal robes.


(Viet migration from China starting to displace original Mon-Khmer peoples southward)

Lam Ap royal palace at Tra Kiew

Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.

Kingdom of Langkasuka Seafaring Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Pallava script glyphs)
Krit Bunyasarn, King of Langkasuka
    Krit Bunyasarn made small investments in both military quality and government hiring. The University was able to purchase supplies. Most of the kingdom's wealth was spent completing the clearing of jungle (mostly slash & burn) from Kedah to maximize land for agriculture. This milestone was celebrated with many feasts and much drinking. The king then ruled but did not remarry.
    Meanwhile his widowed son (and heir) Surat Bunyasarn put his dealing of hallucinagenic Psilocybin mushrooms on hold, traveling to the Andaman Islands to discuss closer ties with its Neolithic people. He was an average diplomat but by offering himself in marriage to a daughter of a chief he overcame differences in language and religion, and the tribal leaders agreed to fully join Langkasuka.
    Surat and wife Arisa returned to the kingdom's western port in autumn 2071 to find his father the king had died in late 2074 of a high fever after an injury became infected. Returning to the capital of Pattani he found with no one in charge the bureaucrats naturally slacked off, either spending the day drunk or not even bothering to show up. Psilocybin use was rampant amongst the nobility and priests.
    Surat was now king. His only son Akkarat had come of age a few months earlier and was proclaimed Heir. The double-coronation n bceremony had a feeling of unreality since most of the guests were tripping out.

Kingdom of Funan Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Kaundinya I, King of Funan
    Kaundinya poured most of the nation's resources into improving rural Funan with wells, irrigation ditches and widening trails. A small harvest surplus was dried for future needs. To his pleasant surprise the attempts to create a way to move news quickly finally worked.
    With all his children being many years from coming of age, the king proclaimed Leab Phnom to be Heir. The man was a eunuch (ouch!) so there wasn't the potential problem of him favoring his children over Kaundinya's. The king also proclaimed his wife Liuye would be Regent in event of his death, thereby creating a conflicting line of succession.
    The above all set in motion, Kaundinya headed to Oc Eo hoping to persuade the settlement to join with Funan. While handsome as a god (well, not a Naga) he was a middling negotiator and after many years still could not persuade the settlement's elders to sign a treaty. Frustrated, he returned home to find his daughter (by a concubine) Nota Min had drowned in the Mekong during a palace river excursion the previous week. Queen Liuye seemed quite unmoved by the event.

Kingdom of Lam Ap Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Pallava script glyphs)
Ang Bak, King of Lam Ap
    2075 started badly with Ang Bak's daughter Lo Fa bitten by a poisonous snake in the palace gardens and dying within minutes. After her funeral the grieving king got to work. He spent to attract civilians to government service and store surplus vegetables for future lean times. A final effort cleared the last of the jungle (slash & burn) in the homeland so the land could be used for productive farming. Much celebration followed often involving alcohol. Ang Bak got so drunk he bathed a second time in a year. Admittedly after he'd fallen into a manure pile, but still...
    In early 2074 twin royal sons Ang Le Bak and Ang Sou Bak came of age providing another excuse for gluttonous eating and excessive wine consumption. The king proclaimed elder son (by a few minutes) Ang Le Bak to be his Heir. Loathing anything related to administering, Ang Le Bak was pleased to be sent on a diplomatic mission to Cochin. Offering himself in marriage, he persuaded its lord Xi Zhu San to offer his daughter as bride and retire to his seaside estates.

Kingdom of Van Lang Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Hng Vuong of Chan Dynasty, King of Van Lang
    Away in rural Annam, Hng Vuong sent a retainer to the capital of Phong Chau with instructions to hire more scholars, artists and philsophers to devise a method of recording the Viet tongue. In Annam itself he ordered a thousand skirmishers demobilized and put to work digging wells and irrigation ditches, the first such improvements the impoverished region ever had. Hng then discussed with the locals closer ties to Van Lang, with the public works as an example of benefits. He also offered himself for marriage despite already being married to a noblewoman of Mison. Although a less than average orator he achieved substantial progress.
    The king's cousin (and heir) Thuc Phan was already in Nampung where he spent another five years accompanying the local lord and his court in every activity. Although Thuc was (like the king) a mediocre diplomat his persistance paid off and the lord (who was old for the time period) decided to retire and join his domain to Van Lang.
    Eventually word reached the king that his feudal vassal in Mison had died and was replaced by his son.

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