LORDS OF THE EARTH 38 - THE DAWN OF CIVILIZATION
Newsfax Turn: #10 ( 2085 - 2081 BC )
July 17, 2016

ANNOUNCEMENTS: New or changed from previous turn will be in red.
My Stats program only accepts whole gp for University investment, and only stores whole nfp leftover at end of turn.
Progress in metallurgy, literacy & government will be in green and is the situation at the start of the turn.
If your University level is 2 or less you probably aren't producing tech points.

The rules for interacting with migrating tribes are deferred until I have time.
Want another position? None are currently available. I was going to expand the map but deferred it so I could get this long-delayed turn out.

QUICK SCROLL if you know where you want to go:
Iberia
Italy Centered
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Ganges Valley
Southern India
Irrawaddy Valley
Southeast Asia

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IBERIA CENTERED
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fortified Settlement of Los Millares


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.
Literacy has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.


Lusitanian Tribes Barbarian Metalworking Oligarchy
Mandonio the Golden Tongued, Chief of the Council of Clans
    Mandonio made small investments in military improvements, funding metalworkers trying out new alloys, and governmental ideas. A small harvest surplus of grain was stored for later needs. The king then traveled north into Galacia where he met with its many clan leaders. Long negotiations followed; Mandonio's oratory was less effective in a different language and the hillman were suspicious of strangers. Eventually they pledged grudging fealty to the Lusitanians.
    Meanwhile Mandonio's younger brother (and heir) Babpo administered the land while the king was away. In 2084 he married the daughter of a local clan leader; after a sickly girl born late that year they produced a boy in 2083 and girls each of the following years. Life is good thought Babpo, and for the moment so it was.


Kingdom of Tartessos Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Tartessian syllabaric alphabet)
Guillermo, King of Tartessos
    Guillermo ordered funding for naval architects hoping they'd design larger galleys but their initial prototypes failed. Surplus fruit from the kingdom's orchards was dried and stored. Having scribes able to "write" using the newly developed Tartessian alphabet, the king commanded an accounting of all people, livestock and possessions in the realm.
    Leaving his heir Eduardo to supervise the census and then rule in his absence, Guillermo led an army of four thousand though previously-pacified Granada to the border of Valencia, invading in late summer 2085. The defenders numbered nearly two thousand, mostly lightly armed but intimately familiar with the terrain. Unfortunately their war chief had been chosen for lineage rather than skill whereas the Guillermo was an extremely skilled commander. Provoking the locals into a wild charge, Tartessian archers dropped scores of onrushing Valencians before they closed, and disciplined ranks of infantry cut down most of the rest for minor losses. A groveling native chief was elevated to satrap on behalf of Tartessos. The king returned triumphant to his capital with hundreds of captured prisoners in chains and soon afterward married a comely local noblewoman.


Celtiberian Tribes Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ihintza, Queen of Celtiberian Clans
    Ihintza made a few investments, saving the wealth of the clans for later use. Two hundred men were trained to fight with axe and shield, and a light galley built at the municipal shipyards. Excess vegetables were dried and stored in case of future famine.
    The queen then headed over the mountains into Old Castille and entered into diplomatic talks with the hill clan elders, offering her cousin (and heir) Amets in marriage to the sister or daughter of an elder. Years of talks followed before those of Old Castille pledged fealty to the Celtiberians. Ihintza returned home with Amet's betrothed then spent time with her Aragonese husband Ibai, resulting in a son born just before the end of 2081.
    Meanwhile Amets remained ready with the army to react to any threats. In early 2082 a war galley whose sail bore the Minoan bull was watched carefully as it traveled up the Ebro and down again, but no contact was initiated by either side. The scenario was repeated the following year by a trade galley flying the Nuragic flag.

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ITALY CENTERED
(Corsica, Sardinia, Italian penninsula, Sicily & Malta)
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Nuragic field fort with distinctive stone Nuraghe towers


Literacy has not yet reached this area unless otherwise stated below.

Nuragic Civilization Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Pasquale, Navarch, Lord of Albucci, de facto leader of Nuragic Civilization
    Pasquale led the Council in agreement to devote the vast majority of the civilization's wealth and labor into an all-out effort to complete the conversion of Sardinian wilderness into productive farmland. Small investments were made as well, and three trade galleys ordered built in the capital's arsenal. Much discussion followed concerning the need for additional labor to further the Council's plans, and it was decided raiding for slaves was the solution.
    Thus it came to pass that Pasquale with 600 infantry aboard a half-dozen galleys and escorted by a pair of pentaconters left port and headed first for nearby Liguria. Sending the infantry ashore several hundred civilians were rounded up and marched back to the galleys leaving burnt farmhouses and dead cattle behind.1 A year later it was the turn of Provence. The native militia here were more alert and the outnumbered Nuragic troops were lucky to retreat back to their ships although empty-handed. Even worse happened later in Languedoc; the slavers suffered several hundred killed and many wounded before escaping to their ships.
    Meanwhile Second of the Council Ignace departed on a mission of exploration to the west, returning at the end of 2081 apparently successful given the celebratory mood of the men in dockside taverns.

1any sort of raiding or slaving is a violent business and if successful will result in loss of PWBs or possibly GPv.


(Proto-)Etruscans Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Vulca Ulthese, King of Etruscans
    Returning to Tuscany with his bride Cinzia of Nance, Vulca again ordered the unemployed and landless - as well as pensioned off soldiers and their families - to be gathered and sent to the eastern coast of Calabria along with wagons, tools and building materials where they expanded the port settlement of Locri into a true city. The king then ruled his territory and enjoyed Cinzia, but several years passed and the royal couple failed to conceive. Finally in 2083 after priests had clensed their bedchamber of evil spirits and sacrificed a bewildered goat to the goddess of fertility Cinzia became pregnant and birthed a son.


Apennine Culture Civilized Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Decimus, Lord of Scoglio, de facto leader of Apennine Culture
    Decimus continued to spend the majority of the civilization's wealth and labor on improvements to agriculture. A surplus of wheat was stored for future needs, and the king proclaimed his charismatic nephew Crassus to be his successor due to the accidental death of his son Cassius in distant Verona. Decimus then spent his days coordinating Apennine efforts and his nights with wife Drusilla of Spoleto who produced a girl in 2084 and a boy in both 2083 and 2081.

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AEGEAN CENTERED
(Balkans, Aegean Sea littoral & Anatolia)
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Census recorded in Mycenaean Linear B glyphs


Literacy exists throughout this area as shown below.

Illyrians Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Medak, King of Illyrians
    Medak maintained his policy of investments across a broad range of military and governmental departments. More supplies were purchased for the University and wells dug to help improve agriculture. Four hundred men familiar with the bow were conscripted into the army. Guards removed certain thugs from the local prison and took them away.
    The king then ruled his domain and spent time with Alena, his wife from Nescatium, who birthed a girl in 2085. The following year the royal couple were returning to the palace during a thunderstorm when lightning struck a nearby building, collapsing it into the street in a mass of stone, mortar, dust and debris. The king was killed and the again-pregnant queen badly injured and miscarried. A score of citizens watching the royal procession were crushed and dozens injured.
    Feudal vassal Damir had been provided troops and sent to raid the pastoral nomads of the Alford. Having to cross mountains was wearing on the would-be slavers and the steppe was unfamiliar terrain to men accustomed to hills and forests. An average war leader, he led his men into an ambush by over twice their number of Alfoldi screaming war cries. Most of his command were killed or captured. Damir and a handful of men managed to escape and slink back humiliated to his estates in Nesectium.
    Meanwhile Medak's younger brother (and heir) Cabar along with an honor guard had gone to chaotic Dalmatia to meet with the rival religious factions and attempt to bring order. After years of negotiating the chiefs agreed to be tributary to Illyria and provide access to their copper mines. It was not until he returned to Illyria in late 2081 he learned of his brother's death and that he was now king. Having no children of his own, he pro-claimed Pavla, eldest son of Medak, to be his heir.


Achaean Greeks Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Linear B glyphs)
Akakios, King of Achaeans
    Akakios again decreed investment in government and funding for the University which was able to hire several noted poets and authors to teach. Macedon was further fortified while in the homeland small streams were bridged to facilitate wagon movement. A light galley was built in the arsenal at Mycennae to increase trade. A census was ordered and heir Opites was made responsible for its accuracy.
    The king then settled down to rule his kingdom and educate his son Asaeus in the art of administration. In autumn 2084 Akakios's wife Achiroe was shopping with her retainers when a brawl spilled out of a tavern into the street; a thrown knife missed its target and instead fatally struck the queen. (Her killer - the king not caring the deed was accidental - took a long time to die in the palace dungeon.)
    As years passed without his wife Akakios slid into a deepening depression and took to drinking heavily.

    The king's brother Alcibiades, lieutenant Agapenor and the twelve hundred heavy infantry had been encamped near Mycennae waiting for transport. Minoan galleys had been expected in early 2090 and had not actually arrived until late 2086, by which time the men including their leaders were spending most of their time keeping the capital's taverns and brothels profitable. The months after Minoan commander Lonchi's arrival were spent on harsh exercise and drill before he deemed the Greeks fit to earn their pay, and they boarded Minoan galleys. [see Minoans]

    Meanwhile feudal vassal Dolops of Epirus led a thousand men through Serbia and over the mountains into Bosnia to raid for slaves. He was a middling commander and the sizable native militia kept the Epriots on the move and unable to grab more than a score of unlucky woodcutters or hunters before fleeing back over the mountains.
    King Akakios died toward the end of 2081 when after a multi-day bender he was found unresponsive in his bedchamber by his retainers. Opites took the throne and Asaeus became the new Heir.


Minoans Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy - literate (Linear A glyphs)
Kyrsi, First of the Council
    After much discussion a peace agreement had been reached to end the long Nile Valley War: the Herakleopolitans (and such Thebeans who had escaped to their lands) would migrate north through Lower Egypt then west across the desert. Kyrsi and the Minoan army - some of whom had been there 15 years - were waiting to return home to Crete. However there were matters of state which required attention.
    Since Second of the Council Tavrys was in Knossos it fell upon him to preside over Council discussions. Much investment was allocated to experimenting with new ship designs. Surplus root vegetables, wheat and wine were stored for future needs. Marginal land was cleared by gangs of slaves from the distant Ghebel Gharib desert and trade ordered was begun with distant Illyria. A thousand men were added to the military: 400 trained with the sword and the rest with the bow.
    The navy was kept busy shuttling troops. In midsummer famed war leader Lonchi arrived in Knossos with a fleet of galleys carrying twelve hundred Achaean heavy infantry hired as mercenaries. Lonchi, the Greeks and their officers unloaded and the ships reprovisioned. Tavrys assumed command and the fleet headed to Lower Egypt and picked up Kyrsi, over two thousand Minoan warriors and another thousand slaves, then returned to Knossos in early summer of 2084. The Minoan intervention in Egypt was finished.

    Which didn't mean there was peace. Having been repulsed in their previous attempt to colonize Thapsos in Sicily, the Minoans now returned in force. In late spring 2083 over a dozen galleys under Kyrsi appeared off the southern coast of Sicily. The Sicilians owed fealty to Minoan ally Zakro of Phylakopi so they simply watched as the Achaean spearmen plus a thousand Minoan archers and swordsmen unloaded through the surf.
    Kyrsi led his mix of infantry overland to the port settlement of Thapsos and once again demanded its surrender. Thapsos was walled and had a garrison; its leaders while aware their opponents were more numerous were confident enough to reject the demand. It took several months to successfully scale the walls but by early 2082 the settlement had fallen with relatively light losses.
    Minoan galleys entered the harbor and discharged colonists who expanded the settlement into a full city. At the celebratory feast Kyrsi choked to death on a piece of meat which rather spoiled the mood. Lonchi assumed command of the Minoans, bringing the ships and army back to Knossos. Upon learning of Kyrsi's death the Council elevated Tavrys to First and chose the diplomat Urglaz to become Second.

    Zakro of Phylakopi prowled the Gulf of Cyprus for a year hunting Herakleopolitan shipping but came up empty-handed. He then headed for sparsely-populated Korfu for negotiations with its inhabitants despite differences in language and religion. Before his untimely death in late 2083 from pneumonia he persuaded them to vow fealty to Phylakopi (but not the Minoan state). Fortunately Zakro's son and successor Tobglak continued the alliance therefore keeping the lands within the Minoan sphere of influence.
    Meanwhile feudal vassal Shabtu hadf headed west in command of a loaned pentaconter and crew. The warship returned early 2081 under command of the first mate; Shabtu and several other crew had died after eating from a cask of salt meat apparently gone bad.


City-State of Troy Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy - literate (Luwian hieroglyphics)
Ucalegon, King of Troy IV
    Ucalegon invested in the arts of seigecraft and in the homeland thousands of captives from Dobruja and Ludgorie were worked mercilessly to clear hillsides and plant fruit trees and grape vines to increase harvest yield. Trade was initiated to the new Etruscan port of Locri. Another two thousand men were trained, half with sling and javelin and the rest with shield and spear. During this training the king's 10 year old son Coroebus (who loved all things military and enjoyed watching the raw recuits being turned into soldiers) was struck in the head by a wildly slung stone and killed, plunging the royals into grief.
    Previously lieutenant Orthryoneus had traveled to Phrygia for diplomatic talks only to find Telipinus of the Hittites already there; the men's efforts had cancelled each other. After the funeral - and perhaps not thinking too clearly - King Ucalegon impulsively decided the Hittites were enemies and commanded his half-brother (and heir) the renowned general Adrestus to crush them.

    The Heir added another four hundred archers to his mass of skirmishers, bringing his army to three thousand and making good the losses from the previous years' fighting and slaving. In late summer of 2085 his force crossed the mountains into the Hittite region of Galatia. Its feudal lord Gurgen had nearly two thousand guardsmen and knew the land well but was a middling commander and consistantly outmanuvered by the wily Adrestus. The conflict ended with the Trojans storming the lord's keep using scaling ladders under cover of arrows, taking nearly four hundred dead. The fighting ended late autumn about the same time as Trojan lieutenant Orthryoneus arrived with a slow-moving force of 5,000 soldiers which included two thousand heavy infantry.
    After the 2085-2084 winter ended the Adrestus set his men to enslaving the region's population 1 and ordered Orthryoneus's warriors to take up defensive positions, which was fortunate since a month later the Hittite Sapalulme crossed the southern border with over two thousand fighters. The Hittites lacked scouts and thus discovered the hard way their combat-experienced enemy badly outnumbered them and were better led; Sapalulme may be Heir but he was a poor war leader. The Hittites were lucky to disengage and withdraw back to Hatti leaving over a thousand dead; Orthryoneus reported less than three hundred.
    In early 2083 Adrestus left the slaves and their guards with the lieutenant and invaded the Hittite homeland with the rest of the combined armies, totalling over six thousand of various infantrymen. Even adding the regional garrison to his depleted army Sapalulme had only a third of that number - but also had three stone forts upon which to anchor his defense. As usual the archers of Troy took a toll of defenders while they tried to close.


Hittites manuvering under fire from Trojan archers

    Fighting was savage as the attackers climbed scaling ladders only to be thrown back. After heavy losses one fort was taken and burnt but the other two held out. The Trojans had exhausted themselves and Adrestus was taken away by his retainers after having been wounded in the thigh by a thrown javelin.
    Orthryoneus assumed command and gave the order to fall back to Galatia. 2

    Meanwhile the king and his Moldavian wife Cassandra had once again taken ship north to the tributary port settlement of Tyras. Before starting another round of negotiations Ucalegon attempted to gather useful information but was exposed when a sharp-eyed wine vendor recognized him from his last visit and shouted out greetings. Embarassed, the king began talks with the young lord while Cassandra - who knew many of the court - worked behind the scenes. The king was a superb diplomat and despite hostile religions and different languages he impressed Dolon of Tyras enough that the local became a full ally.

1 after several years without being worked the farmland is being overgrown and has degraded to half-cultivated.
2 if an attack action (A, AT, AS etc) is ordered and the defenders remain, extra rounds are fought only if the APs have been allocated for multiple attempts and contingency orders are given to continue attacking until the objective is taken or a breakoff point (loss limit, leader death, etc) is reached.


Hitties Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Luwian hieroglyphics)
Telipinus, King of the Hittites
    Telipinus sent messages back to the capital with instructions to invest in infantry quality and various governmental agencies. Supplies were purchased for both priestly training and the University, and a small amount of surplus vegetables were stored for the future. More men were recruited by heir Sapalulme and trained to shield and spear. In the spring he led a slow-marching column of hundreds over the mountains to Phrygia, delivering them to his king in late summer. Heading back home Sapalulme reached Hattusas late autumn and learned of the invasion of Galatia.
    In early 2084 he gathered over two thousand mixed spearmen and swordsmen and reacted to the invasion. [see Troy]

    Meanwhile in early 2085 King Telipinus - already in Phrygia - had resumed talks with its ruler Lelwani and as added enticement offered Sapalulme as husband for a Phrygian noblewoman. Ignorant of the clash of armies he focused on diplomacy for years; he was a superb orator and ultimately the local lord declared himself a full ally of the Hittites.
    The diplomat Ishtanu had left Hatti in early 2085 for Cappadocia and also remained ignorant of the war. He spent many years negotiating with the suspicious hill tribes and faced religious hostility, but was persistant and obtained an economic agreement.


Removed Maykop Culture until I open up lands north of the Caucasus Mtns.

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NILE VALLEY
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Pyramids at Giza near Memphis in Lower Egypt


Knowledge of bronzeworking exists throughout the area except as noted below.
Literacy exists throughout the Greater Nile Valley (Egyptian hieroglyphics or as shown below).


Egyptian Priesthood Civilized Metalworking Theocracy
Menkaure, High Priest of Osiris
    High Priest Menkaure continued funding of both priestly training and attracting lay believers of varying skills for secular positions. Six hundred more of the faithful were trained in Abydos to fight with spear and shield while stonemasons constructed a wall around the holy city. The High Priest then journeyed to Memphis and eventually convinced the populace to tithe to help fund good works on behalf of the gods.
    Missionaries sent to Lower Nubia were finally successful in converting some rural folk to worship of the gods of Egypt. High Priestess Hatshepsut traveled to Memphis where she she too had success in supervising the upgrade of the local temple enclosure into a full temple complex.
    Not all priests efforts were constructive however. Local priests in Herakleopolis removed as much as possible from their site before the city was evacuated and burned. Most of the priests in Middle Egypt's temple complex did the same although a few stubborn ones refused to leave. The priests traveled along with the migrating population northward then west into the desert. [see Herakleopolis]


Old Kingdom of Egypt Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ipu, Queen of the VIII Dynasty, favored of Ra
    After much discussion a peace agreement had been reached to end the long Nile Valley War: the Herakleopolitans (and such Thebeans who had escaped to their lands) would migrate north through Lower Egypt then west across the desert. Since the Minoan army was scheduled to leave later in the year, Ipu decreed two thousand men be trained with spear and shield to maintain the strength of the homeland's defenses. Small amounts of gold were invested in military quality and government hiring. The University received supplies and extra grain was stored for the future.
    Ipu then ruled her realm and spent time with her Minoan husband Kyrsi before he needed to leave, becoming pregnant during the summer. Not long after the Minoans departed their son Neferkau, sickly since his birth 6 years earlier, worsened and died.
    In spring 2084 the first wave of Herakleopolitan evacuees crossed the border and headed west under the watchful eye of famed general (and heir) Scota, followed by a second wave a few months later. To everyone's relief (and surprise) no incidents were reported. Ipu birthed a son whom she named Manetho.

    While feudal ally Duaenre guarded the eastern border and Ipu the western, in early 2082 Scota led several thousand infantry south into Middle Egypt. They advanced into a wasteland. After their population had packed their belongings the Heraklopolitans had applied a scorched earth policy to every hamlet, farm and field. The only rural structures standing were those of the Priesthood's abandoned temple complex where a few low-level priests were making a failing attempt to maintain the property and gardens.


City-State of Herakleopolis Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Netinbeti, Queen of the IX-X Dynasty, favored of Heryshef
    After much discussion a peace agreement had been reached to end the long Nile Valley War: the Herakleopolitans (and such Thebeans who had escaped to their lands) would migrate north through Lower Egypt then west across the desert. Queen Netinbeti, her young husband (and heir) Ramses III and lieutenant Tetmoses III split the many tasks between them.
    Netinbeti ordered surplus food dried for transport along with the contents of city storehouses. Palace scribes, naval architects, military engineers and University scholars all packed scrolls into cedar chests. The royal river barge was stripped of its finery and burnt. Ramses III and two thousand soldiers helped the citizens of Herakleopolis pack their belongings and any public improvements that could be moved. By autumn the populace (including the priests of Heryshaf) were outside the walls and the city was put to the torch.


Herakleopolis burning after evacuation

    In the spring of 2084 a long column of people and wagons crossed north into Lower Egypt carefully watched by the army of the Old Kingdom. It was followed several months later by another such column - it had taken Tetmoses III longer to get the same evacuation completed in the countryside as the rural population was larger and more dispersed.

    The Ad'diffah desert was brutally hot and took a toll on the young, old and infirm among the civilians as the army shepherded them west. Pressing onward through Libya, Tripolitania and Gefara was marginally easier since fresh food and water could be obtained from the native pastoralists, although the refugees continued to leave graves in their wake. By 2082 the second group had caught up to the first group which had been waiting near the border with Tunisa. Led by Ramses III five thousand swordsmen fell upon the Neolithic inhabitants of Tunisia, the veteran Egyptians with bronze weapons making short work of the bewildered tribesmen with their stone axes and spears.


Kingdom of Nubia Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Shasesi, King of Nubia
    King Shasesi, lieutenant Rufa'a and nearly five thousand troops remained in Upper Egypt guarding the border with Middle Egypt in case the Herakleopolitans tried any treachery. It thus fell upon heir Maraga in Kerma to run the kingdom. He directed additional investment in both military engineering and the University. Two thousand men were trained as heavy spearmen and additional forfications ordered built in Aswan and Lower Nubia. The last marginal land in Upper Nubia was cultivated and irrigation ditches were dug in Aswan as a gesture of goodwill.
    Having sired only daughters with his first wife Nefertiti, Maraga decided to take a second wife to double his chances of a male heir. And so he married Candace of Meroe who'd been betrothed to the king for 10 years but never met him since he'd been in the field with the army. Maraga administered the realm while spending nights with his wives. Nefertiti - now in her later 30s - did not conceive (the palace shamen finally decided she was cursed) but Candace birthed a son in 2083 and would later birth a daughter in 2085.
    The year 2084 proved a bad one, starting with the death of sickly royal daughter Seferesi at age 9, which the palace shamen explained was proof Nefertiti was cursed. Then came news from Upper Egypt that King Shasesi had been bitten by a poisonous snake in his tent and died painfully several hours later. Lieutenant Rufa'a assumed command and spoke at length with officers of the army and the local garrison before marching the army home to Upper Nubia.
    Meanwhile following the unfortunate death-by-croc of Saraga, Aswan had no ruling lord. Prince Selanat of Nubia therefore met with the local chiefs to discuss closer ties. Selenat's native bride Lanati worked behind the scenes to assist. Because of mutually hostile religions the chiefs would only agree to an economic alliance.


City-State of Meroe Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Saba, King of Meroe
    Saba invested in infantry training and tactics with the assistance of Nubian advisors. Workers from outside the kingdom were drawn using promises of food; to hunter/gatherers the offer was quite attractive. Now having literate scribes in his employ the king ordered a census taken of all peoples and possessions, the better to tax them. He then married a local noblewoman and enjoyed her while he ruled, siring a son in 2084, another in 2083 and a daughter in 2082.
    Meanwhile his younger brother (and heir) Arakemani with the majority of the army stood ready to defend the kingdom. However all was peaceful.

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RED SEA CENTERED
(including Horn of Africa)
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Sabaean capital of Sa'na


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy exists throughout this area as shown below.


Land of Punt Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Old Nubian pictographs)
Kahina, Regent for Finja, son of late King Fazi
    Kahina invested equally in government hiring, improvements in metallurgy, and supplies for the University. A small harvest surplus was stored for the future. The new port of Tadjoura was graced with several public water fountains.
    That underway, Kahina ruled the kingdom, assisted in administering by lieutenant Samir. Ally Barde of Djibuti stood ready to react if danger threatened. A half-dozen galleys were sighted in 2082 heading north through the straits from the Bab-al-Mandab toward the Red Sea, and months later passing back through headed south. But all remained peaceful.


Sabaeans Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Zabar script glyphs)
Almakah, King of Sa'na
    Almakah directed investment in infantry quality which judging from later army manuvers proved successful. Surplus vegetables and fruit were dried and stored. However most of the kingdom's income and saved wealth was spent on improvements in Abyan: wells were dug while mills, silos and barns were built, pastures fenced and orchards planted. Trade was initiated with the Ganweriwalan port settlement of Yukta. In recognition to her service to Sa'na, former queen (and sister-in-law of Almakah) Sin was proclaimed a Princess of the Realm.
    The king then attended to the day to day running of the kingdom and spent torrid nights with his Sheban bride Sirwah, siring sons in 2085, 2084 and 2082. A half-dozen galleys were sighted in 2082 heading north through the straits from the Bab-al-Mandab toward the Red Sea, and months later passing back through heading south.
    Elsewhere diplomacy was in progress. Lieutenant El headed for Hadramuht where gold had been discovered the previous year. El and the most powerful tribal chief became friends and after years of feasting, hunting, fishing and general male bonding the chief agreed to pay tribute to the Sabaeans - in gold of course.
    Meanwhile Sheban ally Sami (and brother-in-law of Almakah) visited the settlement of Ma'rib which was surrounded by Sheban lands. The elders were honored by his visit; despite Sami being a lousy orator he was charasmatic and the elders aware of their weak position. The settlement became a vassal - but of Sheba1 not the Sabaean kingdom, creating a sub-nation.

*see LOTE Basic Rules the last paragraph of 7.1.4 Full Allies. Ma'rib and Sheba shaded lighter than the Sabaean color to show this.

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THE LEVANT
(Eastern Mediterranean shore then west to Subartu)
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City of Hazor in Jordan


Literacy exists throughout Greater Levant (cuneiform).

City-State of Hazor Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ibiranu, King of Hazor
    Although new to the throne, the extremely charasmatic Ibiranu learned swiftly how to be a king with assistance from the worldly Prince Paebel. The king funded military improvements and attracting civilians with varying skill sets to the government. A small priestly training facility was planned and a new dormitory built for the University. A large grain surplus was stored in case of famine. Public hostels and barns were built in the homeland to facilitate travel along the trade road. The defense of the realm was not neglected: four hundred archers were trained and two hundred men learned engineering and mining.
    Next Ibiranu married Donatiya, a comely noblewoman of Hazor to warm his bed at night while he spent his days holding court and ruling. They produced a girl in 2084, a boy in 2083 and another boy in 2082 who was born jaundiced and malformed, perhaps due to Donatiya being sick with a high fever during the pregnancy.
    Ibiranu's brother (and heir) Niqmepa also married a local noblewoman. Unlike the king he could spend all his time enjoying himself, siring twin sons in 2084 and another son in 2082. In her exile in Jerusalem ex-Regent Hurriya produced a son and daughter by husband Danel, the settlement's leader, and their sickly son Yassib somehow hadn't died. The royal family had gone from almost extinct to children everywhere.

    Meanwhile lieutenant Aqhat traveled to the parched semi-desert of Bostra for diplomatic talks with the elders of the nomadic tribes. He was a poor orator with nothing to offer, and the natives were deeply suspicious of outsiders; years passed without progress. One night after too much fermented goat's milk he lost his temper (and the contents of his stomach) and barely escaped the angry tribesmen.


City-State of Ugarit Civilized Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Yaqarum, First of the Council
    Yaqarum obtained Council agreement to invest heavily improving engineering skills but the member put in charge of organizing the effort proved incompetent. Several light galleys were built in the municipal shipyards to boost trade, and the entire harbor area received new warehouses, docks, boardwalks and sea walls. A thousand men were recruited into the army; 600 trained with spear and shield while 400 learned the bow. Yaqarum then settled down to the day to day rule of the city-state.
    Second of the Council Ashirta headed to Palmyra to negotiate closer ties with Ugarit. Despite language difficulties he was a smooth diplomat and the local lord agreed to sign a treaty giving preferential trading rights to Ugaritian merchants.
    Lieutenant Aziru and several vassals stood ready to defend the realm, but to their surprise (and relief) all was peaceful.


Kingdom of Subartu Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Jovka, Queen of Subartu
    Upon her return from diplomatic talks in Armenia, Jovka found the bureaucrats had slacked off and the realm's finances were poor. She invested what she could in improving military quality and it paid off: new tactics were tested and new weapons were forged. Additional clerks were hired and one proved to be an organizational genius, implementing numerous efficiencies. The University received a small grant and a slight agricultural surplus was dried and stored.
    The Queen then ruled her domain with the administrative assistance of lieutenant Hovik, and government employees actually had to work.

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GREATER MESOPOTAMIA
(Mesopotamia & Persian Gulf littoral)
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City of Kish on the Euphrates River


Literacy exists throughout Greater Mesopotamia (cuneiform except for Elam which uses Elamite Linear script).

Mesopotamian Priesthood Civilized Bronzeworking Theocracy
Shuruppak, High Priest of Innana (Ishtar) at Uruk
    Shuruppak again invested in military quality and funded the University to hire additional scholars. The recruitment of those sufficiently pious to become novice priests continued. Surplus food from donations was carefully stored. Hired laborers cleared ground in Uruk adjacent to the temple complex of Inanna in preparation for a future temple precinct.
    Shuruppak then visited the temple enclosure in rural Adaban and supervised its expansion into a full temple complex by autumn 2083. Heading upriver to the settlement of Ninevah, he established a temple shrine so the locals would have their spiritual needs met.
    Meanwhile High Priestess Salabikh had successfully overseen the upgrade of the temple enclosure in rural Circis also to a full temple complex by autumn 2083. Moving to Babylon, she guided the efforts to build additional buildings and an enclosing wall about the temple shrine, but as it neared completion a fire broke out in the workers' barracks and spread quickly among the new construction. To the awe of the faithful only the structure with the original shrine survived.


City-State of Assur Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Ah-Kalla, King of Assur, favored of Ashur
    Ah-Kalla spent heavily researching new infantry equipment and tactics. Gold was invested in enticing new employees to government service and additional scholars to the University. A start was made on an academy to train novice priests. The capital was improved with public housing and more water and sewer lines. Six hundred men were recruited and trained with sling and javelin.
    The king then ruled his realm and enjoyed Bau, his wife from Ninevah. In 2084 she bore a son who was stunted and showed no alertness in his eyes, dying at age 1. Miscarriages followed and priests of Ashur repeatedly performed clensing rituals to drive evil spirits out of the palace. Bau finally birthed a healthy son in 2085 - obviously proof the rituals were successful!
    Once again lieutenant Shulpae and various allies of Assur remained alert for invasion but the borders were peaceful.


City-State of Kish Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Uruk & Lagash
Jushur II, 2nd King of the VI Dynasty, favored of Zababa
    Having replaced losses from the war with Ur, Jushur II poured the nation's wealth and labor into a vast program of public works in the homeland: hostels for travelers along the Silk Road and barns for their draft animals, more irrigation ditches and wells, additional reclamation of lowlands and bridging creeks to facilitate wagon movement.
    Those efforts launched, Jushur II then ruled his kingdom and spent his nights with wife Magda despite her feeling she'd already borne enough children. She birthed a girl in 2084. After suffering a stillbirth she became pregnant again in 2082 but died in childbirth along with the child. The king was both grief- and guilt-stricken. The local priests of Zababa claimed the royal family had displeased their god because Kish had turned away from glorious conquest. A donation to their temple could correct that.
    Meanwhile general Manishtusu traveled to Selucia which had been conquered some years earlier but enjoyed some autonomy. He stayed for years trying to persuade the locals to consider alignment with Kish and despite their resentment was somewhat successful.


City-State of Uruk and Lagash Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Kish
Kuda, 2nd King of the IV Dynasty, favored of Inanna
    Kuda ordered experiments in infantry equipment and tactics as well as construction of additional buildings for the University. The bureaucracy was reformed and made more efficient. Six hundred recruits were trained as heavy infantry and several hundred more in seige engineering. Another pentaconter was built at Uruk's municipal shipyard and crew hired. Most of the realm's resources however were poured into the allied region of Ahvaz for the clearing of wilderness and its conversion to farmland.
    With that set in motion, the king's thoughts turned to conquest. Gathering his army he moved to Abadan where he added the warriors of Lagash to his own, then crossed the Tigris and headed for the Elamite border with over ten thousand men. It was an impressive but slow-marching force due to half its number being equipped with spear, shield and heavy armor, only reaching the border late 2085. He was joined by his ally Sin-Kasid of Ahvaz and his six hundred swordsmen.
    Faster-moving were four pentaconters and a light galley full of skirmishers commanded by Prince Puzur-Ili which had taken the Euphrates downriver then swept the Persian Gulf for Elamite shipping. The prince was a middling admiral and there weren't many Elam-flagged galleys anyway; only one was captured along with its cargo and astonished crew. A frustrated Puzur-Ili set his squadron to blockading Susa.

    In early 2084 King Kuda, Sin-Kasid and eleven thousand warriors invaded Elam from Ahvaz. Heralds in battle carts rode ahead proclaiming support for the Elamite lieutenant Kindattu as king of Elam. The populace was terrified by the squealing, braying teams of onagers. Plus confused since Kindattu had just been chosen as heir anyway.
    Elam was guarded by six redoubts with thick, high walls of mud brick but had no mobile troops to fill in between them. As such they could be, and were, assaulted from all sides. Urukish archers provided cover as a forest of scaling ladders were set against the walls while seige engineers dug mines below. By midsummer all six forts were stormed and taken at the cost of five hundred dead and a thousand wounded for the attackers.
    Kuda pressed on to the Elamite capital of Susa. He expected its walls to be crowded with defenders but were almost empty. The vastly more numerous Uruk force swarmed over them opposed by only a few hundred Elamites who fought to the last man, Kangan of Elam among them. Kuda had given strict orders the civilian population was not to be harmed which kept theft to a minimum. Puzur-Ili's squadron managed to seize 3 more Elamite trade galleys in harbor; another 3 were burned by their crews before they could be boarded.
    After touring his conquests and leaving substantial garrisons1 in both Elam and Susa, the King of Uruk ordered his forces southeast and over the border into Mand. It had no garrison and local leaders quickly surrendered. It too required a large garrison. Showing no interest in the settlement of Anshan, Kuda led his army back through Elam, Abadan and Hahmar returning home to Uruk in triumph. His mood was dampened however upon learning his wife Gudea had died of a high fever the previous year.

    Meanwhile brother king (and heir) Nam-mahazi "the Golden" of Lagash took as wife Amagi, a noblewoman of Uruk. He spent his days administering the ever-increasing empire and his nights enjoying her, siring a girl in 2083 and twin boys in 2082.
    Lieutenant Ikun-pi-istar had found his way to Zagros and attempted to interest the tribesmen to join with Uruk. King Gazsi of Gutia was already there drinking and laughing with the tribal chiefs. The Urukish negotiator was a middling diplomat dealing with differences in language plus religious hostility and made no progress.

1 garrison requirements are doubled in the case of mutually hostile religions.


Traders of Dilmun Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Muqrin, First of the Council
    New First of the Council invoked the previously-established "Rules of Precedence" whereby when a Second replaces a deceased or enfeebled First, a new Second is immediately appointed from existing Council members who are sea captains. Talal, a trader with a gift for oratory, was elected. Next Muqrin obtained agreement for investments in ship design and establishment of a nautical messenger service to relay news quickly. The port of Magan, long considered a miserable place to live, finally received public wells, sewer lines and additional housing. A war galley and two more trade galleys were built in the Dilmun arsenal.
    The First then departed with 8 trade galleys escorted by a pentaconter heading through the Persian Gulf then southwest to the surprisingly pleasant isle of Socotra. Hundreds of Dilmun civilians waded ashore with their belongings and tools. After much labor they'd built Hadiboh, a port settlement. Helping and protecting were 800 infantry, more than enough to handle any hostility from the indigenous people. This proved unnecessary since Muqrin had been negotiating with the tribal elders including offering himself - to the shock of his retainers - in marriage to the daughter of the chief; her father was impressed enough to join fully with Dilmun.
    Second of the Council Talal had in the meantime led 6 trade galleys on a similar course but continued on past Socotra to the Horn of Africa, meeting with the chiefs of the wilderness tribes of Berbera. Hampered by langauge barriers and religious hostility, he offered himself in marriage to sweeten the deal but it was of no avail; he got neither bride nor treaty. Snubbed by savages he thought as he boarded ship. The galleys headed northwest but eventually returned to Dilmun.


Kingdom of Elam Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Kangan of the Simashki Dynasty, King of Elam
    Kangan ordered recruiting of more clerks and scribes to government service; however most of the kingdom's wealth was spent enhancing the capital. Water and sewer pipes were installed, the market square was paved and public fountains added nearby.
    At court the king announced the skilled warrior-diplomat Kindattu was to be his heir, then sent him along with an army of seven thousand over the mountains to Neyriz for serious negotiation-in-force. Kangan then spent his time ruling his lands.
    Life seemed good (other than rumors of piracy in the Persian Gulf ) until early 2084 when war galleys of Uruk blockaded Susa harbor and an enormous Urukish army poured over the western border. [see Uruk]

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IRANIAN PLATEAU
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Silk Road marketplace in Gutian capital of Borahshi


Literacy exists throughout this area as shown below.

Kingdom of Gutia Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (cuneiform)
Gazsi, King of Gutium
    Gazsi invested a bit into development of new infantry tactics while surpluses of vegetables and wheat were stored for the future. Most of the kingdom's treasure and labor was spent beginning the effort to upgrade the trade road from Borahshi to Tepe Sailk into a royal road, including switchbacks over the Zagros Mountains.
    While his nephew (and heir) Mateen ruling in his place, the recently-widowed king traveled to Zagros along with several thousand infantry for some diplomacy-in-force. He spoke the language and worshipped the same gods, and offered himself in marriage as well. Ikun-pi-istar of Uruk arrived the following year with none of these advantages. King Gaszi left for home late 2082 with a bride and an economic treaty while the Urukish negotiator knew only frustration.
    When the king reached Borahshi he learned his nephew had died a few months earlier - despite the frantic efforts of palace healers - choking on roast lamb at a palace banquet. Even worse (emotionally speaking) his young daughter Lagina had died at age 8 of a cold that became pneumonia. Gazsi was devastated and his new wife tried her best to comfort him.


Kingdom of Ganweriwala Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy - literate (Indus glyphs)
Vihana the Magnificent, King of Ganweriwala
    Vihana mustered out over a thousand veterans, granting them homesteads in Baluchistan as reward for their longtime service. Captured POWs from Carmania along with regular laborers dug wells and planted hillsides. Merchants were told to initiate trade with their former Harappan enemies ( hey, gold is gold ) and the Kingdom of Elam. Alas, the first traders to reach Elam found it occupied by soldiers of Uruk.
    Next Vihana proclaimed his brother Dhaval a Prince of the Realm. He was a favorite of the ladies of the court but had no aptitude (or patience) for real work. Still, he was the next oldest royal male .... The king then went about governing his lands.
    Vihana's brother (and heir) Aparajita was already in Bandar and continued his negotiations with the hill tribes. He was a skilled diplomat and his Bandari wife Lila helped behind the scenes. Talks were going well when the heir was fatally bludgeoned at a feast by a drunken chief's bronze wine goblet, dying in the arms of his horrified bride.
    Meanwhile lieutenant Rishi crossed into the semi-wilderness of Kuh'laleh'zar and spoke with the natives of the benefits of Ganweriwalan civilization. He was a so-so diplomat faced with langauge and religious differences but with persistance obtained a vow of fealty.

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OXUS VALLEY
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"Birdman with Snakes" artifact (amulet?) found in excavation


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy (pictographic symbols) exists throughout this area.


City-State of Namazgadepe Civilized Metalworking Centralized Monarchy
Piyama, King of Namazgadepe
    Piyama again invested gold in both military and government improvements and ordered large quanties of surplus wheat stored for future needs. Public housing was built in the capital and another two hundred men were trained to the bow. Unwed 30-something royals Vaermina and Azura were married off to noblemen of Koi-Krylgan and Namazgadepe respectively to stop them from continually bemoaning their spinsterhood.
    In early spring the elderly (mid-60s!) mother of heir Dravint died of pneumonia that began as a severe cold. Following her funeral the king ruled his realm and continued to enjoy his Bokharan wife Kes. Their pleasure resulted in a boy late 2084, twins (girl, boy) the following year and another girl in 2082.
    Also following the funeral Dravint returned to Kara-Khitai (where a previous diplomatic mission had ended badly1 with his sister Dibella to try again. To the lord of that land he again proposed a treaty, offering Dibella in marriage to a local nobleman. Dravint was at best a middling diplomat and talks progressed slowly. The mission ended prematurely when Dravint was accidentally hit by an arrow during a hunting expedition with the lord and his court; he bled out before help arrived.

1 Dravint's assertive cousin Hircine had taken exception to the unwanted attention of a rude Kara-Khitain noble and dropped him with a single kick; she was married off to a lusty Turkmen lord to keep her out of further trouble. The grieving Dibella insisted upon her return to Namazgadepe that same nobleman was behind Dravint's death, but had no proof beyond his smug look as her brother lay dying.


City-State of Gonur Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Bangul, Regent for Pudha, son of the late King HemÔvand
    Bangul continued to invest heavily in both military and government as well as experiments by metal workers to make an alloy of copper. Additional scholars were hired to teach at the University. and paid for a library for the university. All regions of the realm were fortified with impressive keeps of stone at key sites; any invader would pay dearly. Late in the year general Cyrus arrived with heir Pudha, the heir's Uzebek bride Zairichi and an army of four thousand. Upon Cyrus's arrival he married Bangul, officially took the throne as King, and ruled his lands, thereby sealing the deal they made several years earlier.
    After the wedding Pudha continued on to the harsh lands of Kophat Dagh for negotiations with Kesavaro, its aged (sixty!) chief of chiefs and a former vassal of Gonur. Kesavaro had renounced his vows when civil war appeared likely; with that no longer a possi-bility Pudha had come to remind the chieftan of his obligations, offering his sister Uxshenti's hand in marriage as compensation. Kesavaro grudgingly agreed to pay tribute, then promptly died (some say of humiliation) upon signing the treaty. His son Darius took his place and Uxshenti was much pleased to have a younger husband.
    Towards the end of 2081 Cyrus was badly cut when training with his swordmaster went awry. The wound remained infected and Cyrus feverish despite the efforts of palace shamen.

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TIBETAN PLATEAU
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Tibetan capital of Lhasa


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area.


Kingdom of Zhang Zhung Pastoral-Nomadic Metalworking Monarchy
Biming, King of Zhang Zhung
    Biming yet again invested a bit of wealth into just about everything and the University got the most, allowing the construction of several dormatories. Gold and labor were spent improving the capital of Kyunghing by paving the main market square. Those plans set in motion, the king attended to matters of the royal court.
    Meanwhile heir Dequan - already in Khotan - continued to negotiate with the elders of the Yutian settlement, hoping to draw them closer to the kingdom. Dequan was a poor orator but since the queen had recently died he could again offer marriage to King Biming as an enticement - at least until word arrived mid-2084 that Biming too had died. Dequan was now king and so offered himself   in marriage. Feudal vassal Keung offered up his young daughter Mei as bride and then retired to his estate.


Kingdom of Tibet Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Metok, King of Tibet
    Metok continued funding the creation of a system to permanently record knowledge, and made lesser investments in both military and government. The University received much-needed supplies. Most of the kingdom's treasure and muscle was spent terracing hillsides for planting. The king then ruled his realm and spent time with his bride from Gtsang. She bore sons in 2085, 2082 and 2081, much to Metok's joy.

    The king's brother (and heir) Choenyi led a thousand mixed infantry to Salween where he was joined by feudal ally Tenzin and another 800 men. In early 2084 the pair raided the Neolithic tribes of Tung'pu for slaves. The population was sparse in the mountains and perhaps a score were caught - mostly elderly and infirm who couldn't escape fast enough. The following year the two leaders raided Tung'pu again, this time for loot. The locals however were dirt-poor and the raiders returned with empty sacks.
    Choenyi and Tenzin decided to try elsewhere. Moving to Gtsang they raided into Assam for slaves and loot.1 The steaming jungle was also home to Stone Age people and a few dozen of the unlucky were caught. A few carved ivory trinkets were found and stolen. The soldiers were discontent that so much effort had produced so little.

    Late in 2081 an excited group of scholars sought audience with Metok. Once in his presence, they demonstrated a way to "write" the Tibeto-Burmese language (or at least the Kinnauri dialect of the western Tibetan Plateau) henceforth known as Old Tibetan script.

1 half-populated regions have low population density and are usually impoverished; grabbing enough slaves or gold to justify the costs of what is in effect a military campaign is extremely unlikely.

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INDUS VALLEY
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City of Harappa in Punjab


Literacy (Indus glyphs) exists throughout the Indus Valley civilization.

City-State of Harappa and Rupar Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy
Kalabagh, King of Harappa
    Kalabagh invested heavily in infantry tactics and weaponry as well as government recruiting. The University received a large grant enabling construction of dormatories and lecture halls. In the Punjab homeland flood control dikes were built along with retention basins for the dry season, and experiments begun with higher-yield grains and rice. Some of the scribes from Rupar as part of the Harappa-Rupar administration offered ideas for greater bureaucratic efficiency.
    Nor was the military overlooked. Two pentaconters were ordered built at the capital's shipyards and four hundred men trained to the bow. The valuable farmland of Bauluch was heavily fortified and a Fortress raised on the bank of the Indus adjacent to Mohenjo-Daro.
    The frenzy of activity gotten underway, the king ruled his lands and enjoyed his wife Fulmala who after a miscarriage finally (after 8 daughters!) produced a son in 2083. Kalabagh ordered a week of feasting and celebration throughout his sprawling kingdom.
    Life is good thought the king. Naturally fortune changed. Eldest royal daughter Iha was caught in a tryst with a strapping stablehand; she drowned herself in the Ravi after her low-born lover was tortured and executed. Another son was born to Kalabagh and Fulmala in 2082 but was too early, small and sickly. The midwives didn't give him long to live.

    Heir Abhinabyu remained in the capital and married a comely girl from the local nobility to warm his bed. Apparently inspired by his king's history he sired daughters in 2085, 2083 and 2081.
    Meanwhile the famed (along the Indus at least) warrior-diplomat Prince Bikamput traveled downriver to the port city of Chanhu-Daro to persuade its lord to join with Harappa. Offering himself as husband for a noblewoman and being persistant paid off: the city's ruler took an oath as a full ally. And Bikamput got a high-spirited young bride.
    Lieutenant Zeeshan had headed for long-ignored Mehrgarh (the oldest city in the Indus!) for some overdue negotiations. He was a fixture at the local lord's court for years and offered the hand of royal daughter Iha in marriage as enticement; when word arrived in 2083 of her death he had to withdraw that offer. Nevertheless the lord agreed to become tributary.


Traders of Dholavira Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy
Polyar, First of the Council
    Polyar again invested a bit of gold in pretty much everything (the University got the most which helped restock its supplies) but most of Dholavira's wealth was again spent on improving living conditions in the city of Qana. Water mains and sewer pipes were laid and public housing was built. In the capital the First met with captains to reallocate shipping from trade to fishing to ease the city-state's chronic food shortages.
    Polyar then handled the daily decisions while savoring his wife Imasha, the daughter of the previous First and sister of Harshan, current Sword of the Council. After several years of not conceiving she finally became pregnant but suffered a miscarriage followed by a high fever. Thanks to (or in spite of ) the potions of palace healers she survived.
    Harshan kept his squadron of pentaconters busy patrolling the waters around Dholavira lest the crews become lax and indolent. When ashore he visited and comforted his sister.


City-State of Lothal Seafaring Bronzeworking Monarchy
Cherasan, King of Lothal
    Cherasan dedicated the city-state's wealth to further improvements to the homeland: public inns for use by travelers, a deep well (to survive the dry season) in each hamlet, and experiments with higher-yield rice and vegetables. The king met with merchant captains to discuss better allocation of shipping. To the court he proclaimed Darioush, next younger royal male, was henceforth a Prince of Lothal.
    Chersan thereafter ruled his kingdom and endured gain and loss: in 2083 his Nasiki wife Chee miscarried and royal male Davinder died at age 10 of infection from an injury sustained during rough play with friends. Chee birthed a son in 2082 but this was followed by a sickly daughter in 2081 whom the midwives did not expect to live long.
    Meanwhile heir David had acquired three thousand infantry and went slave raiding into the parched semi-desert of Ajmer. Native population was thin and the terrain challenging; only a few unlucky shepherds were captured. Next in 2083 he swept through Chitor. The nomad population was higher but David was a middling commander and the grasslands were almost as alien to a seafaring people as semi-desert. The local militia wasn't strong enough to do more than harass but it was enough that the slavers left empty-handed. The same scenario transpired in Gujerat the following year. The force returned home with much discontent in the ranks. David returned to learn Daania (his sister, given in diplomatic marriage to a Nasik chief ) had died from snakebite.
    Meanwhile a squadron of pentaconters set out south on a mission of exploration and returned four years later, apparently successful if judged by the celebratory drinking in dockside taverns.

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GANGES VALLEY
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Atranjikhera on the Ganges


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area except as noted below.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.


City-State of Hastinapura Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Elamite Linear script)
Lakhimpur II, King of Hastinapura
    Lakhimpur II devoted the resources of the realm into experiments with new infantry tactics and trials of new equipment, and significant progress was made. Again large quantities of surplus food was dried and stored for the future. The king then ruled but ignored his wife, a local noblewoman, who then devoted her time to their children.
    Heir Rampjur II received no instructions from his king and spent his life in orgiastic debauchery. One night in 2083 he slipped and fell in the alley behind a brothel, cracking his skull and face-planting him into the muck. His body wasn't noticed for several days.
    The following year word arrived that his sister Keries, married to a Nepalese chief, had died in an avalanche, undoing the tenuous claim Hastinapura had upon that region's loyalty.


City-State of Atranjikhera Civilized Metalworking Monarchy
Ila, Queen of Atranjikhera
    Ila again funded attempts to organize a message-relay service and hired scholars to devise a method of permanently recording the Elamo-Dravidian tongue. Most of the nation's wealth was again devoted to agricultural improvements or the training of 200 archers for the city guard. Realizing the existing bureaucracy was unable to effectively govern the realm, she granted more local autonomy to Jihjoti and Dahala.
    The queen was thereafter reported to be sequestered in the palace, leaving her younger sister (and heir) Samavati apparently in charge.


City-State of Kaushambi Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy
Jagadambika, King of Kaushambi
    Jagadambika ordered 400 men taught the sword and another 200 trained with sling and javelin, but most of the nation's wealth was saved for future use. Unexpectedly the nobles working on a system to relay messages across the kingdom finally announced success. The king then ruled while his younger brother (and skilled warrior) Jaafar stood by to react to invasion.
    The royals were shaken in 2082 when their brother Jaba drowned in the Ganges when his fishing boat sank in the Bay of Bengal after a sudden storm struck.

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SOUTHERN INDIA
(Indian subcontinent south of Vindhya Mountain range, plus Ceylon)
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rural village snake worship shrine


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.


Kingdom of Chera Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Chola
Palyane Chel Kezhu, King of Chera
    With the homeland finally cultivated, Palyane could consider funding other efforts. Investments were made in military quality as well as creating a method to record the Tamil language as had been already accomplished in Chola. The king then ruled his kingdom thinking life is good.
    Meanwhile heir Narmudi and Prince Senguttuvan crossed the mountains into Belur along with twelve hundred mixed infantry for some diplomacy-in-force with the suspicious Neolithic hill tribes. The short visit didn't didn't allow the royals to overcome language and religious differences and met with failure. Still determined, they continued east and repeated their efforts with Karnata's stone age tribes to opposite effect: the chiefs were won over and agreed to pay tribute in ivory.
    The diplomats returned late 2081 to learn of the king's death in mid-2084 when sickness - perhaps brought by a trader or his gifts - swept the palace sickening many, with Palyane and several elderly servants not recovering. Narmudi was now king.


Kingdom of Chola Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (syllabaric Tamil script)
Announced treaties: mutual defense with Chera
Nedunkilli Chola, King of Chola
    Saving his kingdom's resources for the future, Nedunkilli journeyed north to Madurai leaving his heir Karikala to rule in his absence. In Madurai he opened negotiations by offering royal daughter Tyagavalli in marriage to the high chief of the nomads. The local agreed and once again the region was in full alliance with Chola.
    Meanwhile lieutenant Aditya hiked to the distant wilderness of Kalinga, offering the nominal lord of that pacified region marriage to royal daughter Kalyani to improve relations. Despite langauge and religious difficulties the Kalingan leader was most enthusiastic at the prospect of marrying into royalty and vowed to work towards reconciliation between his people and Chola.
    During this time there were frequent storms at sea in the Palk Strait which resulted in many trade galleys of Lothal being left upon the coasts of Chola or Seylan as piles of broken timber and bodies.

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IRRAWADDY VALLEY
(Tibeto-Burman migration from north down the Irrawaddy Valley displaced original Mon-Khmer peoples southward)
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Beikthano, oldest Irrawaddy Valley city


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.


City-State of Halin Civilized Metalworking Monarchy - literate (Pyu script glyphs)
Kanyaza of the Shakya Dynasty, King of Halin
    The year 2085 began badly when disease spread through the palace from rat-infested food stocks, sickening many, some fatally, including the dowager queen Thebadda and the king's sickly son from his first marriage. After the funerals Kanyaza attended to his duties, ordering heavy investment in metalworking and trying to create a service to relay messages quickly.
    The king then trekked over the mountains into the steaming jungle of Assam, taking his bride Kuwerami with him as she had some slight familiarity with the region since it bordered her native Manipur. The royal couple spent many years with the Neolithic tribal elders dealing with unfamiliar language but (not having brought any warriors with them) ultimately bonding while hiding out from Tibetan raiders. By offering the royal son (and heir) Abhirej in marriage to an elder's daughter they convinced the natives to become tributary to Halin.


City-States of Binnaka & Maingmaw Civilized Metalworking Monarchies - literate (Pyu script glyphs)
Thomanaya, King of Maingmaw
    Growing increasingly frustrated, Thomanaya invested still more wealth attempting to create a relay system to rapidly carry messages throughout the kingdom, but the latest court advisors put in charge proved as incompetent as the two groups they'd replaced. The University received a small grant to sustain it. In rural areas of the homeland additional irrigation ditches and wells were dug to help during the dry season.
    The King of Maingmaw then married Talisaya, a comely lass from a noble family, and settled down to rule while enjoying his bride. They produced a son in late 2085 and - after several barren years and many shamanist fertility rituals - a daughter in 2082.
    Meanwhile brother king Ruranaya crossed river and mountains to the Arakan where he met with the chiefs of the stone age jungle clans. He offered himself in marriage to the daughter of a clan chief, hoping to offset language differences but his scarred face (from a knife fight years past) was frightening to prospective wives. Eventually one of the chiefs became a vassal and Ruranaya got a bride - albeit one who claimed to see visions and was generally shunned by the populace.


City-State of Beikthano Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Dawnak, King of Beikthano
    Dawnak made small investments in military quality and government hiring. The University received supplies to continue operating. The king then ruled his lands while continuing to drink heavily. In 2082 his interest in bedsport was rekindled by a new palace servant girl; she later produced a healthy son but died in childbirth. The population whispered about a curse on the royal family and they believed it even more when Dawnak's sickly son by another serving girl finally expired.
    Meanwhile the king's younger brother (and heir) Mahabaja continued discussions with the leaders of the river settlement of Sri Ksetra. Although a middling diplomat he was persistant and by late spring 2083 had convinced them to join fully with Beikthano. Not long afterward he complained of massive chest pain and died within a few minutes.
    When word reached the capital Dawnak sobered up enough to proclaim his oldest son Peshak to be the new heir. This foresight proved wise when a few months later the king died jaundiced and embittered with life; Peshak took the throne and saw to running his new realm.

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SOUTHEAST ASIA
(Viet migration from China starting to displace original Mon-Khmer peoples southward)
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Lam Ap royal palace at Tra Kiew


Knowledge of bronzeworking has not yet reached this area.
Literacy has not yet reached this area except as noted below.


Kingdom of Langkasuka Seafaring Metalworking Monarchy
Krit Bunyasarn, King of Langkasuka
    Krit Bunyasarn had limited resources with which to improve his kingdom. He'd been away from the capital for years and the bureaucrats had slacked off their jobs, including tax collection, to an astonishing degree. Considering the need for cropland paramount, he allocated all available gold and laborers to clear jungle vegetation and ready the land for agriculture.
    The king then ruled and enjoyed his wife Amporn, who bore girls in 2085 and 2084. Following the second daughter's birth Amporn suffered a high fever and a long recovery; thereafter she did not conceive despite the best rituals and potions of the palace shamen.
    Meanwhile his widowed son (and heir) Surat Bunyasarn supervised the land-clearing project in Kedah, dividing his time between it, raising his son Akkarat and a quest for Psilocybin mushrooms rumored to grow in the deep jungle.
    Late in 2081 an excited group of scholars sought audience with Krit; although unfunded of late they'd continued to address the challenge of recording knowledge. Once in his presence, they demonstrated a way to "write" the Proto-Mon-Khemer language (or at least the Mon dialect of it) henceforth known as Pallava script. This breakthrough happened roughly simultaneously with one in Lam Ap. Since the nations are trading partners and speak the same language there was likely visitation and discussion between the groups of scholars; the solutions are close enough to be considered a common script.


Kingdom of Funan Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Kaundinya I, King of Funan
    Kaundinya ordered a large investment to be made on a network to move news quickly through the realm. Enough wealth remained to complete the clearing of jungle in Funan and it was celebrated with feasting and drinking.
    After spending some time with his wife the king headed for Siam where his cousin Huntian had failed at diplomacy in years past. He was caught trying to pass himself off as a native to learn useful information and with embarassment identified himself and began negotiations. Alas, Kaundinya was a middling diplomat and the Neolithic locals - already suspicious of him - were infuriated when he mistook their High Shaman for the court fool. Thankfully his guardsmen prevented an angry mob of natives from murdering him and the mission withdrew back to Funan.
    The king's cousin Huntian returned to Phan Rang to discuss a closer relationship. Unlike the natives of Siam, the inhabitants of Phan Rang spoke the same language and worshipped the same serpent gods as was done in Funan, and after years of talks they agreed to pay tribute.


Kingdom of Lam Ap Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
Ang Bak, King of Lam Ap
    Ang Bak again focused the kingdom's gold and available labor in Champa to continue clearing away jungle, then stayed watchful in case of invasion. He had ordered his cousin (and heir) Ti Tran to return from Cochin to supervise the workers but after several months became uneasy at his heir's continued absence. A search party determined Ti Tran and his retainers had been attacked by bandits along the Cochin/Lam Ap border; all had been robbed & killed (or killed & robbed) then their bodies dragged off the trail into the jungle.
    The king was devastated and sought comfort in the arms of his Cochin wife Anh resulting in a girl in 2084 and a boy the following year. That birth was difficult and Anh did not conceive again.
    Late in 2081 a proud group of scholars sought audience with Ang Bak; although starved of funds they'd continued to address the problem of recording knowledge. Once in his presence, they demonstrated a way to "write" the Proto-Mon-Khemer language (or at least the Bahnaric dialect of it) henceforth known as Pallava script. This breakthrough happened roughly simultaneously with one in Langkasuka. Since the nations are trading partners and speak the same language there was likely visitation and discussion between the groups of scholars; the solutions are close enough to be considered a common script.


Kingdom of Van Lang Barbarian Metalworking Monarchy
H¨ng Vuong of Chan Dynasty, King of Van Lang
    H¨ng Vuong commanded gold be invested in a way to record the Viet language, hiring artists, philosophers, scholars and pretty much anyone with an idea. The University received supplies and the clearing of jungle in the homeland was completed with much drunken celebration following.
    The king continued his diplomatic talks with the elders of the settlement of Phung Nguyen. Despite H¨ng being a poor negotiator the locals were impressed by royalty and in 2083 agreed to a full alliance. Next the king engaged the assembled chieftans of rural Annam in discussions; to his astonishment they were not swayed. Deciding to take by force what he couldn't have peacefully (and being a far, far better fighter than talker) he ordered the three thousand mixed infantry with him to secure the region, which they did late 2081, swiftly crushing the outclassed native tribes for minor losses. A cringing minor subchief was installed as satrap.
    Meanwhile the king's cousin (and heir) Thuc Phan resumed negotiations with the leadership of the Ban Chiang settlement. Like Phung Nguyen it was a dirt-poor place and the natives felt joining with Van Lang couldn't be anything other than an improvement and so agreed to do so.

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