Literacy exists throughout this area as shown below.
Illyrians Barbarian Bronzeworking Monarchy -
literate (Etruscan alphabet)
Medak, King of Illyrians
Medak maintained his policy of investments across a broad range of military and governmental departments.
More supplies were purchased for
the University and wells dug to help improve agriculture. Four hundred men familiar with the bow were
conscripted into the army. Guards removed certain thugs from the local prison and took them away.
The king then ruled his domain and spent time with Alena, his wife from Nescatium, who birthed a girl in
2085. The following year the royal couple were returning to the palace during a thunderstorm when
lightning struck a nearby building, collapsing it into the street in a mass of stone, mortar, dust and
debris. The king was killed and the again-pregnant queen badly injured and miscarried. A score of citizens
watching the royal procession were crushed and dozens injured.
Feudal vassal Damir had been provided troops and sent to raid the pastoral nomads of the Alford. Having
to cross mountains was wearing on the would-be slavers and the
steppe was unfamiliar terrain to men accustomed to hills and forests. An average war
leader, he led his men into an ambush by over twice their number of Alfoldi screaming war cries. Most
of his command were killed or captured. Damir and a handful of men managed to escape and slink back
humiliated to his estates in Nesectium.
Meanwhile Medak's younger brother (and heir) Cabar along with an honor guard had gone to chaotic Dalmatia
to meet with the rival religious factions and attempt to bring order. After years of negotiating the
chiefs agreed to be tributary to Illyria and provide access to their copper mines. It was not until he
returned to Illyria in late 2081 he
learned of his brother's death and that he was now king. Having no children of his own, he pro-claimed
Pavla, eldest son of Medak, to be his heir.
Achaean Greeks Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy -
literate (Linear B glyphs)
Akakios, King of Achaeans
Akakios again decreed investment in government and funding for the University which was able to hire
several noted poets and authors to teach.
Macedon was further fortified while in the homeland small streams
were bridged to facilitate wagon movement. A light galley was built in the arsenal at Mycennae to
increase trade. A census was ordered and heir Opites was made responsible for its accuracy.
The king then settled down to rule his kingdom and educate his son Asaeus in the art of administration.
In autumn 2084 Akakios's wife Achiroe was shopping with her retainers when a brawl spilled out of
a tavern into the street; a thrown knife missed its target and instead fatally struck the queen. (Her
killer - the king not caring the deed was accidental -
took a long time to die in the palace dungeon.)
As years passed without his wife Akakios slid into a deepening depression and took to drinking heavily.
The king's brother Alcibiades, lieutenant Agapenor and the twelve hundred heavy infantry had been
encamped near Mycennae waiting for transport. Minoan galleys had been expected in early 2090 and had
not actually arrived until late 2086, by which time the men including their leaders were spending most
of their time keeping the capital's taverns and brothels profitable. The months after Minoan commander
Lonchi's arrival were spent on harsh exercise and drill before he deemed the Greeks fit
to earn their pay, and they boarded Minoan galleys. [see Minoans]
Meanwhile feudal vassal Dolops of Epirus led a thousand men through Serbia and over the mountains into
Bosnia to raid for slaves. He was a middling commander and the sizable native militia kept the Epriots
on the move and unable to grab more than a score of unlucky woodcutters or hunters before fleeing back
over the mountains.
King Akakios died toward the end of 2081 when after a multi-day bender he was found unresponsive in
his bedchamber by his retainers. Opites took the throne and Asaeus became the new Heir.
Minoans Seafaring Bronzeworking Oligarchy -
literate (Linear A glyphs)
Kyrsi, First of the Council
After much discussion a peace agreement had been
reached to end the long Nile Valley War: the Herakleopolitans (and such Thebeans who had escaped to
their lands) would migrate north through Lower Egypt then west across the desert.
Kyrsi and the Minoan army - some of whom had been there 15 years - were waiting to return home to
Crete. However there were matters of state which required attention.
Since Second of the Council Tavrys was in Knossos it fell upon him to preside over Council discussions.
Much investment was allocated to experimenting with new ship designs. Surplus root vegetables, wheat
and wine were stored for future needs. Marginal land was cleared by gangs of slaves from
the distant Ghebel Gharib desert and trade ordered was begun with distant Illyria. A thousand men were
added to the military: 400 trained with the sword and the rest with the bow.
The navy was kept busy shuttling troops.
In midsummer famed war leader Lonchi arrived in Knossos with a fleet of galleys carrying twelve hundred
Achaean heavy infantry hired as mercenaries. Lonchi, the Greeks and their officers unloaded and the ships reprovisioned. Tavrys assumed command and the fleet headed to Lower Egypt and picked up Kyrsi, over two
thousand Minoan warriors and another thousand slaves, then returned to Knossos in early
summer of 2084. The Minoan intervention in Egypt was finished.
Which didn't mean there was peace. Having been repulsed in their previous attempt to colonize Thapsos in
Sicily, the Minoans now returned in force. In late spring 2083 over a dozen galleys under Kyrsi
appeared off the southern coast of Sicily. The Sicilians
owed fealty to Minoan ally Zakro of Phylakopi so they simply watched as the Achaean spearmen plus a
thousand Minoan archers and swordsmen unloaded through the surf.
Kyrsi led his mix of infantry overland to the port settlement of Thapsos and once again demanded its surrender. Thapsos was walled and had a garrison; its leaders while aware their opponents were more
numerous were confident enough to reject the demand. It took several months to successfully scale
the walls but by early 2082 the settlement had fallen with relatively light losses.
Minoan galleys entered the harbor
and discharged colonists who expanded the settlement into a full city. At the celebratory feast
Kyrsi choked to death on a piece of meat which rather spoiled the mood.
Lonchi assumed command of the Minoans, bringing the ships and army back to Knossos. Upon learning of
Kyrsi's death the Council elevated Tavrys to First and chose the diplomat Urglaz to become Second.
Zakro of Phylakopi prowled the Gulf of Cyprus for a year hunting Herakleopolitan shipping but came
up empty-handed. He then headed for sparsely-populated Korfu for negotiations with its inhabitants
despite differences in language and religion. Before his untimely death in late 2083 from pneumonia he persuaded them to vow fealty to Phylakopi (but not the Minoan state). Fortunately Zakro's son and successor Tobglak continued the alliance therefore keeping the lands within the Minoan
sphere of influence.
feudal vassal Shabtu hadf headed west in command of a loaned pentaconter and crew. The warship returned
early 2081 under command of the first mate; Shabtu and several other crew had died after eating from
a cask of salt meat apparently gone bad.
City-State of Troy Civilized Bronzeworking Centralized Monarchy -
literate (Luwian hieroglyphics)
Ucalegon, King of Troy IV
Ucalegon invested in the arts of seigecraft and in the homeland thousands of captives from Dobruja and
Ludgorie were worked mercilessly to clear hillsides and plant fruit trees and grape vines to increase
harvest yield. Trade was initiated to the new Etruscan port of Locri.
Another two thousand men were trained, half with sling and javelin and the rest with shield
and spear. During this training the king's 10 year old son Coroebus (who loved all things military and
enjoyed watching the raw recuits being turned into soldiers) was struck in the head by a wildly slung
stone and killed, plunging the royals into grief.
Previously lieutenant Orthryoneus had traveled to Phrygia for diplomatic talks
only to find Telipinus of the Hittites already there; the men's efforts had cancelled each other.
After the funeral - and perhaps not thinking too clearly - King Ucalegon impulsively decided the Hittites
were enemies and commanded his half-brother (and heir) the renowned general Adrestus to crush them.
The Heir added another four hundred archers to his mass of skirmishers, bringing his army to three
thousand and making good the losses from the previous years' fighting and slaving. In late summer of 2085
his force crossed the mountains into the Hittite region of Galatia. Its feudal lord Gurgen
had nearly two thousand guardsmen and knew the land well but was a middling commander and consistantly
outmanuvered by the wily Adrestus. The conflict ended with the Trojans storming the lord's keep
using scaling ladders under cover of arrows, taking nearly four hundred dead. The fighting ended late
the same time as Trojan lieutenant Orthryoneus arrived with a slow-moving force of 5,000 soldiers
which included two thousand heavy infantry.
After the 2085-2084 winter ended the Adrestus set his men to enslaving the region's
population 1 and
ordered Orthryoneus's warriors to take up defensive positions, which was fortunate since a month later
the Hittite Sapalulme crossed the southern border with over two thousand fighters. The Hittites lacked
scouts and thus discovered the hard way their combat-experienced enemy badly outnumbered them and
were better led; Sapalulme may be Heir but he was a poor war leader. The Hittites were lucky to
disengage and withdraw back to Hatti leaving over a thousand dead;
Orthryoneus reported less than three hundred.
In early 2083 Adrestus left the slaves and their guards with the lieutenant and invaded the Hittite
homeland with the rest of the combined armies, totalling over six thousand of various infantrymen.
Even adding the regional garrison to his depleted army Sapalulme had only a third of that
number - but also had three stone forts upon which to anchor his defense. As usual
the archers of Troy took a toll of defenders while they tried to close.
Fighting was savage
as the attackers climbed scaling ladders only to be thrown back. After heavy losses one fort was
taken and burnt
but the other two held out. The Trojans had exhausted themselves and Adrestus was taken away by
his retainers after having been wounded in the thigh by a thrown javelin.
Hittites manuvering under fire from Trojan archers
Orthryoneus assumed command and gave the order to fall back to Galatia. 2
Meanwhile the king and his Moldavian wife Cassandra had once again
taken ship north to the tributary port settlement of Tyras. Before starting another round of negotiations
Ucalegon attempted to gather useful information but was exposed when a sharp-eyed wine vendor recognized
him from his last visit and shouted out greetings. Embarassed, the king began talks with the young lord
while Cassandra - who knew many of the court - worked behind the scenes.
The king was a superb diplomat and despite hostile religions and different languages he
impressed Dolon of Tyras enough that the local became a full ally.
1 after several years without being worked the farmland is being overgrown and has degraded to
2 if an attack action (A, AT, AS etc) is ordered and the defenders remain, extra rounds
are fought only if the APs have been allocated for multiple attempts and
contingency orders are given to continue attacking until the objective is taken
or a breakoff point (loss limit, leader death, etc) is reached.
Hitties Civilized Bronzeworking Monarchy -
literate (Luwian hieroglyphics)
Telipinus, King of the Hittites
Telipinus sent messages back to the capital with instructions to invest in infantry quality and various
governmental agencies. Supplies were purchased for both priestly training and the University, and a
small amount of surplus vegetables were stored for the future. More men were recruited by
heir Sapalulme and trained to shield and spear. In the spring he led a slow-marching column of
hundreds over the mountains to Phrygia, delivering them to his king in late summer.
Heading back home Sapalulme reached Hattusas late autumn and learned of the invasion of Galatia.
In early 2084 he gathered over two thousand mixed spearmen and
swordsmen and reacted to the invasion. [see Troy]
in early 2085 King Telipinus - already in Phrygia - had resumed talks with its ruler Lelwani and as added
enticement offered Sapalulme as husband for a Phrygian noblewoman. Ignorant of the clash of armies he
focused on diplomacy for years; he was a superb orator and ultimately the local lord declared himself a
full ally of the Hittites.
The diplomat Ishtanu had left Hatti in early 2085 for Cappadocia and also remained ignorant of the war.
He spent many years negotiating with the suspicious hill tribes and faced religious hostility, but was
persistant and obtained an economic agreement.
Removed Maykop Culture until I open up lands north of the Caucasus Mtns.