LORDS OF THE EARTH 38 - THE DAWN OF CIVILIZATION
Newsfax Turn: #11 ( 2080 - 2076 BC )
November 5, 2016

ANNOUNCEMENTS: New or changed from previous turn will be in red.
My Stats program only accepts whole gp for University investment, and only stores whole nfp leftover at end of turn.
Progress in metallurgy, literacy & government will be in green and is the situation at the start of the turn.
If your University level is 2 or less you probably aren't producing tech points.

The rules for interacting with migrating tribes are deferred until I have time.
Last turn I overlooked a bunch of Random Events so this turn there will be more than usual to make up for that.

QUICK SCROLL if you know where you want to go:
Iberia
Central Mediterranean < North Africa added here
Aegean Centered
Nile Valley
Red Sea/Arabia Centered < Dilmun moved to here
Levant
Greater Mesopotamia
Iranian Plateau
Oxus Valley
Tibetan Plateau
Indus Valley
Ganges Valley
Southern India
Irrawaddy Valley
Southeast Asia

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IBERIA CENTERED
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fortified Settlement of Los Millares in Granada


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.
Literacy has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.


Lusitanian Tribes Barbarian Metalworking Oligarchy
Mandonio the Golden Tongued, Chief of the Council of Clans
    Mandonio again made small investments in military improvements and funded experiments with copper alloys. He bought supplies for the University and ordered wells dug in Portugal's rural areas. The chief then traveled to Salamanca hoping to strenghten ties with them. As usual he was very persuasive and the Salamancan clans fully joined his realm. Unfortunately in late 2077 he came down with chills and coughing fits and died soon thereafter.
    Meanwhile Mandonio's younger brother (and heir) Babpo ruled the land while the king was away. The summer of 1078 was hotter than usual and his sickly young daughter Aretaunin expired in her sleep. In late 2077 news came from Salamanca of his brother Mandonio's death; the Council of Clans elevated Babpo to be its Chief. In accordance with the Council's policy he in turn proclaimed Uxentio, the young son of Mandonio the new heir.
    Alas, Babpo had only a short reign, dying early 2076 when his fishing boat sank off Furninha. The Council decided Mandonio's widow Stena would serve as Regent for Uxentio until he came of age.


Kingdom of Tartessos Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Tartessian syllabaric alphabet)
Guillermo, King of Tartessos
    Guillermo spent heavily attempting to expand the government. A large harvest wheat surplus was stored for lean times. The king saw his extremely charasmatic heir Eduardo leave with a galley squadron with orders to explore, then settled back to hold court and get acquainted with Riana, a local noblewoman he recently married.
    Eduardo's return in early 2076 was followed not by the expected celebration but rather grief. The heir learned that King Guillermo had died within a few days of his departure; some say his falling off the palace roof into the dry moat soon after a violent argument with his wife was not coincidence. Riana had however proclaimed herself Queen and the various noble families accepted it rather than chance the throne going to a rival house.
    Raina appeared to have little interest in holding court or ruling, spending her time with storytellers, bards and acting troupes, or entertaining the captain of the palace guard in her quarters. She was silver-tongued and beautiful and the officer was clearly besotted with her. All this Eduardo learned in dockside taverns.
    He also determined that Gorgio and Jose, the king's sons by a palace maidservant, had not been seen since Riana's rule began.


Celtiberian Tribes Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ihintza, Queen of Celtiberian Clans
    Ihintza continued to save the wealth of the clans for later use. A small surplus of vegetables were dried and stored. The queen - never one to stay in the palace very long - then headed over the mountains into Old Castille then continued to Leon where she entered into negotiations with the hill tribes. She was a middling diplomat and had neither gold nor marriage contract to offer as enticement for a treaty and left empty-handed. Returning home, she spent time with her Aragonese husband Ibai but since she was in her mid-40s no children resulted.
    Meanwhile heir Amets remained in the capital of Cortes ruling the realm and ready with the army to react to any threats. His betrothed from Old Castile was in the palace but Amets was tongue-tied and shy, not willing to marry with the queen away.

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Central Mediterranean
(Corsica, Sardinia, Italian penninsula & Maghreb area of North Africa)
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Etruscan capital of Luni in Tuscany


Literacy has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.

Nuragic Civilization Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Pasquale, Navarch, Lord of Albucci, de facto leader of Nuragic Civilization
    After lengthy discussion Pasquale obtained Council agreement to invest in naval architechture and governmental expansion, plus a small dormitory was built for the University. Orchards were begun using seeds from fruit trees growing in the Baeleric Islands. Thereafter having found raiding for slaves to be unprofitable along the northern Mediterranean coast, the Navarch was content to defend the Nuragic lands.
    Meanwhile Second of the Council Ignace departed on a mission of exploration this time to the east, returning in late spring of 2076 with ship and men intact.


(Proto-)Etruscans Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Vulca Ulthese, King of Etruscans
    Returning to Tuscany with his bride Cinzia of Nance, Vulca directed significant investment be made in government hiring to assist with the running of the nation, saving the rest of the realm's resources for later use. He then ruled and spent time with his wife Cinzia. After several years of frustration (both on the part of the royal couple as well as the local priestesses of fertility) she birthed a girl in 2078. She became pregnant again the following year but died in childbirth while producing a boy, leaving Vulca distraught.


Apennine Culture Civilized Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Decimus, Lord of Scoglio, de facto leader of Apennine Culture
    Decimus funded the hiring of several more scholars to teach at the University. Continuing to focus on agriculture, in Apulia the foothills of the mountains were terraced and both olive trees and grape vines planted. A surplus of root vegetables was stored for future needs. Decimus then coordinated Apennine efforts with his eldest son Euripedes at his side learning the trade of administration.
    The king also spent time with his wife Drusilla. She bore a son in early 2079 but the birth was difficult and she spent many days in bed afterward with a high fever. She recovered, but did not conceive again despite the best efforts of the local priests, the death of numerous sacrificed bleating quadrupeds and much burnt ceremonial incense.
    Meanwhile his nephew Crassus headed to the pacified and tributary state of Romagna to negotiate closer ties. At 19 he was already an accomplished orator and good-looking enough that all the ladies of the Romagnan court wanted him. He offered a marriage between the childless widow of his uncle and a local nobleman, which after more discussion was accepted. Before returning home he made a detour to Verona to collect his betrothed (Crassus had been offered in marriage a few years back) and bring her to the homeland for formal marriage.
    The young, very charismatic royal couple attracted poets, bards, writers and artists to Scoglio once it became known they were patrons of the arts. In turn others moved there to provide services or open businesses, doubling the population within a few years (and calling unfortunate attention to the lack of public services).


City-State of Herakleopolis Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (hieroglyphic pictographs and hieratic script)
Netinbeti, Queen of the IX-X Dynasty, favored of Heryshef
    With three thousand infantry the Queen's husband (and heir) Ramses III kept order in Tunisia while lieutenant Tetmoses oversaw its colonization by Herakleopolitan migrants. In 2079 Ramses and his experienced troops pacified adjacent Kabilya and its fishing village of Cap Serrat, followed in 2078 by Algeria; the clans of confused Neolithic locals encountered were easily crushed. Behind Ramses's army followed Tetmoses with thousands of refugees eager for homesteads in both of the regions. Life in the wilderness would be harsh but better than a filthy tent camp. Garrisons were posted in each region to keep the indigenous people away from the prime lands seized by the Egyptians.
    Meanwhile Queen Netinbeti ruled as needed plus supervised the building of a new Herakleopolis on the Tunisian coast. The priests of Heryshaf dedicated shrines to their god in both the city and the Tunisian countryside to tend to the spiritual needs of the population.

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AEGEAN CENTERED
(Balkans, Aegean Sea littoral & Anatolia)
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City of Troy in Bithnia overlooking the Hellespont


Literacy exists throughout this area as shown below.

Illyrians Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Cabar, King of Illyrians
    Late King Medak hadn't kept an eye on the bureaucrats who naturally did as little work as possible and let the kingdom slide into financial trouble. Cabar would not make his brother's mistake; he toured government buildings frequently to check on the scribes and tax collectors.
    open for a player


Achaean Greeks Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Linear B glyphs)
Opites, King of Achaeans
    Opites spent heavily on military improvement - especially engineering - and increasing governmental efficiency. Most of the kingdom's wealth and labor was sent to Macedon along with wagons and tools to begin clearing the remaining wilderness and replace it with productive farmland. With an uneasy eye to the east fortifications were improved in Macedon and Thessaly. The king next married a local noblewoman and ruled his realm. During the day he held court and taught Antiphus (son of a past king) the art of ruling. During the night Opites enjoyed his new wife and sired boys in 2080 and 2079.
    Heir Asaeus spent his years in the capital speaking to the people of the need to rely less upon the gods and more upon human efforts. Alas, while they paid polite attention the citizens were unmoved by his words.
    In the harsh winter of 2077/2076 feudal vassal Dolops of Epirus and retainers became lost in a heavy snowstorm while hunting. By the time a search party found them they were all dead of the cold. The vassal's son assumed his titles and responsibilities.

    Meanwhile the king's brother Alcibiades, lieutenant Agapenor and the twelve hundred heavy infantry had been serving as mercenaries. They finally returned to Mycenae in late 2076 minus several hundred dead and twice that many recovering from wounds. [see Minoans]


Minoans Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (Linear A glyphs)
Tavrys, First of the Council
    Stepping confidently into the First job, Tavrys led Council debate on spending. Funding naval architects finally resulted in designs for larger, faster ships; meanwhile the dockyards resounded with sawing and hammering as five more trade galleys were constructed. The walls of Tyre were ordered repaired and irrigation ditches dug in the south of Crete where the farmland was most productive. The island's prisons were combed for violent thugs who were taken away by palace guards for purposes unknown.
    Life is good thought Tavrys, pleased at how he'd taken charge. The following month his pregnant wife Trianta took ill, became feverish and died soon thereafter. A week of mourning followed her funeral.

    Anxious to leave the palace where he was constantly reminded of his late wife, Tavrys assembled twenty trade galleys of various sizes and loaded aboard twelve hundred Achaean mercenaries along with their officers. Heading north, he intended to take advantage of Pontus being isolated from the rest of the Hittite kingdom - it seemed ripe for plundering. Having passed through the Hellespont and Bosporus and into the Mare Negri without incident and not wanting to land on a hostile Pontic shoreline, in early 2079 the fleet debarked its warriors on the coast of nearby Galatia which was rumored to be depopulated. Rumor proved accurate; the region had been conquered and enslaved by the men of Troy leaving few inhabitants remaining, and they kept to the ruins and shadows. The Minoan march east into Pontus was through a devastated land.
    In late 2079 the army of twelve hundred mercenaries and six hundred swordsmen from allied Phyakopia began the pacification of Pontus. However the locals were just as numerous as the invaders and their warriors - mostly skirmishers - moved easily through the forested hills. By comparison the Achaean heavy spearmen - having been hired with the expectation of phalanx-style use in Egypt - were at a significant disadvantage in the rough terrain. After fighting (mostly ambushes by the natives) that continued through the winter and spring, both sides had lost nearly half their men killed or wounded and the Pontic defenders were far from beaten. Tavrys was on a tight timetable and with frustration he ordered all warriors back aboard the ships. By the spring of 2076 both Acheans and allies had been delivered back home and the First was meeting with the Council of Captains to reallocate shipping for greater profit.
    He also met his grandchildren. Per instructions his son Alogys (being groomed for a seat on the Councl) married in late 2079 when he came of age. In fact he took two wives - twin sisters Malia and Melisa from a noble Knossosian family - and palace gossips speculated on whether he alternated nights or all three slept together. Alogys was the envy of every male on Crete; the situation resulted in two children by each wife.

    Meanwhile the diplomat Urglaz, Second of the Council, saw to rebuilding the walls of Tyre. After some other tasks he collected royal princess Fylla from Knossos and headed for Cyprus, intending to offer her in diplomatic marriage to its lord Tjehene. Alas, upon arriving in the summer of 2078 he learned the Cypriot leader had died when the copper mine he was touring had suffered a partial collapse. Lacking heirs, his throne was contested until some months later his charasmatic older cousin Jutkas prevailed. Urglaz and Fylla had in the meantime returned to Knossos where they learned during their absence the noted general Lonchi had expired in his sleep at the ripe old age of 64.


City-State of Troy Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy - literate (Luwian hieroglyphics)
Ucalegon, King of Troy IV
    From distant Tyras where he was on a diplomatic mission, Ucalegon sent orders to invest heavily in military improvements, hiring additional bureaucrats and constructing another dormitory for the University. In Lydia wells were dug and barns built to help rural folk. Another 400 men were trained with shield and spear, and Thrace fortified at strategic locations. Wherever labor was needed hundreds of enslaved Galatians were harshly worked and barely fed - the fate of defeated populations.
    Having set his bureaucracy in motion, the king skulked the streets of the Tyras settlement gathering information that may provide leverage in negotiations. His efforts at disguise were better and he learned much without discovery. In late 2080 he and and his Moldavian wife Cassandra resumed formal talks and after many years persuaded Dolon, ruler of Tyras to merge his fief with Troy and retire to hunt, fish and feast.
    In autumn 2076 the successful royal couple were boarding ship when Cassandra stumbled and fell between galley and pier, the next moment being crushed between them before Ucalegon and his retainers had even reacted. The stricken king sought comfort in increasingly heavy drinking, his own health declining rapidly.

    Meanwhile in early summer of 2080 the king's half-brother (and heir) the general Adrestus led over six thousand mixed infantry not back to Hatti as might be expected but instead over the mountains into Phyrgia. Such was his skill the slow-marching force (nearly two thousand were heavy infantry) evaded border patrols and was into the Phyrgian farmland before the alarm was raised.
    Lelwani, the region's lord, had 800 swordsmen and the Hittite King Telipinus was also there with over two thousand soldiers. Adrestus, with more light units to scout, brought the Hittites and Phyrgians to battle in autumn amid fields of golden wheat. Archers exchanged volleys; the Trojans had more of them and they had recent combat experience, thus hitting far more often. Then the two sides met with a crash of bronze on bronze. The Hittites and their local allies fought with grim determination against a battle-hardened Trojan army twice their size.
    After hours of melee and nearing exhaustion Telipinus sensed the day was lost and together with his best troops broke through the Trojan line - not to flee, but to seek out Adrestus. The heir had no option but to face the Hittite king or lose the respect of his men. The duel was furious; suddenly the Trojan grunted as a Hittite sword punched through his belly armor even as his own blade caught Telipinus's helmet and sent it flying off in a spray of blood. As both leaders fell, Adrestus's second in command Orthryoneus arrived and shouted to the men of Troy to avenge their general, and they fell upon the remaining Hittites without mercy until the ground was soaked with blood and viscera.
    The invaders had lost over five hundred dead. The Hittites had over eleven hundred dead with the rest wounded. Those with crippling wounds were put out of their misery; those expected to heal well enough to labor were bandaged. Surprisingly Telipinus was among them, heard groaning amongst the dead with his head crusted in blood. He was taken prisoner but treated with the respect due a king.
    The Phyrigians had essentially been wiped out, although the body of Lelwani wasn't found.

    In the spring of 2079 Orthryoneus ordered the population of Phyrgia to be enslaved.1 There was some resistance but most of the able-bodied men were already dead, and the warriors of Troy had enslavement down to a science by now. With the king away and the heir dead, the lieutenant opted to fall back on Bithnia from where he could react to any Hittite moves. In late summer 2077 the army returned to Troy in triumph with hundreds of prisoners shambling along in chains and was welcomed by Antenor, son of King Ucalegon and now heir to the throne. (A few months later Antenor would be in mourning when news reached the capital of his mother's gruesome death.)

1 after several years without being worked the farmland is being overgrown and has degraded to half-cultivated.


Hitties Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Luwian hieroglyphics)
Telipinus, King of the Hittites
    Telipinus remained in a state of shock when the news of the loss of Galatia and desperate defense of Hatti reached him in Phyrgia. His retainers grew increasingly concerned as months passed and the king remained in his tent. When a messenger arrived with warning a large Trojan army had crossed the mountains undetected, Telipinus smiled for the first time.
    "There shall be glory and blood," he said as he called for his armor. [see Troy]

    In the years to come the Hittites' opportunistic neighbors would circle like vultures and attempt to enslave the inhabitants of Pontus [see Minoans] and Cappadocia [see Ugarit] believing them to be easy pickings.

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NILE VALLEY
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Egyptian capital of Memphis in Lower Egypt on the Nile


Knowledge of bronzeworking exists throughout the area except as noted below.
Literacy exists throughout the Greater Nile Valley as shown below.


Egyptian Priesthood Civilized Metalworking Theocracy - literate (hieroglyphic pictographs and hieratic script)
Menkaure, High Priest of Osiris
    From his quarters in the Temple of Ptah in Memphis, High Priest Menkaure continued his policies of providing for priestly training and for attracting lay believers of varying skills for lay positions. Those with violent behavior were collected from temple prisons and work farms for purposes unknown. Six hundred well-muscled faithful were trained in Abydos to fight with spear and shield.
    The High Priest then spent years at the court of Queen Ipa, offering advice, performing blessings, promising favorable judgement in the afterlife, and in general extending and deepening the influence of the Priesthood. While this was underway in autumn of 2078 came word from Heliopolis that High Priestess Hatshepsut - there to supervise the upgrading the temple enclosure to a temple complex - had been killed along with a dozen laborers when scaffolding collapsed. However the construction was far enough along that the local priests of Ra saw it to completion.
    Meanwhile having already converted a core of followers, missionaries in Lower Nubia were very successful in converting the majority of the peasantry to worship of the Egyptian pantheon. Finally in late 2076 news arrived that the priests of Heryshaf who'd accompanied the Herakleopolitan migration were safe and doing the gods' work. [see Herakleopolis]


Middle Kingdom Egypt1   Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (hieroglyphic pictographs and hieratic script)
Ipu, Queen of the VIII Dynasty, favored of Ptah
    With peace at hand Ipu commanded all surplus city folk and peasantry be issued wagons, oxen, tools and supplies and sent to colonize the scorched earth of Middle Egypt under the watchful eye of heir Scota. Overgrown fields were put to the plow, farmhouses rebuilt, wells cleared and mills repaired with intact millstones. Much more effort would be needed but it was a good start to return the region to productivity.
    Ipu then ruled her realm and spent time with her half-Minoan son Manetho 2 while vassal Duaenre kept an eye on the eastern frontier. High Priest Menkaure provided advice and comfort to her during her time of mourning and afterward.

1 historically the unification of Egypt (about 2040BC in our timeline) marked the end of the First Intermediate Period and the beginning of the Middle Kingdom age.
2 his father was Kyrsi, First of the Minoan Council, now deceased.


Kingdom of Nubia Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Maraga, King of Nubia
    Being new to the throne Maraga met with his advisors, then ordered a large investment in military engineering, even hiring pensioned-off veterans from the Mediterranean, Levant and Mesopotamia (offer enough gold and people will travel) which paid off nicely. The University received several new buildings and supplies. In the region of Aswan many mills and barns were built and pasture fenced, all as a gesture of goodwill. The king then attended to the minutae of running the kingdom but surprisingly ignored his wives.
    Meanwhile Prince Selenat returned to the homeland and along with lieutenant Rufa'a was tasked by the king - fed up with shamen claiming a curse was upon the royal family - with reducing the influence of said shamen upon the realm. While neither man was particularly charasmatic they were persistant and were able to slightly reduce the strength of the population's beliefs.
    In his spare time, Selenat was able to sire daughters in 2078 and 2076 upon his wife Lanati.


City-State of Meroe Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Saba, King of Meroe
    Saba again invested in infantry training and tactics with the assistance of Nubian advisors. In the homeland low-lying areas along the Blue Nile were filled in for agricultural use, and flood control berms built to protect them. Surplus population was gathered from throughout the land, provided with supplies and tools and taken to the coast of Beja. There the city of Sawakin was built, giving Meroe a port on the Red Sea. The king then enjoyed his wife - a local noblewoman whose name nobody could remember - producing two sons and two daughters.
    During this time his younger brother (and heir) Arakemani with the majority of the army stood ready to defend the kingdom, growing steadily bored, slovenly and often drunk since all remained peaceful.

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RED SEA / ARABIA CENTERED
(including Horn of Africa)
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Sabaean capital of Sa'na in Yemen


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area except as noted below.
Literacy exists throughout this area as shown below.


Land of Punt Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Kahina, Regent for Finja, son of late King Fazi
    Kahina decreed investments into military quality, experiments with copper alloys, and hiring both more scribes for government work and several additional scholars for the University. A small harvest surplus was stored for the future. In the homeland wells and irrigation ditches were dug to increase farming productivity.
    That underway, Kahina ruled the kingdom with her son Finja at her side to learn the ways of the court. Alas, he showed little interest, preferring to tryst with the palace servant girls - he was quite handsome and knew it. In 2079 he came of age and with great ceremony (followed by much feasting and drinking) was crowned king and to everyone's surprise now took the job seriously. Kahina stepped down but remained in the palace as an advisor to the young monarch. Finja later received word he'd been betrothed to a noblewoman of Zeila as a result of diplomacy by lieutenant Samir.
    In mid-2076 a delegation of metalworkers appeared at court with samples of a new alloy more useful for tools and weapons than pure copper.


Sabaeans Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Zabar script glyphs)
Almakah, King of Sa'na
    Almakah invested in military quality and hiring additional scribes for the palace. In the wilderness of Asir wells were dug and hostels built for travelers along the trade road. A sprawling campus was built for the University with lecture halls, dormatories, kitchens and residences for scholars. Grants were made available for promising students. The influx of construction workers, students, scholars, suppliers and families doubled the size of the capital within a few years; fortunately the existing public services were sufficient to avoid problems.
    Since his own son was but a child, the king announced at court that his nephew Shu Samawi, son of the previous king, would become his heir upon coming of age. In the meantime while Almakah ruled he kept the lad at his side to learn the art of governing. Shu proved a good pupil despite the distraction of his mother Sin growing steadily sicker with a bloody cough. In midsummer 2078 Shu was hailed as an adult and Heir with much celebration; not long afterward Sin died and the royal court mourned.
    While this was happening leutenant El had remained in Hadramuht continuing discussions with the tribal chiefs. They were already paying tribute but El hoped to obtain closer ties. One night while returning to his tent in an encampment he was set upon and bludgeoned by thieves who mistook him for a wealthy gold trader. Found the next morning, he died without regaining consciousness. However he'd managed to negotiate a full alliance shortly before his demise and the chiefs kept their word.


Traders of Dilmun Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Muqrin, First of the Council
    Muqrin obtained consensus for more investments in ship design and trying to establish a nautical messenger service to relay news quickly. The University received an additional lecture hall and supplies. Civic improvements continued in the port of Magan including new warehouses and docks for the harbor plus paving the central market square.
    The First then met with captains engaged in local trade and persuaded them to return to fishing to help with the island's chronic food shortages. Muqrin then handled the day to day affairs of the nation while enjoying his barbaric (but exciting) Socotran bride, resulting in a son in 2079 and another in 2077.
    Meanwhile Second of the Council Talal, angry at being snubbed by the chiefs of Berbera, decided it was time to acquire that region the hard way. He returned there in July 2080 commanding pentaconters escorting 8 trade galleys holding a thousand each of swordsmen and skirmishers.
    The galley crews worked to get the ships to the rocky shoreline;1 one was hulled on an underwater rock resulting in a score of injuries but the rest were beached safely. The warriors of Dilmun debarked even as hundreds of howling natives - having seen the fleet approaching and (correctly) suspecting the worst - rushed the beach with short, stone-bladed spears and wicker shields. Desperate fighting ensued but eventually the greater numbers, discipline and bronze weapons of the seafarers proved decisive and the locals all killed or captured. Talal had lost several hundred men, mostly wounded.
    The Second then set about convincing their war chief that cooperation was better than further resistance; access to the region's tin deposits would be easier if the locals weren't hostile. Talal was an able negotiator and made some progress before departing.

1 a traditional amphibious landing requires the invaders to board small boats and row through the surf to a hostile shore. This is dangerous in itself as the heavily-laden boats may be swamped and sunk. Galleys however are made to be beached (and often were so the crews could replenish water and food) and that was done here, reducing the risk of loss although not eliminating it.

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THE LEVANT
(Eastern Mediterranean shore then west to Subartu)
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City-State of Ugarit on the Eastern Mediterranean


Literacy exists throughout Greater Levant (cuneiform).

City-State of Hazor Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ibiranu, King of Hazor
    Ibiranu ordered a wide range of investments: military quality, training priests and hiring civilians for a wide range of government work. Supplies were purchased for the University and dried vegetables stored for future lean times. In both Jordan and Caanan more wells were dug, irrigation networks expanded and groves of palm trees planted. Another four hundred men were recruited and trained with the bow.
    The king then ruled his realm and enjoyed his wife Donatiya, who birthed daughters in 2080 and 2079 followed by a son in 2078. Life is good thought Ibiranu, which was just begging for trouble. In midsummer 2077 Donatiya felt dizzy from the heat in her quarters and ventured out onto the palace's roof gardens for some fresh air, stumbled, went over its low wall and landed in the dry moat far below with a sickening crunch. The king's brother (and heir) Niqmepa and his wife tried their best to console the grieving monarch.

    Meanwhile Prince Paebel and lieutenant Aqhat journeyed to Jerusalem where they met with its ruler Danel and his wife (the former Regent) Hurriya. Lengthy negotiations followed with Hurriya determined to regain power in Hazor and the diplomats offering gold, a seaside villa and other rewards for the couple to retire from public life. The impasse was broken in late 2078 when Hurriya complained of a terrible headache, held her head, passed out and died shortly thereafter. After her funeral Danel took the deal and headed for the coast.
    A triumphant Paebel and Aqhat started back towards Hazor but one night their encampment was set upon by brigands, the retainer keeping watch having fallen asleep. The thieves fatally stabbed everyone after robbing them, or at least believed they had, but Aqhat and one retainer were still alive when found in the morning by peasants going to market. Once able to travel the pair finally returned to the capital and told their tale. King Ibiranu promoted his younger brother Yaqarum to fill the void left by Paebel's death and sow Newsfax confusion since the new Prince had the same name as the First of the Council of Ugarit a few lines below.


City-State of Ugarit Civilized Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Yaqarum, First of the Council
    Once again Yaqarum persuaded the Council to invest heavily to improve engineering knowledge by hiring miners, builders and scholars, and finally achieved success. Civilians were hired for collecting information from travelers and traders. More light trade galleys were built in the municipal shipyards. The army was expanded by twelve hundred warriors: a mix of spearmen, archers and skirmishers.
    Yaqarum then settled down to the day to day rule of the city-state. The Council had voted a large amount of gold for further civic improvements; the First instead commanded the coinage melted down and used to gild the palace. At night it was ringed by torches so it glittered as brightly as during the day. As the years passed his behavior became more eccentric with sudden cackles of laughter or abject sobbing for no apparent reason. When he ordered an elephant brought to court as his advisor, the populace began referring to him as "Yaqarum the Mad". Fortunately Second of the Council Ashirta was on hand to make the day to day decisions.

    Lieutenant Aziru kept guard in the homeland for two years without needing to react to a threat. Deciding if the nation was going to be attacked it would've happened already, in the spring of 2078 he led nearly four thousand warriors on a grueling march northward over the mountains into the rocky wilderness of Cappadocia. His orders were to enslave the population (an activity pretty much everyone enjoyed) but first his army needed to pacify the region. This was done over the summer - while the locals were numerous and knew the terrain, their war leader had been chosen for tribal connections. By contrast Aziru was a skilled tactician plus the Ugartian archers killed hundreds of Cappadocians who'd never before encountered massed bowmen. The native leader died in the burning ruins of his stone keep. Throughout 2077 the population was rounded up and marched south over the mountains to the slave pens.


Kingdom of Subartu Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy
Jovka, Queen of Subartu
    With the kingdom's finances improved, Jovka was able to invest in both military quality and government hiring. A slight agricultural surplus was dried and stored. Six hundred men were trained and equipped as the kingdom's first heavy infantry.
    The Queen then ruled her domain while the general Hovik saw to the realm's defense. In 2078 her elder son Caregin - already skilled with the sword and handsome enough to flirt with the serving girls - came of age and was procaimed Heir. Much celebration followed; unfortunately at one feast Hovik choked to death, souring the mood. Jovka duly appointed a new commander.

.

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GREATER MESOPOTAMIA
(Mesopotamia & Persian Gulf littoral)
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

City of Kish on the Euphrates River


Literacy exists throughout Greater Mesopotamia (cuneiform except for Elam which uses Elamite Linear script).

Heavier than normal 2077 rainy season storms in the Palmyra-Mosul-Arbiliq regions cause both great rivers to rise swiftly with unpredictable currents and frequently shifting sandbars causing loss of shipping (msp). Adjacent low-lying areas experience flood damage steadily worsening downstream as farms and estates (pwbs) along both rivers are washed into the foaming torrents.

Mesopotamian Priesthood Civilized Bronzeworking Theocracy
Shuruppak, High Priest of Innana (Ishtar) at Uruk
    Maintaining the same priorities as past years Shuruppak funded improvements in military quality, the University - in this instance some needed storage buildings - and recruitment efforts for those so inclined to become priests. Surplus food from priest-owned farmland stored for the future. Hired laborers dug additional municipal wells and built cisterns in Uruk to benefit the citizens.
    Shuruppak then devoted many years to supervising the expansion of the temple complex in Uruk into the priesthood's first temple precinct. It filled many hectares of the city with its libraries, dormitories, teaching halls, meditation rooms, temples and auxilliary structures, all surrounded by a thick wall of mud brick strengthened by the blood of sacrifices. In early 2076 he was joined by High Priestess Salabikh for the final ceremonies. She had been to distant Mari - recently converted to worship of the Mesopotamian pantheon - to dedicate a shrine for its faithful.


City-State of Assur Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ah-Kalla, King of Assur, favored of Ashur
    Ah-Kalla lapsed into lethargy, holding court but doing little else. Lieutenant Shulpae and various allies of Assur remained alert for invasion but the borders were peaceful. Among those missing in the rising waters were the king's aunt Kaummani and servants who were returning from Eshnunna, the captain of her galley having underestimated the danger.
    open for a player


City-State of Kish Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Uruk & Lagash
Jushur II, 2nd King of the VI Dynasty, favored of Zababa
    Jushur II continued to fund rural improvements in both Mesopotamia and Circis - the latter receiving its first irrigation ditches, public mills, barns and fenced pastures, earning the gratitude of those living in farms and hamlets. The king's elder son Jushur III was proclaimed Heir, followed by much feasting and merriment. The king ruled his kingdom and (his wife Magda having died in childbirth several years earlier) enjoyed his many concubines who were clever enough to avoid pregnancy.
    Meanwhile general Manishtusu - now an old man in his late sixties - returned to Selucia which had been conquered a generation ago but enjoyed some autonomy. He'd had some success trying to ease their lingering resentment and resumed negotiations. Alas, he was growing increasingly senile and was deeply insulting to the Selucian leaders. During one lengthy rant he suddenly clutched his chest and keeled over dead, which was probably a blessing as he'd nearly pushed the locals to revolt. His retainers - who'd been trying to placate the Selucians behind the scenes - brought his body back to Kish for burial. At the funeral his grief-stricken (and mentally unbalanced) elderly wife Amadala threw herself wailing onto his body and died, lending unexpected drama to the event.
    The loss of shipping in the flood included the pleasure barge of the king's sister Daria which was swept from its moorings and lost with all aboard who until then had been enjoying a wine-fueled "flood party".


State of Uruk and Lagash Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Kish
Kuda, 2nd King of the IV Dynasty, favored of Inanna
    Kuda decreed large sums be spent hoping to entice more scribes and clerks into public service, and the University was provided with its own equipment to produce tablets and the last wilderness area in Ahvaz was put to the plow.
    Knowing the Elamite army was still extant and formidable, in both Elam and Mand thick-walled forts of mud brick were built at crossroads, river fords and other critical locations. Work was begun rebuilding the walls of Susa and improving those of Lagash. Trade was approved with distant Ganweriwala although few merchants believed the lengthy trip would prove profitable.
    Deciding it was critical to return to Elam quickly to reinforce its garrison against the expected Elamite counter-attack, Kuda left his powerful but slow-moving heavy infantry behind in Uruk and marched southeast with some three thousand swordsmen, slingers and archers escorted by four squadrons of battle carts. [see War For Elam]

    Kuda's brother king (and heir) Nam-mahazi "the Golden" of Lagash relocated to Uruk to assume command of its garrison and rule the state. He personally oversaw the building of a flood wall along the Euphrates (which was to prove prescient) and the planting of a public garden but ignored his wife Amagi who, hurt, secluded herself with their children and servants.
    Lieutenant Ikun-pi-istar returned to Kuwait where he stood ready to react to any threat. Palace rumor had it he was to receive the region as a fief as reward for his long service, but his death in the summer of 2079 during a bout of dysentery made the point moot.
    Lagash suffered damage to its waterfront; part of the royal palace was undermined and swept away by the raging Tigris including ill-tempered Queen Mother Aga (widow of a past king) and her servants who were afraid to wake her even as the building began to tremble. Uruk however was reasonably unaffected thanks to Nam-mahazi's river wall, completed only a few months earlier.

.
WAR FOR ELAM
GM Comments:
    (1) last turn the War For Elam didn't require resolution of simultaneous movement since the Elamite army was absent and the army of Uruk moved at will against the fixed defenses in a series of battles. Now that the war is fluid its coverage merits special treatment.
    (2) three nations are involved, Uruk-Lagash vs Elam and Gutia.
    (3) apologies in advance if I missed any contingencies of which there were many.

2080 BC
    Kuda and his men cross the Tigris from Abadan and by late May have reinforced the garrison troops in Elam. Already there was ally Sin-Kasid of Ahvaz with another six hundred infantry; both forces deploy anticipating an Elamite counter-attack from Neyriz.

    By the end of July an Elamite army of five thousand swordsmen and two thousand skirmishers led by King Kindattu had passed through the mountains along the Neyriz/Mand border into the Mand. They were confronted by a garrison of five newly built forts and about two thousand mixed infantry commanded by Prince Puzur-Ili of Uruk. Despite the lack of seige engineers to reduce the strongpoints Kindattu had to attack before another Urukish army arrived.
    For several months the men of Elam launch ferocious assaults upon the defenses. One fort was eventually stormed by scaling ladder albeit with heavy - and unaffordable - losses. With over a thousand dead (and twice that wounded) and the campaigning season ending with autumn rains the Elamites disengage. The garrison had taken half as many casualties and felt a new confidence in themselves.

    Meanwhile by late summer over 2,500 Gutian heavy infantry led by general Yakov had worked their way through the mountains along the Zagros/Elam border and enter Elam proclaiming themselves as liberators. Lacking light units to scout, they are kept informed by the locals of the disposition of the garrison. Yakov is an average general and hesitant; the Gutians eventually march to engage.
    The forces of Uruk and their allies from Ahvaz are at a disadvantage having been guarding the wrong border but the men of Gutia are near the end of their strength after a long march in heavy armor and are outnumbered better than 2:1 by Kuda's army plus the garrison. After futile attempts to storm the forts are thrown back with heavy losses the Gutian army begins to disintegrate. Further thinned by archers and javelin-throwing battle cart riders (who are especially effective in the level farmland) the spearmen of Gutia are overwhelmed by masses of Urukish infantry and cut to pieces, only a few hundred escaping. The men of Uruk suffer only a third as many losses, mostly among skirmishers and cart crews whose lack of armor while closely engaging proves costly.
    The victors salvage much weaponry and equipment from the battlefield and enslave hundreds of Gutian wounded who are able to walk; those who can't are put out of their misery with a swift sword thrust. A dozen locals found with Gutian coin in their possession are hung.

2079 BC
    During the winter the king of Uruk receives news of the fighting in Mand and resolves to march there when the spring rains end. Likewise the king of Elam receives news of the fighting in Elam and resolves to leave Mand when mountain passes are clear of snow.

    Leaving a garrison behind in Elam, King Kuda and ally Sin-Kasid lead their forces southward into Mand. The pace is slower due to heavy infantry from the garrison now accompanying them; it is nearly July before they reach the encampment of Prince Puzur-Ili among the remaining forts. The faster-moving Elamite force has withdrawn over the mountains towards Neyriz. Leaving Puzur-Ili to defend Mand in case the Elamites double back, Kuda and Sin-Kasid set out in pursuit.
    Crossing the mountains is difficult in winter as snows deepen. Sin-Kasid is buried in an avalanche and his five hundred now-leaderless personal troops turn around and head back to Ahvaz. Kuda presses onward with his force.

2078 BC
    By the end of April the weary Urukish army of nearly 4,500 emerges into the forested foothills of western Neyriz, where King Kindattu's rested army of nearly six thousand meets them. The terrain puts Uruk's heavy infantry and battle carts at a disadvantage, however archers inflict over two hundred casualties upon the Elamites before the armies close to melee.
    The armies are well matched and the fighting is brutal. After several hours the greater numbers of the men of Elam tell and Kuda of Uruk orders the attack broken off. The disciplined Urukish withdraw toward the mountain passes in good order with skirmishers fighting a rear guard action, saving nearly 1,800 wounded but leaving nearly a thousand dead behind. The Elamites have suffered about half as many casualties and remain a force to be reckoned with; Kindattu grants the men all the battlefield loot as payment.

    The Uruk army's passage over the mountains is far easlier without snow and ice. By autumn Kuda's force is camped in Mand near its garrison forts and Puzur-Ili's own encampment. The king had counted on pacifying Neyriz but realizes another attempt would result in the loss of his army. King Kindattu of Elam realizes just as clearly another assault on Mand (or Elam) would result in the loss of his army. Stalemate ensues.

    Sin-Iribam becomes lord of Ahvaz when the returning warriors bring news of the death of his father Sin-Kasid in an avalanche of snow. Angry at his family's loss, Sin-Iribam declares he will no longer be an ally of Uruk, although he will continue to pay tribute.

2077 BC
    In early autumn the Uruk army led by Kuda march north. Behind them Puzur-Ili remains watchful. The army of Elam remains in Neyriz.

2076 BC
    Having marched through Elam, Abadan and Hahmar, King Kuda and his men reach Uruk towards the end of summer. Upon his return he marries Nita of Mand, widow of a previous Elamite king who has been anxiously awaiting his return.
.


Kingdom of Elam Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Kindattu of the Simashki Dynasty, King of Elam
    During the winter of 2081-2080 Kindattu - on a diplomatic mission to Neyriz - and his army of seven thousand received word of the Urukish invasion and subjugation of their land. In addition, he was now king following the death of Kangan in the defense of Susa. The Elamites swore oaths to liberate their kingdom; the more reckless officers called for invading Elam as soon as the snows in the mountain passes melted.
    The new king however was a skilled tactician as well as diplomat. Knowing the king of Uruk would expect just such a move he instead led his warriors into Mand. [see War For Elam ]

.

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IRANIAN PLATEAU
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Silk Road marketplace in Gutian capital of Borahshi


Literacy exists throughout this area as shown below.

Kingdom of Gutia Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Gazsi, King of Gutium
    Gazsi ordered much wealth be spent hiring government workers and improving the University with new buildings, additional scholars and plentiful supplies. Extra food was preserved in case of future needs. Another eight hundred men were trained with spear and shield.
    He next proclaimed his only son Samu would become his heir upon reaching adulthood in a few more years and would marry Shadi, daughter of an old noble family. The monarch then attended to the day to day activities of ruling. Into this peaceful existance came reports of the Urukian conquest of the Elamite homeland, the taking of its capital and then the region of Mand.
    Gazsi addressed the court, stating he was "outraged by the heinous acts of Uruk" and he would be sending an army to "bring the pain to them". The general Yakov and over 2,500 heavy infantry were soon marching south through Zagros to liberate Elam. [see War For Elam ]

    In early 2078 Samu came of age with much celebration followed by his marriage and even more celebration. But the festive mood of the capital Borahshi turned somber when Yakov returned with only a few hundred survivors of the army sent to punish Uruk.


Kingdom of Ganweriwala Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Indus glyphs)
Vihana the Magnificent, King of Ganweriwala
    Having limited resources, Vihana spent most of the nation's wealth providing tools and supplies to surplus population and sending them along with Prince Dhaval to expand the settlement of Yukta into a full-sized port on the Carmanian coast. A dormitory was built for the University and a small surplus of food stored away for later.
    Next Vihana proclaimed his young son Lakshmana to be his heir when he eventually came of age. The king then went about governing his lands. In 2079 a group of Urukish merchants arrived exhausted from their long journey; Vihana welcomed them with a feast and a display of Indus dance, song and music.
    Meanwhile lieutenant Rishi continued negotiations with the hill tribes of Kuh'laleh'zar. He was an average diplomat trying to overcome langauge and religious differences but very persistant. After many years of listening to Rishi the chiefs agreed to pay tribute if he'd leave them alone.

.

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OXUS VALLEY
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City of Namazgadepe in Turkmen - foreground slopes downward to Oxus River


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy (pictographic symbols) exists throughout this area.


City-State of Namazgadepe Civilized Metalworking Centralized Monarchy
Piyama, King of Namazgadepe
    Piyama decreed investment spread over many areas of need including setting up a working messenger service to spread news quickly. He ordered large quanties of surplus wheat stored for future needs. The central market square in the capital was paved and another two hundred men were recruited as archers.
    The king next attended to the question of an heir. Having four very young sons he was loathe to pick from among them at such an early age, but Piyama was nearing 50 and aware of his mortality. He bade a wooden block be placed flat in the archery field with one son's name written in each quarter, then shot an arrow that arched upward then fell to ground imbedding itself in the block where the gods willed. The court hastened to the block; the bolt had hit the name of 3-year old Zenithar. The noblewoman Eresh, widow of the former heir Dravint, was appointed Princess Regent for Zenithar and swore an oath to protect him.
    That matter settled, Piyama traveled to Bactria to negotiate yet closer ties. He was at best a middling diplomat so he took with him royal princesses Mara, Nuralanya and Meridia for marriage offers. It was a fortunate move and each married a wealthy nobleman; their husbands in turn persuaded the local lord to merge Bactria completely with Namazgadepe. The king returned home in triumph.


City-State of Gonur Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Cyrus, King of Gonur
    Cyrus died of his infected wound early in 2080 and twice-widowed wife Bangul dispatched a messenger to heir Pudha, who soon returned from Kophat Dagh and took the throne. Investments were again made in in both military and government as well as experiments by metal workers to make an alloy of copper. The new library was expanded at the University. At great expense the last marginal land in Transoxania was prepared for farming; wells and irrigation ditches were dug to improve it.
    Lacking children and knowing the importance of a clear line of succession, the new king proclaimed his younger (by a few minutes) identical twin brother Bangha to be his heir. The king then ruled his realm and spent torrid nights with his Uzebeki bride Zairichi, producing a boy in late 2080 and a girl in late 2079. The latter birth was difficult and the queen feverish for days; after she recovered she did not conceive again.
    Worse was to follow. In the summer of 2078 word came from Kophet Dagh that older royal sister Uxshenti (married to the lord of that harsh land) had died of a pox brought by a caravan traversing the Silk Road. Another tragedy followed in 2076 when their younger sister Humaya was found dead in an alley. Apparently she'd slipped out of the palace alone at night to meet an unknown (probably common!) lover and had been set upon by thieves and robbed, although apparently put up a fight before her death.
    The people began to whisper the royal family was cursed.

.

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TIBETAN PLATEAU
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Tibetan capital of Lhasa


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.


Kingdom of Zhang Zhung Pastoral-Nomadic Metalworking Monarchy
Dequan, King of Zhang Zhung
    Dequan invested a bit of wealth into just about everything and the University got the most, allowing the hiring of several scholars from the civilized Indus lands. Much gold and labor were spent improving the capital of Kyunghing with sewers and public fountains.
    Next the king addressed the problem of an adult heir. He chose Huan, skilled warrior and diplomat from an old Kyunghing merchant family, then ruled his kingdom and enjoyed Mei, his bride from the Yutain settlement. She soon became pregnant but in early 2079 died in childbirth, leaving Dequan grief-stricken. He began drinking heavily and died in 2078 after a three-day bender. Huan unexpectedly and apprehensively became king, and did his best to rule the kingdom.


Kingdom of Tibet Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Metok, King of Tibet
    Metok ruled his mountain kingdom and saved its wealth for future use.
    open for a player

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INDUS VALLEY
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

City of Rupar in Sahis, longtime ally of Harappa


Literacy (Indus glyphs) exists throughout the Indus Valley civilization.

State of Harappa and Rupar Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy
Kalabagh, King of Harappa
    Kalabagh continued to spend heavily on infantry tactics and weaponry as well as government recruiting into jobs both honorable and unsavory. The University received another large grant enabling it to hire additional scholars and purchase supplies. Much wealth and labor was devoted to the Punjab homeland: swampy areas along the rivers were filled in to produce farmland, wells dug, common grazing fields fenced and experiments begun with selective breeding of cattle.
    Two more pentaconters were ordered built at the capital's shipyards and over a thousand men trained to be archers. The king then held court and spent nights with his concubines, having agreed to give wife Fulmala a rest after 10 children. Alas, no good deed goes unpunished. In autumn 2079 a former favorite stabbed him in a jealous rage after Kalabagh had paid more attention to a newly acquired woman. Heir Abhinabyu had been im the capital with the army positioned to defend the realm and ascended the throne without incident.
    Alas again! For while a swordsman Akhinabyu was no administrator, ignoring his responsibilities in favor of tournaments and festivals (think King Robert from Game of Thrones). The scribes and bureaucrats naturally slacked off their record-keeping and state revenue plumeted. Even worse, during a tourney in summer 2078 the overcrowded royal viewing stand collapsed, killing his young wife plus the wife of Abishek, visiting royalty from Rupar. A number of guards and servants were killed or injured as well.

    Meanwhile warrior-diplomat Prince Bikampur continued discussions with the lord mayor of Chanhu-Daro to join with Harappa. He offered royal princess Ojasvi in marriage to the nobleman who - being instantly smitten - agreed in late 2077 to retire to his riverside estate. Bikampur did not have long to bask in his success; he died a month later in his sleep at the advanced age of 56, leaving a young widow.
    Lieutenant Zeeshan was already in Mehrgarh negotiating. He offered the hand of royal daughter Babita in marriage as enticement to join with Harappa. This local lord too was smitten and retired with his comely bride to his villa. Unfortunately a few days later Zeeshan got into a brawl while celebrating at a tavern in Mehrgarh and took a fatal blow to his head from a thrown chair.
    With all the deaths the common folk whispered about a curse on the royal family and those who served it.


Traders of Dholavira Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Polyar, First of the Council
    As had been Council policy for the past decade, Polyar directed small investments in pretty much everything and the University got funds for a new lecture hall. Most of the Traders' wealth was again spent on improving living conditions in the port of Qana on the Arabian penninsula: the market square was paved and public fountains installed, and an open-air amphitheater constructed. was built.
    Polyar then held court and enjoyed his wife Imasha, the daughter of the previous First and sister of Harshan, current Sword of the Council. Although near 40 she gave birth to twins (girl, boy) in 2079 - her second set of twins! But once again suffered high fever for days and weakness for weeks afterward, to the great worry of her husband, and did not conceive again. In the autumn of 2076 her brother Tamman died after eating spoiled shellfish in a waterfront tavern.
    Harshan kept his squadron of pentaconters busy patrolling the waters around Dholavira lest the crews become lax and indolent. When ashore he visited his neices and newphews, and later attended the funeral of his brother Tamman.


City-State of Lothal Seafaring Bronzeworking Monarchy
Cherasan, King of Lothal
    Cherasan continued to spend the majority of the kingdom's resources on improvements to the homeland: new stones for gristmills, filling in lowlands so they could be used for agriculture, bridging creeks where trails crossed, and more. In the shipyards of Lothal five war galleys were built and put under the command of Prince Darioush.
    Cherasan thereafter ruled his kingdom and spent time with his Nasiki wife Chee who birthed girls in 2079 and 2078 then a boy in 2077. Heir David remained in Lothal as well, helping the king administer the nation and enjoying his wife Drusa, also from Nasiki. She had several miscarriages but produced daughters in 2079 and 2077.
    Meanwhile two squadrons of pentaconters - one commanded by Darioush and the other by lieutenant Devi - had set out south along the coast on missions of exploration. Both returned about four years later, apparently successful.

.

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GANGES VALLEY
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

City of Atranjikhera on the Ganges River


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area except as noted below.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.


City-State of Hastinapura Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Elamite Linear script)
Lakhimpur II, King of Hastinapura
    Lakhimpur II poured most of the resources of the realm into schemes to move mews rapidly across the kingdom, but the minor nobles put in charge of the effort spent much of the funding on food, drink and entertainment "to keep up morale" and no progress was made. Once again large quantities of surplus food was set aside for the future. The king then ruled and strangely continued to ignore his wife Kristina, a local noblewoman; it was rumored she began spending much time with the captain of the palace guard.
    In late 2077 Lakhimpur's eldest son Rupuraba - a smooth-talking, handsome lad - came of age and was proclaimed heir. Much celebration followed with servant girls eyeing the new heir speculatively.


City-State of Atranjikhera Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Ila, Queen of Atranjikhera
    Ila continued her policy of spending on attempts to organize a message-relay service and devising a method of permanently recording the Elamo-Dravidian tongue. Scholars were finally successful with the latter and adopted the Elamite Linear script used with neighboring Hastinapura with slight modifications for the local dialect. Several hundred more men were trained with the bow. In the homeland small creeks were bridged and paths widened to expedite farm wagons reaching villages. Merchants were encouraged (okay, ordered) to initiate trade overland with faraway Chola despite the formidable mountain ranges, forbidding wilderness and political turmoil.
    Taking her newphew Duryodhana with her to learn the art of negotiation, Ila set out south through the wilderness, over the mountains and through more wilderness until after a year of hard travel arrived in Kakatiya. Vassal chieftan Yudhisthira had joined her in Dahala with a guard of light infantry for her protection. Talks with the primitive Kakatiyans continued for several years until near the end of 2078 the tribes pledged their fealty. A banquet followed at which Ila choked to death on a piece of tough scrub goat.
    Meanwhile back in Atranjikhera Ila's younger sister (and heir) Samavati had presided over the funeral of Ila's daughter Gandhari from spoiled shellfish. When Duryodhana and the queen's stricken retainers returned in late 2077 Samavati again had cause for grief. After a period of mourning Samavati was crowed queen and in turn proclaimed Sagara, a royal daughter of a past monarch, to be the new heir. They prayed to the gods there would be no more deaths.
    The gods either didn't hear or didn't care, for in the summer of 2076 the body of Sagara's younger brother Subhadra was found in a storm sewer. He'd apparently been robbed and strangled while returning from a tavern. The common folk began whispering of a curse upon the royal family.


City-State of Kaushambi Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy
Jagadambika, King of Kaushambi
    Uncertain how to invest the kingdom's wealth, Jagadambika decided to save it a seek counsel from his advisors. Next was the matter of royal heirs. The king chose a comely lass from a Kaushambish noble family; an impressive wedding and subsequent feast were held. The king then ruled and sired sons in 2079 and 2077.
    Meanwhile his younger brother (and skilled warrior) Jaafar and vassal Aakash of Jaunpor stood by to react to invasion.

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SOUTHERN INDIA
(Indian subcontinent south of Vindhya Mountain range, plus Ceylon)
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

wall painting of Naga priest conducting ritual


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.


Kingdom of Chera Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Chola
Narmudi Kezhu, King of Chera
    After the previous king died the government bureaucrats did minimal work for years and managed to use up all tax collections paying themselves generous salaries. As a result Narmudi Kezhu inherited a nation with an empty treasury. Taking the throne he made examples of some of the more corrupt officials and the rest suddenly discovered motivation.
    Although word of the turmoil in Chola reached him, Narmudi decided an internal struggle wasn't grounds to trigger intervention under the two kingdoms' mutual defense pact.


Kingdom of Chola Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (syllabaric Tamil script)
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Chera
Nedunkilli Chola, King of Chola
    Already in Madurai for diplomatic talks, Nedunkilli continued attending feasts, hunting trips, fishing trips and general male-bonding activities with high chief of the pastoral nomads. In the king's absence heir Karikala saved most of the realm's income (per instructions) but spent enough for a new University dormitory to be constructed, then handled the day to day running of the kingdom.
    Meanwhile trouble was brewing. Far to the north in Kalinga lieutenant Aditya finally1 convinced the army to join him. The troops had been stuck in that wilderness since its conquest many years earlier and he promised them easy duty in the homeland once he was king. Leaving the land without a garrison (he could hardly ask anyone to stay) he moved south with over three thousand swordsmen with skirmishers scouting ahead.
    Passing uneventfully through Vengi, the army reached Madurai in midsummer 2080, where its lord remained loyal to his king and with his 1,200 light infantry bravely if foolishly denied the rebels entry. While the locals knew their grasslands intimately within a few months Aditya's much larger force had crushed them. The high chief had died with his men; King Nedunkilli was wounded and captured.
    Pausing to gather more supplies and let the wounded heal, it was not until early 2079 rebels moved south into Chola itself. The homeland was in chaos with brigands taking advantage of the situation and the population suffering. The lone field fort garrison quickly yielded to Aditya. The capital of Arikamedu had no walls and heir Karikala had fled by galley rather than have its tiny garrison slaughtered pointlessly.
    Aditya proclaimed himself king and set the army to restoring order while he learned the art of ruling.

1 his loyalty was 1 so he kept failing loyalty checks. However he also failed to convince the army officers to join him in a classic Strongman Overthrow until this turn.

.

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IRRAWADDY VALLEY
(Tibeto-Burman migration from north down the Irrawaddy Valley displaced original Mon-Khmer peoples southward)
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Beikthano, oldest Irrawaddy Valley city


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.


City-State of Halin Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Pyu script glyphs)
Kanyaza of the Shakya Dynasty, King of Halin
    Kanyaza was in Assam thus leaving heir Abhirej to rule. Abhirej spent much of the kingdom's wealth on continued efforts to create a messenger service and was this time successful. A small harvest surplus was stored and the homeland fortified with stone towers built at key points in case Tibetan slavers grew bolder. These activities were followed by a royal wedding wherein Abhirej married the noblewoman Santhiri of Assam as had been arranged. She birthed twins (boy, girl) in late 2080 to much celebration. In 2079 after a long labor she produced a stunted, sickly boy then spent feverish weeks recovering. She did not conceive again after her ordeal despite many priestly rituals.
    The king and his bride Kuwerami had meanwhile crossed the mountains into her native Manipur where they had visited her family. In autumn Kanyaza and Kuwerami entered the river settlement of Taguang for discussions with its leadership. The royal couple spent many years there until finally the elders agreed to pay tribute - mostly in river fish and carved teak implements and statuary - to Halin.


City-States of Binnaka & Maingmaw Civilized Metalworking Monarchies - literate (Pyu script glyphs)
Thomanaya, King of Maingmaw
    Beyond frustrated and now furious, Thomanaya executed the court advisors who'd frittered away the coin invested attempting to create a relay system to rapidly carry messages and tried yet again this time putting merchants in charge. They proved competent and did the job. The University had a storage building constructed to house supplies. In the homeland areas near the eastern mountains were terraced and planted with orchards. Thomanaya then ruled Maingmaw and spent his nights with wife Talisaya, producing a son in late 2080. However she was plagued thereafter by multiple miscarriages.
    Meanwhile brother king Ruranaya administered Binnaka and enjoyed bride Larisaya who delivered a girl late 2080 (within days of Talisaya) but in the following years was barren. She claimed to see visions, and insisted there was a formless evil in the palace affecting the royal wives despite the shamanist rituals to purge evil spirits.


City-State of Beikthano Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Peshak, King of Beikthano
    Continuing past policy, Peshak made small investments in military quality and government hiring. The University was able to hire more staff. Leaving the bureaucrats to run the kingdom as best they could, the king headed for nearby Thaton to negotiate with its lord. Peshak was a middling diplomat but offered himself in marriage to a local noblewoman; he was very, very handsome and the women of Thaton's court were most eager. The local lord's daughter won out (she had her father wrapped around her little finger) and the lord signed a treaty giving Beikthanoan traders exclusive rights to the region's copper ore.
    Peshak returned home by summer 2076 and his bride gaped in wonder at the sights and sounds of a real city.

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SOUTHEAST ASIA
(Viet migration from China starting to displace original Mon-Khmer peoples southward)
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Lam Ap royal palace at Tra Kiew


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.


Kingdom of Langkasuka Seafaring Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Pallava script glyphs)
Krit Bunyasarn, King of Langkasuka
    The year 2080 began badly for Krit Bunyasarn when his wife Amporn died while shopping with her handmaidens in the capital's marketplace. A farmer keeled over while unloading his wagon, startling his oxen team who panicked and charged into the crowd scattering produce and screaming citizens across the central square. Amporn was among a number killed or badly hurt before the animals tired out and headed to drink from a water trough pulling the remains of the wagon behind them.
    After her funeral the king got back to ruling. Considering the need for cropland paramount, he allocated all available gold and laborers to continue clearing jungle vegetation. Merchants were given approval to initiate trade with distant Beikthano via its river settlement of Sri Ksetra. Thereafter Krit ruled his kingdom albeit with much sadness.
    Meanwhile his widowed son (and heir) Surat Bunyasarn spent his years experimenting with hallucinagenic Psilocybin mushrooms he discovered in the deep jungles of Kedah. After a particularly memorable vision of a panda with deep, black eyes he returned to the capital hoping to convince the shamen the mushrooms would be a great addition to the nation's religious practicies. Always the entrepreneur, Surat also began selling small samples to those who could afford it so others could also transcend the mundane world.


Kingdom of Funan Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Kaundinya I, King of Funan
    Kaundinya decreed funds be spent investigating how to record knowledge permanently, as was rumored to be done in Langkasuka and Lam Ap. The first irrigation ditches were dug in Funan to help improve crop yield. Those actions set in motion, the king decided he needed to stop traveling and start producing royal heirs. He moved three young, attractive concubines into the same wing of the palace as his long-neglected 30-year-old wife Liuye and set about his task. It's good to be king! he thought.
    Whatever Liuye thought of the arrangement she prudently kept to herself; in the course of five years she dutifully bore 2 boys. One concubine produced 3 girls and the other concubine birthed 4. The third concubine died in childbirth. Liuye decided the gods had been kind: she hadn't died and the only sons being hers simplified the line of succession.
    The king's cousin Huntian journeyed to the river settlement of Oc Eo hoping to convince the elders to align with Funan. He was making progress - the elders had agreed the kingdom had a claim upon them due to shared beliefs - when in 2078 he was killed in a tavern brawl over the favors of a comely serving wench.


Kingdom of Lam Ap Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Pallava script glyphs)
Ang Bak, King of Lam Ap
    Ang Bak continued to pour the kingdom's gold and available labor in Lam Ap to clear jungle for use as farmland. That underway, he resolved to avenge his cousin Ti Tran's death at the hands of bandits the previous year. With over two thousand mixed infantry he scoured the Lam Ap/Champa border taking numerous groups of brigands by surprise, killing or capturing (and beheading) several hundred. A trove of loot was recovered from years of robbing travelers, extorting merchants and offering farmers and hunters "protection".
    With satisfaction he returned home after several years and resumed his kingly duties.


Kingdom of Van Lang Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Hng Vuong of Chan Dynasty, King of Van Lang
    Already at the settlement of Phung Nguyen, Hng Vuong continued his efforts to bring it fully into the kingdom. After years of negotiating the elders finally gave in. Hng then tried persuading the conquered peasantry of Annam to become closer to Van Lang but the king was a poor diplomat and they would have none of it.
    Meanwhile the king's cousin (and heir) Thuc Phan headed for Nampung where he spent nearly five years talking, feasting, drinking, hunting, fishing and discussing life with the local lord and his court. Although Thuc was (like the king) a mediocre diplomat his persistance paid off and the lord agreed to pay tribute.


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