Lords of the Earth Campaign 31

Turn 9: Anno Domini 1433 - 1436

Industrial Stage One: The Dawn of the Modern Age

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TURN 10 is due Friday, 18 August 2000.


Welcome to Lords of the Earth, Campaign 31! This is a game of empire building set in an historical setting. You will have the chance to control the rise and fall of empires through political, economic, military, espionage, and religious activities. Since this is an open-ended game, covering a span of centuries, you will have the opportunity to do pretty much anything you can imagine.

If you want to submit material for the Newsfax, either as the "Mouthings of the Emperor" or as background material to help me write things up, by all means do so. However, I reserve the right to make necessary changes.

That brings us to the status and execution of NPN's and positions that fail to turn in orders. I will use my "best" judgment in these circumstances; if the players near this position are actively participating, then the NPN will be very passive, concentrating on PWB and investments. If the nearby players are not very active then the NPN will move out and try to DP the adjacent regions.

Some notes and observations from turn-8-9:

Good Luck to all!

- Dave Salter


There have been significant rule modifications over the last two months to the basic rules, the renaissance rules and the gm rules. I believe they are stabilizing and by turn 10 I will be looking to incorporate most, if not all these rules. If you want to get copies, contact Thomas Harlan as noted below. This is not an attempt to generate revenue for Thomas but an offer for you to get the new rules before they come into play and comment on them. Religious Orders and Merchant Combines will probably be effected the most.

Also, on turn 10, I will strictly enforce MSP basing, command and control rules and adverse impacts of random events. Get your house in order.

Colonization: Any region that is cultivated or has been cultivated and is less than 2 GPV can be increased in value up to 2 GPV for the cost of 15 GP and 15 NFP per GPV of increase. Any named island can be colonized to 1 GPV.

Homeland colonization: any tech 6 nation can colonize their homeland to level 3 GPV, assuming its cultivated (and already 2 GPV) for a cost of 20 NFP and 20 GP; and tech 9 nation can colonize their homeland to level 4 GPV, assuming its cultivated (and already 3 GPV) for a cost of 25 NFP and 25 GP.

NEW --- >>> A new type of ship can be constructed by tech-8 nations called a merchantman. It has the cargo capacity of a heavy transport and the combat power of a heavy warship. It costs 2 nfp and 6 gp.

NEW --- >>> You are allowed to built chains across narrow bodies of water like rivers and harbors (like the lords-0 Byz Empire). You can build a chain represented by a fortress (costing 10nfp 10gp) [stops aall shipping but lw or lt] or a more serious version that cost 25nfp and 50 gp [stops all shipping] depends on size and magnitude. You can also combine a fortress and chain by adding the above costs to a standing fortress. This rule is a work in progress, subject to change as it is play tested by gamers.

Mercs: Countries can hire out their troops as mercenaries as long as they provide a leader to go along with them.

Holy Roman Empire: National regions inside the Holy Roman Empire need not be contiguous in order to maintain control over them, though distance requirements are still in effect - no further than 1/2 their tech level in action points away from their border.

Mercantile Combines: A Mercantile Combine can trade with interior countries provided they have at least a BO in a city of the interior country and can reach a port city with at least a BO in it. The BO in the interior country can be no further than 1/2 their tech level in action points away from that port. In addition, that combine can conduct trade for the interior country by allocating MSP to that route, indicating a level of transportation assets committed to servicing that route. This conduit will count as one conduit for overseas trade.

Effective turn-6: the cost for combines to establish their organizational structure is as follows:





Merchant Agent




Merchant Factor




Branch Office




Cartel City




Build/move Home Office




A clarification to the rule book: a combine can only handle one side of the trade between two nations. It is the responsibility of the combine to redistribute income from the routes his handles for his clients. Trade income received in turn 2 will be redistributed by the combine in turn 3.

Religious Orders: New status codes will be applied to religious orders. They are similar to Primate control statuses except they will allow for a slight increase in the amount of NFP generated. Also, the Religious Primate and a Religious Order (of the same religion) can maintain a status level in the same region or city. However, the Religious Order status cannot go higher that monastery (rmn) if the Primate has a monastery (mn) of its own. No two Religious Orders can maintain higher than abbey (rab) in the same region or city.

Religious Order Authority Control Statuses


A small presence in the locale, being a city building or small land fief in a region.
A modest collection of order locations in either city or region. Exemption from some local taxes.
A major order location from where the local order hierarchy administers nearby possessions.
A significant grant of land, property rights or exemption from taxation makes these locations focal points for the order. Serve as centers for the recruitment, induction and training of order members.
The location of the order's nerve-center from where the order is administered. It is here that the order's University and government functions are situated. N.B. - use of the term "fortress" is for convenience of identity. It does not confer upon the location of the OF that of a Fortress in game terms.
Order House oh 0.10 No No
Order Preceptory op 0.25 No No
Order Oratory oo 0.5 Yes Yes
Order Estate oe 0.75 Yes Yes
Order Fortress of 1.0 Yes Yes

Contacting the Game Master

You can contact me at the following address:

Dave Salter
7338 Rolling Oak Ln.
Springfield, VA 22153
Or call:

(703) 912-6076 [EST] (best time is 7-9 pm weekdays and after 6 pm on weekends.)

The best way to contact me is by email. I will answer mail as soon as I receive it.
My address is: salterdj@aol.com.



Throne Enterprises Home Page can be found at:

Click here to find out about other Lords of the Earth campaigns.



Normal Turns: $5.00


Will be available via the main web page only. Make sure you gain one of these maps for your area.


I have made a few alterations to the maps. These changes reflect the changes, from my perspective, from the standard 1000AD start to 1400AD. Each turn's map will be updated and posted normally within a day of the Newsfax posting.

ORDERING THE RULEBOOK Lords of the Earth Campaign 31 uses the Middle Ages version 5.7 rulebook and the Renaissance Supplement version 2.1.1. You must order these rulebooks from Thomas Harlan.


Other Costs

Paper Maps of 1000AD (only) Entire World [11x17] $7.00, from Thomas Harlan: circa 1000AD
5th Edition Rulebook (v5.6) $15.00 by mail, $5.00 by email (PDF)
Renaissance Supplement $3.00
Shipping and Handling Within the United States: $3.00 (Priority Mail), Outside of the USA: $9.00

Make out checks for these items to THOMAS HARLAN

Thomas Harlan
4858 East 2nd Street
Tucson, AZ 85711-1207


Infantry (200 men = 1 point)
Cavalry (200 men and 200 horse = 1 point)
Siege Engineers (200 men = 1 point)
Warships (2 ships = 1 point)
Transports (2 ships = 1 point)


Northern Europe

James I
James doubled his navy's in order to effective screen the approaches to the North Sea and the English Channel. The navy put to sea but there was nothing to report.
Renaissance tech 8.

Henry VI
DIPLOMACY: Lancashire (nt), Cornwall (ne)
Henry VI ordered mass conscription in an effort to build a world class navy - for he feared an invasion by a combined German fleet or French or Iberian adventurism. Neither event occurred so he sent his navy up the Rhine to raid. Other actions were directed at bringing in the rebellious Catholic regions; he had mixed results for his efforts. The Isle of Man was sold the the Hansa for gold to pay for his navy while expected Hussite military advisors failed to arrive. In other news, a royal road was started between London and Oxford.
Renaissance tech 8.

DIPLOMACY: Agder (f)
Queen Margaret orders the Danish fleet out to sea to join with the English fleet . She also order raids conducted along the Brandenburg coast. Lord Eric retrained the Danish army for more shock effect - unfortunately, he was killed when a team of horses bolted and ran into his encampment. The Agder cultivation project was completed and the province was brought fully into the Empire.
Renaissance tech 8.

Western Europe


Leader Heinrich (M936)
Troops 10hc,15c, 20i,5a
AQRs c8, i6,a2


Jean, Emperor of France
DIPLOMACY: Cornwall (t), Aquitaine (f), Poitou (f)
The Emperor, seeing opportunities everywhere, makes a deal with the Swiss and the Grand Duchy of the Rhine (Saxony) to reclaim lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy. Mary of Orange is invited to Paris and the lovely Princess Lysette is sent to Gent to run the newly acquired provinces as regent until Burgundian power could be restored. The following treaty outlined the agreement Jean made:

The Treaty of Gent (1433)

1. The provinces of Nivernais, Vermandois and Flanders are immediately to be ceded to the Empire of France by the Swiss Confederation and the Grand Duchy of the Rhine (formerly the Duchy of Saxony), respectively.

2. The Empire of France and the members of the Alpine League ( the Kingdom of Austria, the Duchy of Brandenburg, the Duchy of Milan, the Grand Duchy of the Rhine, the Swiss Confederation, and the Republic of Venice) agree to a forty year period of non-aggression between the two sides, and will take no hostile action, either open or covert, against the other side during said period.

3. The Empire of France agrees to make no further claim against any Alpine League state for their actions against the former Duchy of Burgundy, and recognizes the sovereignty of the Swiss Confederation over the provinces of Burgundy and Champagne, and the sovereignty of the Duchy of the Rhine over the provinces of Hainaut and Brabant, and recognizes the right of these states to control or transfer these provinces as they see fit.

4. Any attack by members of the Alpine League against the territory of the Kingdom of Poland/Lithuania, or against the territory of the Kingdoms of England and/or Scotland, will release France from it's Article 2 obligations of non-aggression towards the Alpine League states.

5. IF the Alpine League or members of the Grand Alliance not in the Alpine League (the Republic of Florence, the Republic of Genoa, and the Kingdom of Naples), are attacked first by the Kingdom of Poland/Lithuania, or the Kingdoms of England or Scotland, or their various allies, and the Alpine League states respond to this attack, then the non-aggression clause of Article 2 remains in effect for France.

Jean also took advantage of the chaos in England to gain a foothold in Cornwall, presumably to protect Catholic interests there. He also consolidated Imperial positions in Aquitaine and Poitou.
Renaissance tech 8.

Lysette, Duchess of Flanders, Protector of the House of Orange
DIPLOMACY: No effect
Princess Lysette was like no woman of Europe. She was as schooled with Jean and Louis in every art. Maybe, even better than tem in a few. Therefore, when her brother Emperor Jean had to make a decision on the fate of Burgundy, he could only think of one regent, one leader that could easily lead their fate. So, Lysette was sent to Gent to revive a battered region. She was sent to incorporate the regions into the French Empire but she saw it differently once she was in place. However, she still recognizes her brother's authority and pays tribute to him each year. (See Saxony)
Renaissance tech 8

Leo IV
DIPLOMACY: Lisbon (ab), Portugal (ab), Salamaca (ab), Latium (ab), Old Castile (ab), New Castile (ab), Madrid (ab), Murcia (ab), Campania (ch), Calabria (ch), Lyssa (ch)
Guilbert set in motion efforts to strengthen the Church; these efforts were very successful in Iberia with little success elsewhere. In addition, the Pope established a religious order in Iberia called the Knights of Christ, based out of Navarre. In 1435 Guilbert became ill and shortly thereafter succumb to that illness. The College of Cardinals soon settled on Jacque of Bisque for there new leader; he renamed himself Leo IV and vowed to bring Christendom together.
Renaissance tech 8.

Edward III
Edward sees to the transfer of Nivernais to the French; there was some confusion involved with the transfer but at last the Swiss moved out. Edward then reorganized his forces for possible attacks from the west or east. In the spring of 1434, word came that Bohemia had crossed the border into Austria - Edward immediately gathered his officers and issued orders. (See Bohemia)
Renaissance tech 8.

Albrecht V, Arch Duke of Austria, Holy Roman Emperor
With the coronation of Frederick II and Catherine, the Duchies of Bavaria and Austria combine into Austro-Bavarian Kingdom. Albrecht retires to bask in the glory of being a grandfather. However, storm clouds were brewing and the storm would crash over the frontier in late spring of 1434. (See Bohemia)
Renaissance tech 8.

Jobst, knowing he had a bad hand, decided to abdicate in favor of his daughter, Catherine. This would combine Austria and Bavaria and give them a chance at resisting eastern aggression. The ceremony was held in Vienna with great fanfare; Jobst, then seeing his mission complete, retired to the family's winter estate in Tyrol.
Renaissance tech 8.

Rupert IV
Rupert approves the Treaty of Gent which hopefully will secure his west border while he turns east to deal with the attack he expects from that sector. Barely does the ink dry when Rupert collaspes and is rushed to the doctors; no knowing the cause of his collapse, they are helpless as that watch his life fade away. His son takes the reigns of power just as he haers reports of Hussite and Prussian movements towards Brandenburg.

In the meantime, his generals in the west are busy turning over Flanders and Vermandois to the French - there were some unconfirmed reports of several regiments losing control of their troops, briefly. By the fall of 1433, the Saxons were moving east with all due speed, their Brandenburg allies having preceded them. (See Prague Papacy)
Renaissance tech 8.

Klaus Stortebecker
DIPLOMACY: West European mercs (broker) (ne), Mannheim (ma), Freiburg (ma), Dijon (ma), Hainaut (ma), Bremen (bo), Pest (mf), Belgrade (ci), Heracleaa (bo), Thessaloniki (bo), Paphos (ma), Antioch (ma), Tyre (ma)
The League continue expanded its Med holdings and reached up the Rhine. Iberian mercenaries signed up for service with Milan and the Hansa continued their monoploy of the grain market. The League massively reorganized their shipping lines (look for a turn 10 df here) and took some ships off line.
Renaissance tech 8.

Wilhelm I, Elector of Brandenburg
The Elector Wilhelm orders improvements made in the living conditions of both the rural peasants and city dwellers. The Elector keeps his army on alert for any transgression against the German Alliance, which, to no one's surprise, comes from the east. The Danes make raids on the northern coast line, but there is not much there to loot. A combined Prussian/Hussitte army marches west from Danzig while a smaller force from Bohemia advances from the southeast into Thuringia. (See Hussites)
Renaissance tech 8.

The Duke can no longer sit back and watch the intrigues of Austria at his expense. He arranges for a marriage between his daughter and a disguntled noble house in Bavaria. He then musters his army and awaits the contingent sent by the Poles. In the Spring of 1434, all is ready and he crosses the frontier into Bavaria. He also sends a small force north into Thuringia, obviously hoping for a quick collapse of Brandenburg. Bohemian forces totaled almost 25,000 men with almost 12,000, cavalry, 12,000 infantry with assorted artillery and siege support. The Bochnians brought a little over 2,000 additional troops.

Bavaria was virtually undefended and the Bohemians quickly laid siege to Augsburg. Before the first month had passed word came from screening units of the approach of several columns of enemy troops. It soon became obvious that these forces were vastly superior in number than the Bohemians and their allies. As the Bohemians tried to pull back from the city and regroup they were attacked from three sides by 40,000 Austrians, Venetians, Milanese, Swiss, and Iberian mercenaries. The Bohemians conducted themselves well but could not stand up to the pressure of the combined weight of arms. They fell back to the border where the pursuit stopped.

As a side note, the Bohemian forces sent north into Thuringia happened to get caught by the Saxons as they were reacting to the Prussian invasion of Brandenburg and were roughly handled and sent home with significant losses.
Renaissance tech 8.

HUSSITES - Prague Papacy
Jan Hus - Markus, Servant of the Lord
DIPLOMACY: Meissen (ab), Silesia (ab), Moravia (ab), Danzig (ch), Denmark (ch)
Jan Hus, for some reason, bristled at the thought of Burgundy's fall and he made arrangements with the Prussians to punish the German states. He also backed up the Bohemian invasion of Bavaria. Vaclav and Zizka were to gather the Hussite army and march north to Danzig to join the Prussians massing there.

As the Hussites crossed the mountains and moved into Meissen, their route of march pass several villages. While passing through one of these villages, a bolt from a crossbow flashed out of a window and hit Jan Zizka in the chest. The troops responded immediately, isolating the building and searching each but they room but they found nothing. When they return to their commander had been gravely wounded and the army surgeons suspected the bolt had been poisoned.

The Hussite army stayed encamped for a month searching for Zizka's attacker and hoping the General would recover. They found no traces of the attacker and the surgeons finally persuaded the Hussite troops to allow them to take him to Prague for further treatment. Vaclav assumed command of the army and continued its march north to Danzig.

He reached the Prussian camp in late spring of 1434 and after several days of planning and exchanging staff officers, the combine army set out for Brandenburg. There were a total of 37,000 Prussians (11,000 infantry, 19,000 cavalry and the remainder in artillery) and over 8,000 Hussites (2,000 infantry, 1,000 cavalry and the rest in artillery and siege artillery). The large army crossed over into Pomerania in July of 1434, meeting little resistance they quickly overran the province. However, it did take considerable time to move the heavy and siege artillery through the trails of heavily forested Pomerania. There was an unfortunate incident along the coast as Danish raiders fell upon several detachments, thinking they were Brandenburgers.

By Spring of 1435, all was ready for the invasion of the Brandenburg homeland. Leaving over 1,000 troops to garrison Pomerania, they crossed into Lausatia in April of that year. After securing the province and taking out some isolated fortifications, the Prussians infested the capital city but one thing was amiss. By the time they had approached Berlin, the Saxon and Brandenburg armies from the west had reached the city and were well entrenched with plenty of supplies. They had also secured several regiments of mercenaries. Since they were actually outnumbered there was no choice but to withdrawal from the city, pulling back to Pomerania.
Renaissance tech 8.

Sigmund, King of Hungary
Sigmund grew weary of the war torn state of Europe. He sent official couriers to several nations noting the withdraw of Hungary from the Treaty of Magdeburg. Just to be safe he called up additional ground forces, some of which were elite.
Renaissance tech 8.

Iberian Peninsula


Leader Alphonso (M853) See Hansa for terms/bids
Troops 25c, 15i, 4a
AQRs c8, i8,a2

Enrique III
DIPLOMACY: Takrur nation (f)
Enrique brings Takrur fully into the Kingdom, doubling Castille's previous size. He also contributes a large sum of gold to the Templers.
Renaissance tech 8.

Pedro V
DIPLOMACY: Gagnoa (fa), Valencia (some effect)
Petro demobilized some of his forces and sent the troops and their families to Barcelona and Palermo to build their future. Petro sent explores down the east coast of Africa and over to India. He shares his knowledge with the Hansa and his Iberian allies.
Renaissance tech 8.

Henry the Navigator
DIPLOMACY: Socotra (fa), Faiyum (some effect)
Edward builds several squadrons of ships of the wall and puts them on alert. He helps construct the city of San Pietro on Socotra and continues to convert the pagans of the Azores and Benin. He also contribute to the Templers. He died one night in his sleep, quite content with the progress he had made. His son Henry takes over after a week long memorial for his father. Henry's brother, John, dies the next year. The family line is finally blessed with sons in 1434 and 1435.
Renaissance tech 8.

Feterrick, Grand Master
DIPLOMACY: Navarre (of), Pamplona (oe)
Feterick took the charter given him by the Pope and went to Navarre to establish a new Order, one that would be the military arm of the Church. He established a fortress in Navarre and purchased an estate in Pamplona. He was very grateful for the contributions of the Iberians.
Renaissance tech 8.

Southern Europe


Leader Giovenuchi (M867)
Troops 3a, 10i
AQRs a2, i6

Doria prepares for the worse and strikes a deal with the Hansa that should bring the Iberian merc into play. He would not live to see the preparations bear fruit for he died in the winter of 1433-1434. His son was ready to step into his father's shoes and did so with gusto and energy. By the time the Iberians had arrived and redeployments had been made, news had come of Bohemian and Polish aggression in Austria. (See Bohemia)
Renaissance tech 8.

Galeazzo, Doge of Venice
DIPLOMACY: Knossos (some effect)
The Doge gathers his forces and redeploys to face the threat of continued war - he would not have long to wait for word arrived in early spring of 1434 of the Bohemian invasion of Austria (Bavaria). (See Bohemia)
Renaissance tech 8.

Isralo, Prince of Salerno
Assassins failed in their effort to kill Isralo, but Isralo had had enough fun; it was time for the youngsters to have a go at it. He made plans with his son and his council to ensure a smooth transfer of power. They laid plans to ensure the safety of the Pope and of the Kingdom. Though tensions were high, no threat appeared. After a accident at sea took the life of Alponso, the fleet remained in port.
Renaissance tech 8.

Cosimo de' Medici, Protector of the Florentine Republic
Cosimo secured the services of the Italian mercenaries and prepared for war; war came but it passed over the Republic.
Renaissance tech 9.

DIPLOMACY: Novgorod (ma), Novgorod (bo), Birgu (bo), Mahidia (ma), Madiera (ma), Cordoba (ma), Madrid (ma), Burgos (ma), Orsha (ma), Moscow (ma), Muscovy (ma), St. Basil (ma), Kazan (ma), Naples (ci), Athens (ma), Trieste (ma)
Grimaldi makes widespread investments and prepares for the defense of central and southern Italy. The people are surprised and somewhat alarmed by the new arrivals to the port facilities. Major trade deals are sealed with the Ottomans and Florence.
Renaissance tech 8.

Eastern Europe


Leader Bayruk (M947)
Troops 20c, 10lc
AQRs c7

Dobry, Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland
DIPLOMACY: Prussia (a), Atelzuko (t), Pechneg (t), Goryn (fa), Turov (fa), Pinsk (fa), Bialoweza (fa)
Dobry and the Hussites were not happy with the German attack on Burgundy and though a concensus could not be found he issued the following statement:

"The Duchy of Bavaria has a debt to pay for its actions in Burgundy. That debt will be paid. It can not be avoided through craven surrender to the same Austrian bandits that once tried to claim Bavaria through force of arms. We do not accept, nor do we recognize the annexation of Bavaria by the house of Hapsburg, for there will be no sanctuary in a house of man for the craven cowards of Bavaria, who turned in ingratitude upon the Burgundian Lords who worked so fervently to protect Bavaria but a generation past. Bavaria is no part of the Austrian realm, and will find no shelter in treaties between Austria and Poland."

Preparations were made to respond to a eastern attack by the Germans and the Bochians were "allowed" to assist Bohemia with their invasion of Austria (Bavaria). Internal diplomacy was generally successful with the Princess Elzbieta marrying the Count of Prussia, raising him to a full ally. (See Bochnia)
Renaissance tech 8.

Vaclav, Duke of Bochnia, Vassal of Poland
DIPLOMACY: fa to Poland
Vaclav mustered his forces and moved into Bohemia for he would represent Polish interest in the coming war with the Germans. (See Bohemia)
Renaissance tech 8.

Nektarty, Patriarch of Kiev
DIPLOMACY: Heraclea (ch), Moscow (ab)
Nektary gave support to the Polish government and was dismayed by the reaction of Novgorod. He strengthens the Churches influence in Moscow and spreads it south to Thrace.
Renaissance tech 8.

Otto von Stein, Grand Master
DIPLOMACY: Poland (oh), Prussia (oo)
Conrad was very upset over the loss of his order houses in Brandenburg and he resolved to do something about it. "It is intolerable. To lose Order property in such a fashion is intolerable! The nobles of Saxony and Brandenburg did nothing to protect our chapter houses during the Schism. Gold stolen, Knights whipped out of town, and the lynching of Helmut von Essendorf in the city square of Berlin! None of this generated offers of recompense from the Electors! Very well. We have signed no treaties with the Papists. We'll take our own reparations." Coordinating his actions with the Prague Papacy, he gathered his army and awaited the arrival of the Hussites. Efforts to hire mercenaries were foiled by the Ottomans. (See Hussites)
Renaissance tech 8.

Pyotr learns of the Patriarch supporting the Polish government and withdraws his support (tithe) from the Church. Otherwise the Republic is in a wait and see mentality.
Renaissance tech 8.

Basil II
DIPLOMACY: Rhzev (nt)
Basil II continues to improve the lot of his subjects in and around Moscovy; he also sends peasants to work on the Polish canal project. He sends his brother to join the Eastern Orthodox church where he hopes his ambition will be fully realized. His son, Ivan is now a Prince of the Realm.
Civilized tech 7.

Jamuka, Khakhan of the Golden Horde, Darighachi of Crimea, Gurkhan of the Kipchak, Beloved of Yahweh

The new Khakhan decided that the time was ripe for improved trade . Thus he commissioned a large number of round-bellied cogs to be built on the Volga Canal to handle the increased shipping. Further, the Genoese factors left a meeting with great smiles all around, as Jamuka had just granted them more trading privileges.

One spring morning, before sunup, Jamuka called for his advisors. From the time the first grass sparrow found a seed until the nightjars began to call they discussed the situation in Europe. After a lengthy meal, they decided that it was fruitless to try harder to understand the workings of the inscrutable Western mind, and each retired to dream of koumiss and their horses.

Jamuka names his son, Berke, to be a Tarkhan and Royal Prince. He receives gold from the Poles and the Italian merchants. He orders Zangi, Tarkhan of the Golden Horde, to conduct maneuvers in preparation for future fun and games. One night they were training the next they boarded shipping and headed into the dead of night.

Zangi, Tarkhan of the Golden Horde, gripped the railing firmly, willing his stomach to allow him to enjoy the view of the walls of Constantinople as they passed by. A week at sea, and by Tengri's beard he was finally able to eat flat bread once more. Despondently, he realized that mutton would have to wait. Soon enough this shipboard hell would end and he would be able to lead his tumen across Europe. Perhaps his glory would surpass that of Subedai.


At the moment he worried about his horse string. Despite the flat seas of the strait, Zangi moved warily across the deck toward the ladder leading to the hold. He now realized why they called these beasts the "camels of the sea."
Nomadic - tech 7.

Stephen Lazarevich
DIPLOMACY: Attica (f), Athens (f)
Stephen involves himself with the Greek peace efforts, granting Macedonia and Thessaloniki to the Greeks. Attica and Athens have become full members of Serbia (marrying his two daughters Andrea and Barbara to the leaders of these two entities certainly helped) while Athens and Belgrade saw its population increase. Serbian military centers and training grounds saw a huge influx of Ottoman equipment and instructors.
Civilized tech 7.

Gregory, First of Thrace, Savior of the East
DIPLOMACY: Thessaloniki (f)
Gregory gave up control of Constantinople and Pontus to the Ottomans and got Moldavia (from Poland) and Macedonia and Thessaloniki (from Serbia). He also received gold from the Turks and Poles. With the outbreak of peace, the Greek culture is flourishing.
Renaissance tech 9.


The Middle East


Leader Zengi (M8B5)
Troops 15c, 10i
AQRs c8, i5

Sulieman, Shield of Christ and Emperor of the Ottomans
DIPLOMACY: Bithnia (f), Constatinople (ea), Pontus (pt), Phocea (nt)
Sulieman continues the process of waging peace with the Thracian Republic; he gained full control of Constantinople and Pontus in exchange for Turk gold. There seems to be an issue remaining over the status of Adana in Cilicia. He also arranged for the marriage of his daughter, Princess Setta, to the Bithnian ruler, bringing that region back to friendly status. He gained Phocea in a deal with Genoa and he invested heavily into Serbian military academies. The Sultan eyes the opportunities to the west and shrugs. Well, at least he has sealed the long term services of all east European and Mid Eastern mercenaries.
Renaissance tech 8.

Jean Bobpars de Lastie, Grand Master
DIPLOMACY: Cyprus (oe), Birgu (oh)
Antonio made plans to protect Rome and the southern Italian states, however he did not live to see if his preparations were needed. Jean Bobpars takes the Grand Master position and continues Antonio's policies. An order house is established in Birgu as the Poles gain administrative control over the city. A new type of ship is designed and built - called a Merchantman - it has the power of a large warship and the cargo space of a large transport. (See Errata above)
Renaissance tech 8.

Nabil Faisal
DIPLOMACY: Petra (a), Malabar (nt), Banavasi (nt), Qatar (nt)
Nabil strengthens his ties to Petra in the south and convinces the region of Malabar to join him - the Hindus to the north in Nasik took this opportunity to go their own way. Mesopotamia saw many new irrigation projects started and the city of Amman was established in Jordan. Iberian gold was the price to yield Fayium and Cairo to Portugal.
Civilized - tech 7.

DIPLOMACY: Abasigia (nt), Shirvan (a), Georgia (a), El'bruz (t)
Hamir strove to consolidate his newly acquired territories, but he would not live to see the task completed. His son Abdullah took his father's task as his own and made new allies in Shirvan and Georgia, convincing El'bruz to pay tribute and even getting the Eastern Orthodox of Abasigia to bend their knee to him. Trade was initiated with Abbysinia, Malabar and Moscow. Life is good in the Emirate of Rum.
Civilized tech 7.

Central Asia

DIPLOMACY: Tadzik (ea), Trans-oxania (nt)
Haidar heard the tales of the Mongols and decided he'd find out what all the hype was about. He sent his best generals with over 9,000 cavalry, 4,000 infantry and assorted siege troops north. As the army crossed into Otrar, they were shadowed by scouts for several days; finally they crossed the last rise on the approach to Perm and they saw them - 16,000 of the best horse in the world.

The Persians were not afraid of Mongol mythology so they formed into battle order and advanced on the Khan. However, the Mongols were old hands and this game; they hit the Persians on both flanks and it took all the training and leadership in the Persian Army to not flee the battle. The Persian cavalry was not as good as the Mongols but they were well led and they enabled the Persians to conduct an orderly withdrawal - though they lost half their strength in the retreat. The Mongols did not totally escape and also paid a price for their victory, losing almost a third of their force.
Civilized 6.

After backhanding the Persians, the Khan may have to take another look at the lands down south.
Nomadic tech 6.



Leader Jarraja (M967)
Troops 10c, 10i
AQRs c6, i6

DIPLOMACY: Vatsa (n)
The Sultan had had enough of Jaunpur's meddling; perhaps with Kara in ashes they would understand the error of their ways. The Sultan launched a two prong attack into to Rajput and Jaunpur; the first prong met no resistance but faltered at the walls of Kaunaj. (See Jaunpur)
Civilized tech 6.

Mahmud Shah
DIPLOMACY: Surashtra (a), Anhivarta (f)
The Shah brings the Word of Allah to the city of Kayal. New allies are found in the Surashtra and friends in Anhivarta. Overland trade was established with Delhi and troops positioned to help support Delhi if that Sultanate was attacked.
Civilized tech 7.

DIPLOMACY: Vatsa (c), Kaunaj (t)
The Sultan continued his investment in improving the lives of the peasants of the region and tries to convert the Hindus of Chandela. Jaunpur and Delhi continue their contest of the hearts and minds of the Hindus of Vatsa; Jaunpur wins round four. The Sultan was surprised when Delhi tired of his interference and launched an attack into Rajput and Jaunpur itself. Rajput fell with little resistance but in Jaunpur, the Sultan's youngest son, Nehri, was just reinforcing the homeland when the Delhi attack came.

Delhi had made the attack boldly via a river assault, but boldness has a second edge. With a slight leadership advantage, better knowledge of the lay of the land (though the attackers seem to know much of the area), slightly better cavalry, and more troops - the attackers were put to flight and penned against the river. Few escaped to their transports to flee to Delhi.
Civilized tech 7.

DIPLOMACY: Assam (f), Maghada (a)
Vanje continued his father's work of developing ties with his Hindu regions and showing them the enlightened way of Allah; the majority in Maghada now bow to Mecca. There are small Islamic minorities in Bihar and Nadavaria. Tamralipti increased a level and some merchant shipping was delivered to the cartel.
Civilized tech 7.

DIPLOMACY: Pundra (a), Kosala (a)
Sangramaraja, yielded to the pressure of Java and the Brahmo Samaj, and concluded an uneasy peace with Chola. Each side exchanges daughters as hostages to ensure their fathers behave themselves. Orissa gave back occupied Madura and ceded Belur to Chola. On the northern frontier, they gained allies to help keep guard against the Moslems.
Civilized tech 7.

Ala-ud-din watched his neighbors with growing alarm.
Civilized tech 6.

Firuz Shah
Firuz Shah prepared for the future struggles in India.
Civilized tech 7.

DIPLOMACY: Perak (ab), Malacca (ab)
Ramanada stepped between the warring factions and tried to give them room to settle their differences.
Civilized tech 7.

DIPLOMACY: Gangas (a), Polonarva (t), Belur (nt)
The Hindu Primate and Javan King imposed sanctions that would prevent the revenge that the Empire deserved to inflict upon the Orissans. At this time the Emperor had little choice but to comply, Samarajya sent his troops to reclaim the empires lands in Madurai and Belur and to gather the troops in case the treaty, The Tanjore Accords, did not hold. The peace apparently held true and both sides exchanged hostages to raise the price of betrayal.
Civilized tech 7.

Indochina and Indonesia

DIPLOMACY: (ea) to Pegu
Minhkaung seemed more willing to listen the Pegu overtures during this round of negotiations.
Civilized tech 6.

DIPLOMACY: Burma (ea)
Razadraya told entire leadership to stay at the court in Pagan until they got the results he wanted. Razadraya continued the cultivation project in Kayah while efforts to initiate societal change was met with mixed feelings.
Civilized tech 6.

Naraj Sri Harivaraja
Naraj sent explores to discover what lay to the south and west of his country, getting as far as Chola. Others he sent to explore closer to home. Life continues to improve in the Champan Kingdom.
Civilized tech 6.

Chulongaket, King of the Thai, Guardian of Angkor
DIPLOMACY: Samatata (c)
Chulongaket continues to grow his economy and raise the standard of living for many of his subjects. Champan gold helps in this endeavor. Pegu's claim to the Andaman Islands is not recognized by Ayuthia, which continues to worry over the imperialist tendencies of Pegu. Angkor-Wat is slowly becoming more Buddhist.
Civilized tech 6.

Dapapuru, Nirguna, King of Java
DIPLOMACY: Sabah (nt), Jambi (f), Timor (nt)
News of the slaughter and conquest in India did not take long to percolate through to Sunda. It was greeted with bewilderment and some concern. What could have urged Tavaralam's Hindu brethren to resort to the sword?

Coming so soon after Champa's conflict with Ayuthia, the Javan king wondered what the future held for the Hindu faith. Was it to be assailed from both within and without? It was such despair that moved Tavaralam to do what he could to halt the conflict. He pleaded with the warring parties to lay down their swords. He requested the intercession of the Supreme Primate of Brahma to add his voice to the plea.

His action was not without effect for it soon appeared the adversaries had had a change of heart. Tavaralam welcomed the news. But the uncompromising statements issued by both left him with ample concerns for the future. It was with an eye to this that Injaya was sent west to monitor the activities of both Orissa and Vijayangar.

Believing that more tangible relations with all the nations of India would be mutually beneficial, the king was quick to react to an attractive opportunity. Word had come that Pegu was willing to allow a second party to exert some influence in the Andaman Islands. Seizing the chance to gain a potentially lucrative trading outpost, the king staked Java's claim with a modest contribution to the Pegu treasury.

With that deal in progress, the king took his brother, Intajara, out to sea to celebrate. Unfortunately, a sudden squall caught them before they could make port; both were lost at sea. Dapapuru was raise to the throne and the youngest brother became a Prince of the Island, learning the ways of the Kingdom.
Civilized tech 6.

East Asia


Leader Achikaga (M829)
Troops 17i
AQRs i7

Henghis Khan
DIPLOMACY: Sikhote (ea)
The Khan took his second born to conduct family business to the west (slave raiding), while projects continue unabated in Angarland, Yensey, and Beryat. The coastal province of Sikhote gained a port city with a fortress in it. They also got to marry their daughter to the Mongol heir - a treat for which she will never forgive them and then they signed an economic alliance with the Khan. A fortress was also built in Keriat to protect the trade center in the area.
Civilized tech 6.

DIPLOMACY: Funiu (a), Lu'an (a), Kweichou (f), Shan'si (f), Taiping (f), Shangtung (a), Chinling (ea), Nanling (ea)
Jingtai continues in his father's path with many improvements for the people of the glorious Ming. Two new port cities are built to improve trade capability within the Asian sphere, while Jianang is increased in size. The Postal road network is extended to Tonkin, while elsewhere regional ties are cemented. Agricultural, septic and other improvements are increased to aid the peasants and bring on the age of enlightenment for the Ming Empire. Control is relaxed along the vast frontier to allow for innovation and independence among the settlers.
Civilized tech 7.

Yamana Goto, Emperor of Japan
DIPLOMACY: Shikoku (nt)
Yamana Goto improves the lot of rural Kwanto and made peace with Shikoku. He is pleased with the arrival of a second son in 1435.
Civilized tech 7.

DIPLOMACY: Mantap (nt), Mudan (nt)
Hong-Suk cleans up the capitol a little and sends emissaries north to discuss issues with the steppe tribes to the north. Surprisingly, they came back with their heads still attached.
Civilized tech 6.

DIPLOMACY: Nan Chao (mn), Tai'li (mn), Shensi (ch), Chinling (ab), Szechwan (ab), Koueichou (ab), Gt'sang (f)
The Holy Father Tsong continues to split his time between bickering with the rajahs of Gtsang (Gstang going friendly in the process), and working on his book, now quite lengthy and filled with proverbs. He also begins (with a team of scribes at his command) to compose a distillation of the Bodhisattva's teachings intended for the common people. This will be written in Hindi, Mandarin and Khmer, simultaneously. This is The Leaves, so named for the bo-tree that sheltered Siddartha as he meditated, tempted by the sins of the world, and so became the Gautama Buddha.

Abbeys are established in Chinling, Szechwan and Koueichou, while monasteries are founded in Nan Chao and its city of Tai'li. Priests bring Tsong's message to the region of Shensi, establishing a church there.
Civilized tech 6.


Polynesia and Australia


Northern Africa

Khalifah Abu Said Othman, Amir Al-Mu'mineen (Leader of the Believers)
DIPLOMACY: Baghdad (mn), Syria (mn), Idjil (mn), Hamadan (ab), Zufar (ab)
Abu Said Othman continues to strengthen his authority to the east and now has started to spread his authority to the south. Aid is given to the tribes of Kanem in an effort to build a foundation for further conversions.
Renaissance tech 8.

Nasir ad Dawla Badis
DIPLOMACY: Zirid (f), Fez (nt)
Nasir focusses on exploiting the new technologies at his finger tips while continuing the work to consolidate his growing empire. He was grievously struck when news of his son's death reached him - killed in a duel over the affections of a young maiden. No need to mention what happened to the other suitor or his remains.
Renaissance tech 8.

Western Africa

Naseem, Servant of Allah
DIPLOMACY: Zerma (ea), Garou (f), Khalem (nt)
Nasir moves to consolidate recent gains and shifts his focus to the west where Castilian control of Takrur promises new trade opportunities. He orders slave raids to start up again, working the regions of Adawara, Adwaghost and Jenne. The slaves and gold taken from those regions were used to enhanced the beauty and prestige of Ghana.
Civilized tech 6.

Boyoma, Mai of the Kanem
DIPLOMACY: Kam (t), Kafin (f)
Boyoma raises his son Kail to Heir Apparent and his daughter, Sheba, to Princess of the Realm. He orders the construction of a fortress on the Niger and honors the effort with the following statement:

"With the founding of this port fortress, we embark upon the path of greater communication with our Muslim community. Through these portals shall arrive teachers, priests, and merchants from the greater Umma. Today we plant the seeds for the greater prosperity of the Kanem people. A great city shall sprout from these humble beginnings, a city of learning, a city that shall be the jewel of the Kanem kingdom. In the name of Allah, let these foundations be blessed and may the Pillars of Faith find deep roots."

An Islamic representative blessed the site and promised teachers and other help would follow in his wake.
Civilized tech 6.

N'dyaye Sar'te, Burba of Dyolof
The Burba accepts Castillian overtures and retires on a vast tract of land in the interior of Takrur.
Civilized tech 6.

Shawasata, Magajiya of Daura
Shawasata concentrated on internal matters for the time being.
Civilized tech 6.

Eastern Africa

DIPLOMACY: Adal (nt), Aden (t), Aswan (t), Saukin (t), Luxor (ne), Ziela (t), Danakil (nt), Adulis (ea), Lalibela (t), Gezira (ea), Kosti (nt), Thebes (t), Nubia (ea)
Mathias ships grain to Portugal and the Hansa and orders massive diplomatic efforts throughout his realm, which are largely successful. He grants basing rights to Genoa and tolerates efforts by Moslems to build tolerance between Coptic Christianity and Islam.
Civilized tech 7.

Southern Africa

Oduduma, King of Bakongo
Oduduma consolidates his influence with the Teke.
Barbarian tech 3.
No cavalry.

Dunbo Changamire, King of Rozwi
DILPOMACY: Zambia (f), Luangula (nt)
Dunbo gains closer ties with Zambia and starts ties with the Luangula.
Civilized tech 4. No cavalry.


North America

Noktesunah, Son of the Sun
DIPLOMACY: Creek Nation (fa), Muskogee colonized to (0/7), Tamaulipec (c), Mejcalero (t)
The Sun King appoints Sequoiya as heir, gives him the bulk of the army and sends him south to talk to the Creek. Sequoiya bested the Creek Chieftain in a test of skill and strength and the Creek yield to the power of the Empire. The region of Muskogee is colonized and contact is made with a Central American tribe.
Pre-Columbian. No cavalry.

Shukahosus saw wisdom and power in the Empire's proposal; he joined but others went their own way - for now.
Pre-Columbian. No cavalry.

Running Bear
DIPLOMACY: Patwin (ea), Serrano (ea)
The tribes of Patwin and Serrano, seeing the bounty and freedom flowing from Running Bear's new ways, accepted his offer to rejoin the Nation. Of course, marrying his two beautiful daughters off to the chief of each tribe didn't hurt the negotiations.
Barbarian. No cavalry.


Xiu Cinteotl
Xiu Cinteotl starts trade with some strange people from the south. His nation suffers slave raiding from the Aztecs; only in Maya are the defenses strong enough to protect the people.
Civilized tech 4. No cavalry.

Ahabatey saves for the future.

Matlaccoatzin, the Blood King
DIPLOMACY: Tlapocoya (a), Tepuztec (f)
Matlaccoatzin continues the slave raids on the old Mixtec provinces of Nahuatl, Huave, and Popoluca. He now extends the slave raiding to the Tepanec. The Blood King brings Tepuztec fully into the Empire while Tlapocoya becomes a full ally.
Civilized tech 4. No cavalry.

South America

DIPLOMACY: Chimu(f), Moche (some effect - then f), Pucara (a)
Tatum Yach, Son of the Sun, initiated trade with the Northerners. Tatum's son, Yupanqui, was promoted to Heir, little did he realize that he would be ruling in less than a year. Additional schools were built in Moche to train the youth there in Incan ways, this effort proved so successful the entire region applied for full membership inot the Empire. Friends were made with Chimu and allies found in Pucara. Inca engineering laid a postal road leading north from Chanchan to Chimu.
Civilized tech 5. No cavalry



# Nation Name MSI ESI Player Name TV EMail Address
1 Ming Empire 362.8 3 Temujin Kam Suhn 29.6 Temujinkamsuhn@worldnet.att.net
2 Kingdom of Poland/Lithuania 143 6 Matthew Taylor 13.6 mtaylor@hq.usra.edu
3 Safavid Sultanate 127.1 35 Alex Inglis 7.7 alex_n_nic@optusnet.com.au
4 Kingdom of Portugal 120.9 7 Jamie Halla 8.4 hallatosis@hotmail.com
5 Kingdom of Castile 119 13 Paul Flinton 14 pflinton_lords31@hotmail.com
6 The Majapahit Kingdom of Java 116.6 22 (Lorne Colmar) 10.8 lorne@lcolmar.freeserve.co.uk
7 Kingdom of Aragon 109.8 4 Matt Holy 16.5 holyman@blight.com
8 Kingdom of France 110 5 (James Marshall) 11.8 james.f.marshall@gte.net
9 The Incan Empire 105.4 42 James Oakley 5.8 ostar@mail.com
10 Kingdom of Denmark 103.5 10 Brian Sico 7.7 brians@zenweb.com
11 The Golden Horde 103.8 38 Chris Cornuelle 10.4 bob@math.umn.edu
12 The Sultanate of Bengal 100.2 46 Michael Blocker 5.5 Michael_Blocker@med.unc.edu
13 The Ottoman Sultanate 100.3 17 Jeff Morrison 6.4 rebel@blclinks.net
14 Syrian Emirate 97.6 9 Travas Gunell 13.1 lordsstuff@yahoo.com
15 The Hafsid Caliphate 95.3 20 Brian Forester 9.9 ysgarran@hotmail.com
16 The Sultanate of Gujerat 91.4 62 David Inglis 4.9 pugslote@yahoo.com.au
17 Republic of Genoa 90.2 2 (David Adams) 24.8 dadams@msi-world.com
18 The Hanseatic League 87.2 1 Lee Forester 66.7 forester@webmail.hope.edu
19 Duchy of Saxony 83.8 12 (Ed Allen) 6.7 tgroove@earthlink.net
20 The Mali Empire 82.5 30 Robert Miles 8 rmiles@dellnet.com
21 The Hindu Kingdom of Orissa 80.9 52 Tim Joyce 5.4 joyce_tim@hotmail.com
22 Kingdom of England 79.9 15 Ed Connery 8.4 econnery@pciglobal.com
23 Emir of Rum 80 43 Ben Vincent 5.5 vinny@worldnetla.net
24 The Marinid Khalifate 78.7 50 Othmar III 1.7 SmoggyRob@earthlink.net
25 The Sultanate of Jaunpur 77.3 39 Bob Nardone 2.3 bnardone@mail.del.net
26 The Kingdom of Kanem 76.1 61 Lee Keefer 1.4 Lee_Keefer@Guardian.com
27 The Vijayangar Empire 75.2 32 Don Deutsch 6.3 DDeutsch@rmgmpls.com
28 Principality of Moscow 73.1 27 Sean Boomer 3.5 gnaeusatiuspertinax@yahoo.co.uk
29 Principality of Serbia 70.6 29 (Tim Finton) 9.5 khan_tim@yahoo.com
30 Knights of St John 70.1 18 James Cochran 5.1 jcochran@unique-software.com
31 Kingdom of Naples 69.6 21 (Charles Hurst) 10.3 charlesh@teleport.com
32 The Mon Kingdom of Pegu 69.8 54 George Shrake 1.8 GEORGE.SHRAKE@asu.edu
33 Teikoku Nippon 67.8 37 Akira 9.1 akira1999@juno.com
34 The Tai Kingdom of Ayuthia 66.6 53 Scott Murrell 4.7 scottdmurrell@yahoo.com
35 The Aztecs 66.5 36 Todd McCloskey 4 apoxis@hotmail.com
36 Yellow Hats (Tibet) 65.8 67 Thomas Harlan 1.5 thomash@throneworld.com
37 The Empire of the Great Khan 64.8 31 Mark Saint Cyr 7.3 GreatKhanLords31@aol.com
38 The Teutonic Knights 63.7 24 Rick Ludowese 1.5 RickLud@aol.com
39 Swiss Confederation 63.6 14 Bill Karn 5.2 waywatcher@sprynet.com
40 Republic of Venice 63.8 11 Kristen Beauchamp 6.6 Darvidien@aol.com
41 The Thracian Republic 62.6 44 (James Gemmill) 6.2 jamesgem@vpl.vancouver.bc.ca
42 The Mississippi Empire 62.6 57 Theodore Shannon 7.7 Theodore.p.shannon@prodigy.net
43 Republic of Florence 59.8 28 Gary Morrison 5.4 gsmorr@blclinks.net
44 The Roman Catholic Papacy 58.7 8 (Dan Garrison) 4 morphium4@home.com
45 The Kingdom of Champa 58.7 40 Wilson Hsieh 2.7 wilson@cs.utah.edu
46 The Tepanec Hegemony 58.2 63 Open Nation 2.9 None
47 Austria 55.9 26 Chris Caliano 5.1 KhaosRa@aol.com
48 Bhakti Sect (Hindu) 55.8 45 Open Nation 0.3 None
49 Duchy of Bohemia 56.2 49 Mark Newman 4.4 MNewman565@aol.com
50 Kingdom of Hungary 56.2 33 JJ Martell 4.7 jnmj@dwave.net
51 The Kingdom of Abyssinia 54.5 41 David Sarisohn 10.4 dsarison@mars.superlink.net
52 The Cheibanid Khanate 54.5 51 Open Nation 6.1 None
53 The Prague Papacy 54.9 34 Robert Hanson 1.7 rhanson@blast.net
54 Duchy of Milan 54.3 25 (Kyle Newman) 3.8 ajaxjrt@hotmail.com
55 Hausaland 52.6 60 Ted Kaminski 2.3 kaminski@midplains.net
56 Repubic of Novgorod 51.9 16 Ed Toms 4.6 bobannoni@hotmail.com
57 Duchy of Brandenburg 46.8 55 George W. Mayr 2.2 geomayr@francomm.com
58 The Sultanate of Delhi 47.4 48 Ron Olexsak 2 sakzilla@uswest.net
59 The Goryeo Kingdom 46 64 Dennis Yoon 3.6 yoond@UDel.Edu
60 The Fist of Allah 46.2 66 Open Nation 2.6 None
61 Duchy of Bochnia 45 68 (Jon Sharp) 1.8 vermyn@hotmail.com
62 The Burman Kingdom of Ava 45.1 59 Open Nation 2.1 None
63 The Sequoia Nation 45.3 58 Mike Work 1.3 shogun+@pitt.edu
64 Templer Knights of Christ 45.2 56 Open Nation 1.6 None
65 The Bakongo Kingdom 43.4 69 Open Nation 1.4 None
66 Kingdom of Scotland 42.8 23 Phillip Baird 6.8 phillipbaird@sprintmail.com
67 The Creek Death Cult 38.7 71 Open Nation 1.4 None
68 Duchy of Flanders 37 19 Open Nation 5.3 None
69 The Kingdom of Mwana-Mutapha 36.9 70 Open Nation 2.7 None
70 The Sultanate of Malwa 35 65 Open Nation 2.5 None
71 The Eastern Orthodox Church 34.8 47 Tom Carrion 0.3 t_carrion@hotmail.com
72 The Arawak of the Islands 30.2 72 Open Nation 2.1 None

Last Updated on 6 July 00
By David Salter